European History Exam

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1 2016 AP European History Exam Released for teacher use Note: For purposes of test security and/or statistical analysis, some questions have been removed from the version of the exam that was administered in Therefore, the timing indicated here may not be appropriate for a practice exam. This exam may not be posted on school or personal websites, nor electronically redistributed for any reason. This exam is provided by the College Board for AP Exam preparation. Teachers are permitted to download the materials and make copies to use with their students in a classroom setting only. To maintain the security of this exam, teachers should collect all materials after their administration and keep them in a secure location. Further distribution of these materials outside of the secure College Board site disadvantages teachers who rely on uncirculated questions for classroom testing. Any additional distribution is in violation of the College Board s copyright policies and may result in the termination of Practice Exam access for your school as well as the removal of access to other online services such as the AP Teacher Community and Online Score Reports.

2 Contents Student Answer Sheet for the Multiple-Choice Section Section I: Multiple-Choice Questions Section II: Free-Response Questions Multiple-Choice Answer Key Free-Response Scoring Guidelines Scoring Worksheet Question Descriptors and Performance Data Contact Us Note: This publication shows the page numbers that appeared in the actual exam. This publication was not repaginated to begin with page The College Board. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, SAT and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. All other products and services may be trademarks of their respective owners. Permission to use copyrighted College Board materials may be requested online at:

3 PAGE 1 G. ONLINE PROVIDER CODE th 12th No longer in high school Answer Sheet TF216E Printed in U.S.A. Q4068/1-4 AP Number Label (from Student Pack) B T COMPLETE THIS AREA AT EVERY EXAM. USE NO. 2 PENCIL ONLY C.YOUR AP NUMBER To maintain the security of the exam and the validity of my AP score, I will allow no one else to see the multiple-choice questions. I will seal the multiple-choice booklet when asked to do so, and I will not discuss these questions with anyone at any time after completing the section. I am aware of and agree to the AP Program s policies and procedures as outlined in the Bulletin for AP Students and Parents, including using testing accommodations (e.g., extended time, computer, etc.) only if I have been preapproved by College Board Services for Students with Disabilities. Sign your legal name as it will appear on your college applications. Date A. SIGNATURE B. LEGAL NAME Omit apostrophes, Jr., II. Legal Last Name First 15 Letters Legal First Name First 12 Letters MI A A A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E F F F F F F F F F F F F F F F G G G G G G G G G G G G G G G H H H H H H H H H H H H H H H I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I J J J J J J J J J J J J J J J K K K K K K K K K K K K K K K L L L L L L L L L L L L L L L M M M M M M M M M M M M M M M N N N N N N N N N N N N N N N O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O P P P P P P P P P P P P P P P Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q R R R R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S T T T T T T T T T T T T T T T U U U U U U U U U U U U U U U V V V V V V V V V V V V V V V W W W W W W W W W W W W W W W X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z H. AP EXAM I AM TAKING USING THIS ANSWER SHEET SCHOOL USE ONLY Section Number A A A A A A A A A A A A A B B B B B B B B B B B B B C C C C C C C C C C C C C D D D D D D D D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E F F F F F F F F F F F F F G G G G G G G G G G G G G H H H H H H H H H H H H H I I I I I I I I I I I I I J J J J J J J J J J J J J K K K K K K K K K K K K K L L L L L L L L L L L L L M M M M M M M M M M M M M N N N N N N N N N N N N N O O O O O O O O O O O O O P P P P P P P P P P P P P Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q Q R R R R R R R R R R R R R S S S S S S S S S S S S S T T T T T T T T T T T T T U U U U U U U U U U U U U V V V V V V V V V V V V V W W W W W W W W W W W W W X X X X X X X X X X X X X Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Y Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Z Exam Name: Form: Form Code: Fee Reduction Granted 1 Option 1 2 Option I. AREA CODE AND PHONE NUMBER INTERNATIONAL PHONE L. SOCIAL SECURITY NUMBER (Optional) AP Exam Label (from Section I Booklet) D. EXAM DATE Month Day E. EXAM START TIME AM PM F. MULTIPLE-CHOICE BOOKLET SERIAL NUMBER S COMPLETE THIS AREA ONLY ONCE. J. SCHOOL YOU ATTEND SCHOOL CODE School Name City State Country M. COLLEGE TO RECEIVE YOUR AP SCORE REPORT COLLEGE CODE Using the college code listed in the AP Student Pack, indicate the ONE college that you want to receive your AP score report College Name City State Country K. DATE OF BIRTH Month Day Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec N. CURRENT GRADE LEVEL Not yet in 9th grade 9th 10th O. STUDENT SEARCH SERVICE Colleges and scholarship programs may request your information to inform you of educational opportunities and financial aid. Would you like us to supply your information? Yes No If you don t answer and previously chose to participate in this service, we will continue providing your information.

4 PAGE 2 COMPLETE THIS AREA AT EACH EXAM (IF APPLICABLE). P. SURVEY QUESTIONS Answer the survey questions in the AP Student Pack. Do not put responses to exam questions in this section. 1 F G H I 4 F G H I 7 F G H I 2 F G H I 5 F G H I 8 F G H I 3 F G H I 6 F G H I 9 F G H I Q. LANGUAGE Do not complete this section unless instructed to do so. If this answer sheet is for the French Language and Culture, German Language and Culture, Italian Language and Culture, Spanish Language and Culture, or Spanish Literature and Culture Exam, please answer the following questions. Your responses will not affect your score. 1. Have you lived or studied for one month or more in a country where the language of the exam you are now taking is spoken? 2. Do you regularly speak or hear the language at home? Yes No Yes No QUESTIONS 1 75 Indicate your answers to the exam questions in this section (pages 2 and 3). Mark only one response per question for Questions 1 through 120. If a question has only four answer options, do not mark option E. Answers written in the multiple-choice booklet will not be scored. COMPLETE MARK EXAMPLES OF INCOMPLETE MARKS A B C D A B C D You must use a No. 2 pencil and marks must be complete. Do not use a mechanical pencil. It is very important that you fill in the entire circle darkly and completely. If you change your response, erase as completely as possible. Incomplete marks or erasures may affect your score ETS USE ONLY Exam Exam SELECTED MEDIA EXAMS PT02 PT03 PT04 R W O OTHER EXAMS TOTAL Subscore (if applicable) Subscore (if applicable) R W O DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

5 QUESTIONS PAGE 3 Be sure each mark is dark and completely fills the circle. If a question has only four answer options, do not mark option E QUESTIONS For Students Taking AP Biology Write your answer in the boxes at the top of the griddable area and fill in the corresponding circles. Mark only one circle in any column. You will receive credit only if the circles are filled in correctly / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / QUESTIONS For Students Taking AP Physics 1 or AP Physics 2 Mark two responses per question. You will receive credit only if both correct responses are selected. 131 A B C D 135 A B C D 139 A B C D 132 A B C D 136 A B C D 140 A B C D 133 A B C D 137 A B C D 141 A B C D 134 A B C D 138 A B C D 142 A B C D 2015 The College Board. College Board, AP, Student Search Service and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. DO NOT WRITE IN THIS AREA

6 Address City State or Province Country ZIP or Postal Code V. SEX PAGE 4 Female Male English a. Are you of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin? No, not of Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin Yes, Cuban Yes, Mexican Yes, Puerto Rican Yes, another Hispanic, Latino, or Spanish origin Mother or female guardian Father or male guardian Grade school Some high school High school diploma or equivalent Vocational or trade school Some college Associate or two-year degree Bachelor s or four-year degree Some graduate or professional school Graduate or professional degree COMPLETE THIS AREA ONLY ONCE. R. YOUR MAILING ADDRESS Use the address abbreviations from your AP Student Pack. Fill in only one circle per column. Indicate a space in your address by leaving a blank box; do not grid that column. 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7 AP European History Exam SECTION I, Part A: Multiple Choice 2016 DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. At a Glance Time 55 minutes Number of Questions 49 Percent of Total Score 40% Writing Instrument Pencil required Instructions Section I, Part A of this exam contains 49 multiple-choice questions. Fill in only the circles for numbers 1 through 49 on your multiple-choice answer sheet. Because this section offers only four answer options for each question, do not mark the (E) answer circle for any question. Indicate all of your answers to the multiple-choice questions on the multiple-choice answer sheet. No credit will be given for anything written in this exam booklet, but you may use the booklet for notes or scratch work. After you have decided which of the suggested answers is best, completely fill in the corresponding circle on the multiple-choice answer sheet. Give only one answer to each question. If you change an answer, be sure that the previous mark is erased completely. Here is a sample question and answer. Use your time effectively, working as quickly as you can without losing accuracy. Do not spend too much time on any one question. Go on to other questions and come back to the ones you have not answered if you have time. It is not expected that everyone will know the answers to all of the multiple-choice questions. Your total score on the multiple-choice section is based only on the number of questions answered correctly. Points are not deducted for incorrect answers or unanswered questions. SECTION I, Part B: Short Answer At a Glance Time 50 minutes Number of Questions 3 Percent of Total Score 20% Writing Instrument Pen with black or dark blue ink Instructions Section I, Part B of this exam contains 3 short-answer questions. Write your responses in the Section I, Part B: Short Answer booklet. You must write your response to each question on the lined page designated for that response. Each response is expected to fit within its designated page. Form O Form Code 4MBP 43

8 EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION I, Part A Time 55 minutes 55 Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by four suggested answers or completions. Select the one that is best in each case and then fill in the corresponding circle on the answer sheet. Source materials have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. -3- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

9 Questions 1-4 refer to the image below. The 1492 landing of Christopher Columbus in the West Indies, engraving circa 1592 by Theodore de Bry, included in The History of America, published in Frankfurt, 1602 Gianni Dagli Orti / The Art Archive at Art Resource, NY -4- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

10 1. By the time the engraving was produced, the event portrayed had resulted in which of the following? (A) The large-scale migration of Native American peoples to Europe (B) The transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between Europe and the Americas (C) The establishment of colonies in the Americas by all major European powers (D) The creation of an extensive plantation system in the West Indies that relied on Native American coerced labor 2. The image could best be used to illustrate which of the following general aspects of the initial encounters between Europeans and Native Americans? (A) European explorers were often outnumbered by Native Americans. (B) Advances in military and maritime technology usually gave Europeans an advantage over Native Americans. (C) Lack of knowledge of Native American languages hindered the Europeans ability to understand Native American cultures. (D) The arrival of Europeans often threatened existing hierarchies in Native American societies. 3. The image provides the most reliable information about which of the following? (A) European attitudes toward non-european peoples (B) Stylistic features of Native American art and artifacts (C) The exact geographic location of Columbus first landing in America (D) The willingness of Native Americans to welcome the arrival of Europeans 4. The image provides the clearest evidence for which of the following features of European expansion in the early modern period? (A) The spread of Christianity as a justification for the subjugation of indigenous peoples (B) The reliance of European colonists on indigenous peoples as sources of information about new territories (C) The rapid adoption of some European technologies by indigenous peoples (D) The creation of hybrid cultures that incorporated both European and indigenous elements -5- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

11 Questions 5-8 refer to the ordinances below. Concerning the Times of Assembling at Church: That the churches be closed for the rest of the time [outside the time of services], in order that no one shall enter therein out of hours, impelled thereto by superstition; and if anyone be found engaged in any special act of devotion therein or nearby he shall be admonished for it; if it be found to be of a superstitious nature for which simple correction is inadequate, then he shall be chastised. Drunkenness: That taverns shall be closed during the sermon, under penalty that the tavern-keeper shall pay three sous, and whoever may be found therein shall pay the same amount. If anyone be found intoxicated he shall pay for the first offense three sous and shall be remanded to the consistory [church council or governing body]. That no one shall make roiaumes [popular festivals] under penalty of 10 sous. Songs and Dances: If anyone sings immoral, dissolute or outrageous songs, or dances the virollet or other dance, he shall be put in prison for three days and then sent to the consistory. Usury: That no one shall take interest or profit of more than five percent, upon penalty of confiscation of the principal and of being condemned to make restitution as the case may demand. Ordinances of Calvinist Geneva, The ordinances in the passage best exemplify which of the following aspects of Calvinism? (A) The rejection of Roman Catholic sacraments (B) The recognition of the desirability of religious toleration in mixed-faith communities (C) The belief that laws must be based on religious principles (D) The belief in the predestination of the elect to salvation 6. A historian could best use the ordinance about usury as an example of (A) an attempt to implement mercantilist policies (B) a traditional restriction on market activities (C) an attack on the financial policies of the Roman Catholic Church (D) an effort to stimulate economic growth -6- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

12 7. In non-calvinist areas, many early modern town and city ordinances were similar to the Geneva ordinances in their (A) discouragement of popular festivals and other entertainments (B) prohibition of alcohol consumption (C) oversight of civil affairs by religious authorities (D) regulation of public morals and behavior 8. In the sixteenth century, Geneva and most other European towns and cities experienced which of the following demographic transformations? (A) Significant migration from the countryside (B) Significant immigration from overseas colonies (C) Declining populations as a result of diseases from the New World (D) Rapid growth largely driven by an increase in the birthrate of the urban population -7- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

13 Questions 9-11 refer to the passages below. Source 1 Let London manufacture those fabrics of hers to her heart s content; Holland her chambrays [a fine lightweight woven fabric]; Florence her cloth; the Indies their beaver and vicuña [wool]; Milan her brocades; Italy and Flanders their linens, so long as our capital can enjoy them. The only thing it proves is that all nations train journeymen for Madrid and that Madrid is the queen of Parliaments, for all the world serves her and she serves nobody. Source 2 Alfonso Núñez de Castro, nobleman, Spain, 1675 The Spanish nation today possesses the greatest wealth and the largest income of all the Christians. But the love of luxury and the comforts of civilization have overcome them, and you will rarely find one of this nation who engages in trade or travels abroad for commerce as do the other Christian nations such as the Dutch, the English, the French, the Genoese and their like. Similarly, the handicrafts practiced by the lower classes and common people are despised by this nation, which regards itself as superior to the other Christian nations. Most of those who practice these crafts in Spain are Frenchmen who flock to Spain to look for work and in a short time make great fortunes. Muhammad al-ghassani, Moroccan ambassador to Spain, circa Which of the following best accounts for Núñez de Castro s confidence in Spain s economic position? (A) The Spanish successes as a result of the military revolution of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries (B) The outcome of the Thirty Years War as established by the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 (C) The influx of resources from the Spanish colonies in the Americas and the Philippines (D) The expansion of the African slave trade 10. Which of the following statements would the Moroccan ambassador have most likely agreed with? (A) The practice of mercantilism is harmful to a developing economy. (B) Manufacturing products is better than resource extraction for economic development. (C) Free trade allows for the growth of capital and the economy. (D) The equitable distribution of wealth among all classes should be the goal of the state. -8- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

14 11. Which of the following best describes the impact that the economic and political processes described in the passages would have in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries? (A) Spain would maintain its predominant economic position in Europe. (B) Spain would embrace the economic principles outlined by Adam Smith in The Wealth of Nations. (C) Spain would become the leading innovator in new financial practices, such as the use of joint-stock companies. (D) Spain would fall behind England, France, and the Netherlands in economic development. -9- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

15 Questions refer to the passage below. Peter the Great was allowed to engage several English engineers into his service, as he had done in Holland; but, over and above engineers, he engaged likewise some mathematicians, which he would not so easily have found in Amsterdam. Ferguson, a Scotchman, an excellent geometrician, entered into his service, and was the first person who brought arithmetic into use in the exchequer in Russia, where before that time, they made use only of the Tartarian method of reckoning, with balls strung upon a wire [an abacus]...he took with him two young students from a mathematical school, and this was the beginning of the marine academy... Peter made himself proficient in astronomy, [and] he perfectly well understood the motions of the heavenly bodies, as well as the laws of gravitation, by which they are directed. This force, now so evidently demonstrated, and before the time of the great Newton so little known, by which all the planets gravitate towards each other, and which retain them in their orbits, had already become familiar to a sovereign of Russia, while other countries amused themselves with imaginary theories, and, in Galileo s nation, one set of ignorant persons ordered others, as ignorant, to believe the earth to be immovable. Voltaire, History of the Russian Empire Under Peter the Great, 1759, discussing Tsar Peter I s Grand Embassy, which traveled to western Europe at the end of the seventeenth century 12. Voltaire s discussion of Peter the Great s acceptance of Newtonian physics is best understood as a critique of which of the following? (A) The persistence of folk stories and oral traditions (B) The reliance of Renaissance thinkers on classical Greek and Roman texts (C) The Enlightenment belief in the rational order of the universe (D) The efforts of religious and secular authorities to suppress scientific development 14. Which of the following best explains the point of view toward Peter the Great that Voltaire expresses in the passage? (A) Voltaire admired non-european cultures. (B) Voltaire admired rulers who governed through principles of enlightened absolutism. (C) Voltaire s Deist philosophy made him an admirer of Peter the Great s religious policies in Russia. (D) Voltaire admired Peter the Great s development of Russia s economy along mercantilist principles. 13. Based on the passage and historical context, which of the following best explains Peter the Great s motivations for visiting England and Holland? (A) He wished to expand Russian trade in Asia. (B) He wished to bring together European and Asian scholarship. (C) He wished to modernize his empire. (D) He wished to retire from political life and become an Enlightenment philosophe GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

16 Questions refer to the maps below GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

17 15. Which of the following factors contributed most to the process shown on the maps? (A) The failure of Poland to industrialize as rapidly as its neighbors (B) The ability of the Polish nobility to limit the growth of royal power (C) The early adoption of French Revolutionary ideals by the Polish middle class (D) The reimposition of serfdom on the Polish peasantry 17. In the nineteenth century, the events depicted on the maps came to be seen as a problem primarily due to the emergence of (A) nationalism (B) socialism (C) conservatism (D) imperialism 16. The events shown on the maps best illustrate which of the following principles of international diplomacy in early modern Europe? (A) Respect for state sovereignty (B) Maintenance of the balance of power (C) Rulers ability to determine their states official religion (D) Dynastic marriage to establish political alliances -12- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

18 Questions refer to the 1876 British image below. Photo Credit: Album / Art Resource, NY 18. The activities depicted in the image are best explained by which of the following? 19. The image provides evidence for which of the following social changes? (A) The development of public and charitable education (A) The expansion of voting rights to working-class men (B) The increase in specialized industrial labor (B) The expanding efforts of charities to provide financial assistance to people living in poverty (C) The efforts by socialists to educate the poor (C) The growing influence of the feminist movement (D) The decline in regional dialects and language variations (D) The increase in popular nationalism -13 GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

19 20. British popular newspapers of the period were most influential in which of the following? (A) Shaping opinion in the emerging sphere of mass politics (B) Building widespread acceptance of radical politics (C) Building the woman suffrage movement (D) Contributing to the growth and spread of labor unions -14- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

20 Questions refer to the image below. Eetu (Edvard) Isto, Finnish painter, Attack, 1899 H30058 Attack by Eetu Isto, 1899 Photograph: Markku Haverinen, 2000 The National Museum of Finland The painting shows a young woman holding a book of laws, representing Finland, being attacked by a double-headed eagle, symbolizing imperial Russia. The painting was created in reaction to Russian policies limiting Finnish autonomy within the Russian Empire and starting a process of cultural Russification in Finland GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

21 21. Based on the painting, it can be inferred that Isto was most likely inspired by which of the following? (A) Romanticism, which used strong emotions to foster a sense of shared local or national group identity (B) Realism, which depicted ordinary people s lives to draw attention to pressing social problems (C) Surrealism, which used depictions of dreams and visions to emphasize the newly discovered importance of irrational and subconscious motivations for human behavior (D) Primitivism, which adopted styles and subject matter derived from imperial encounters to open debates about European acquisition of colonies 22. Imperial reform efforts in nineteenth-century Russia had which of the following effects? (A) The reforms enabled Russia to catch up with western Europe economically, by abolishing serfdom and other primitive practices. (B) The reforms had the unintended effect of giving rise to radical revolutionary movements, which led to the Russian Revolution of (C) The reforms succeeded in reducing ethnic tensions in the Russian Empire but did little to address Russia s economic backwardness. (D) The reforms served as a model for the Soviet industrialization and collectivization campaigns of the 1920s and 1930s. 23. At the time the painting was produced, the style and subject of artworks such as Isto s Attack were being challenged by a new group of European artists who argued that modern art should (A) return to its Renaissance and Neoclassical roots (B) move beyond the representational and toward the abstract (C) place itself in the service of the state s propaganda needs (D) use mass-market imagery to comment on consumer society 24. Based on your knowledge of nineteenth-century European history, which of the following best explains the use of gendered symbols such as the one seen in Isto s painting? (A) Bourgeois norms portrayed women as vulnerable and in need of men s protection. (B) Feminists successfully argued for greater legal and social equality for women. (C) Industrialization threatened traditional notions of femininity. (D) Conservative policies in Restoration Europe limited women s ability to participate in revolutionary activities GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

22 Questions 25 and 26 are based on the following passage. Albeit we have at all times borne with that which we could not amend in this book [the Anglican Book of Common Prayer]...yetwe must needs say as followeth, that this book is an unperfect book, culled and picked out of that popish dunghill, the Mass book full of all abominations. For...manyofthe contents therein be such as are against the word of God [the Bible], as by His grace shall be proved unto you...by the word of God, [ministry] is an office of preaching, yet they [the Anglicans] make it an office of reading. In the Scriptures there is attributed unto the minister of God the knowledge of the heavenly mysteries, and therefore as the greatest token of God s love they are enjoined to feed God s lambs, and yet with these [Anglican clergymen], such as are admitted and accepted...are only mere readers [of the Book of Common Prayer] that are able to say service and minister a sacrament. And that this is not the feeding that Christ spake of, the scriptures are plain... These are empty feeders... [and] messengers that cannot call. Petition by English Puritans to Parliament, The petitioners accusation that Anglican preachers are mere readers [of the Book of Common Prayer] is a reflection of which of the following Protestant beliefs? (A) The doctrine that some individuals are predestined for salvation and others are not (B) The belief that the Bible conveys the message of salvation (C) The condemnation of corrupt practices, such as the sale of indulgences (D) The position that only baptism and the Eucharist are valid sacraments 26. In the seventeenth century, adherents to the beliefs expressed in the passage most strongly supported which of the following? (A) The establishment of the Stuart dynasty in England in 1603 (B) The attempts by Charles I to establish an absolutist government (C) The parliamentary rebellion that started the English Civil War (D) Opposition to the Glorious Revolution of GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

23 Questions refer to the passage below. Historians had imposed on the Old Regime a [model] drawn from a later age, one that did not fit that earlier epoch. They had looked into the mirror of their own age rather than into the past, and they had seen Rockefeller and Lenin rather than the real Necker and Voltaire, thus misreading the whole code... When historians construed the Parisian sans-culottes of the Revolution as an incipient proletariat they also mistook reality by importing later ideas... [Furthermore, in contradiction to those arguing for the intellectual origins of the Revolution] no direct connection between Enlightenment ideas and French Revolutionary events has ever been demonstrated. Some points that emerge are that the word revolution was not in the philosophe vocabulary; they neither expected nor welcomed the Revolution that came. An affair more of the nobility than the commoners, philosophe thought did not call into serious question the existing social order and preferred to work through the monarchy. Roland Stromberg, historian, Reevaluating the French Revolution, Historians disagreeing with Stromberg and making the argument that the French Revolution was based on Enlightenment values would most likely cite which of the following as evidence in support of their position? (A) The suppression of the counterrevolutionary peasant revolts in the Vendée region of France (B) The Concordat of 1801 between the French government and the Roman Catholic Church (C) The French attempts to suppress the revolt in the colony of Saint Domingue (D) The issuing of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen 29. A Marxist historian arguing against the contention regarding the sans-culottes in the first paragraph would likely cite which of the following as evidence? (A) The sans-culottes identity as rooted in their socioeconomic status (B) The sans-culottes involvement in the storming of the Bastille (C) The sans-culottes attacks on the foreign mercenaries employed by Louis XVI (D) The sans-culottes support for a popularly elected democratic government 28. In the first paragraph, Stromberg most clearly criticizes which of the following historical interpretations of the French Revolution? (A) The French Revolution was primarily motivated by cultural nationalism. (B) The French Revolution was an example of class conflict. (C) The French Revolution was an example of Social Darwinist concepts of struggle. (D) The French Revolution was primarily motivated by short-term fiscal crises GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

24 Questions refer to the passages below. Source 1 Behold your chains forged and imposed by the hands of the tyrannical English! Blush, and break those symbols of disgrace, spurn them with becoming indignation, rise in a moment, and while we assist you with motives of the purest philanthropy and zeal for the happiness of all nations, fall on these despots, expel them from the country, and restore yourselves, your wives and your children to the inheritance of your fathers, whose spirits from the grave will lead on your ranks, inspire you with fury, and help you to be avenged. Source 2 Victor Hugues, French Jacobin commissioner of Guadeloupe, proclamation to the British Caribbean island of Saint Vincent, 1793 The abolition of the trade is the only way of avoiding, in your islands, the horrors which have afflicted Santo Domingo [Haiti]...I look forward to the period when the negroes in the West Indies, becoming laborers, rather than slaves, will feel an interest in the welfare and prosperity of the country to whom they are indebted for protection, and of the islands where they experience real comforts, and when they may be called upon to share largely in the defense of those islands with a sure confidence in their loyalty and attachment. William Grenville, British politician, speech to Parliament, The content and tone of Hugues proclamation (Source 1) correspond most closely with which of the following? (A) Liberal concepts of rights based on Enlightenment philosophy (B) Radical attempts to expand the reach of revolutionary values (C) Challenges to mercantilist colonial practices in the Caribbean (D) Romantic calls to overturn Enlightenment rationalism and order 31. Both of the authors dealt with the issue of slavery in the context of the (A) growth of a new consumer culture in Europe (B) decline of the Portuguese and Spanish empires in the Americas (C) long period of conflict between France and Britain (D) industrialization of the British and French economies -19- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

25 32. Grenville s warning regarding Santo Domingo (Source 2) was a response to which of the following? (A) The outbreak of yellow fever that decimated Napoleon s army (B) The environmental damage caused by the sugar industry (C) The decimation of the native population by European diseases (D) The outbreak of a slave revolt led by Toussaint L Ouverture 33. All of the following contributed to the abolition of slavery by European states EXCEPT the (A) declining profitability of plantation agriculture (B) increasing acceptance of the ideal of human rights (C) lobbying efforts of religious reform movements (D) development of racial theories inspired by Darwinism -20- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

26 Questions 34 and 35 refer to the following two images. Image 1 Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes, Spanish painter, Rightly or Wrongly (1810), etching showing Spanish civilians fighting against Napoleon s soldiers during the Peninsular War The Trustees of the British Museum / Art Resource, NY -21- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

27 Image 2 Anonymous German engraving (1817), showing members of a German student society burning monarchist books and symbols at a commemoration of the four-year anniversary of Napoleon s defeat at the Battle of Leipzig bpk, Berlin / Bildarchiv Preussicher Kulturbesitz bpk / Art Resource, NY 34. A historian would be most likely to use the two images as evidence that the Napoleonic Wars (A) affected civilians in Germany less severely than they did civilians in Spain (B) inspired nationalist sentiment in both Germany and Spain (C) brought about resistance to French rule in Spain but not in Germany (D) led artists in both Spain and Germany to experiment with new styles and subject matter -22- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

28 35. In the period , which of the following best represented the most immediate goal of political dissidents in the German states, such as the members of the student society depicted in Image 2? (A) To put a stop to the spread of the political ideas of the French Revolution among the German public (B) To unify the German states under Prussian leadership (C) To overthrow the reactionary regimes of the Restoration period, established at the Congress of Vienna (D) To hasten the industrialization of the German states by persuading governments to adopt more business-friendly policies -23- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

29 Questions refer to the passage below. In casting a preliminary glance over the vast field of female paid labor in this country, a field which may be roughly calculated to embrace about three millions of women, or half its female population, I am well assured that one department will chiefly interest a majority of my readers; namely the Profession of the Teacher. And this for an obvious reason, that it was until lately almost the only profession open to an educated woman of average ability. Few realize the extent to which women of the lower classes are employed in undomestic labor, in the factory, the workshop, and the field; but while all my lady readers have received instruction from some class of governess, there is probably not one who has not also some relative or cherished friend either actually engaged in teaching, or having formerly been so engaged... Indeed, it is not a question of rank at all, for the unmarried female members of the small merchant s family enter the profession from natural necessity, and the fortuneless daughters of the highly connected clergyman have often no other recourse. It is a platform on which middle and upper classes meet the one struggling up, the other drifting down. If a father dies, or a bank breaks, or a husband is killed, if brothers require a college education, or orphan nephews and nieces are cast helpless on a woman s heart, here is the one means of breadwinning to which access alone seems open. The English Women s Journal, The Profession of the Teacher, First issue, March 1, Which of the following best explains the movement of women into the teaching profession in the nineteenth century? (A) The increasing professionalization of nonindustrial jobs pushed men away from teaching positions. (B) The education of children in schools was increasingly seen as a respectable occupation for women. (C) The teaching profession was becoming increasingly open to working-class women. (D) The use of domestic paid labor declined over the course of the century. 37. A historian would most likely use the passage as evidence for which of the following in the nineteenth century? (A) The level of women s consumer spending (B) The economic conditions of educated middle- and upper-class women (C) Government policies regarding gender roles (D) The participation of women in radical political movements 38. The career possibilities for educated women changed the most during which of the following periods? (A) The Second Industrial Revolution (B) The First World War (C) The Interwar period (D) The post-second World War period -24- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

30 Questions refer to the passage below. My earliest memories are the standard postwar memories in London. Landscapes of rubble, half a street s disappeared. Some of it stayed like that for ten years. The main effect of the war on me was just that phrase, Before the War. Because you d hear grown-ups talking about it. Oh, it wasn t like this before the war. Otherwise I wasn t particularly affected. I suppose no sugar, no sweets and candies, was a good thing, but I wasn t happy about it... Thefact that I couldn t buy a bag of sweets until 1954 says a lot about the upheavals and changes that last for so many years after a war. The war had been over for nine years before I could actually, if I had the money, go and say, I ll have a bag of them toffees and Aniseed Twists. Otherwise it was You got your ration stamp book? The sound of those stamps stamping. Your ration was your ration. One little brown paper bag a tiny one a week. Keith Richards, British rock musician, autobiography, The economic conditions described in the passage were most directly a result of which of the following? (A) Harsh loan conditions imposed on Great Britain by the United States (B) The arms race resulting from the beginning of the Cold War (C) The lingering impact of the Great Depression (D) Britain s commitment to full mobilization during the Second World War 41. In the long term, which of the following contributed the LEAST to improving the conditions described in the passage? (A) The United States passage of the Marshall Plan (B) The passage of increased social welfare programs (C) The growth of the European Economic Community (D) The restrictions placed on immigration from former colonies 40. The economic conditions described in the passage best explain which of the following actions by the British government after the Second World War? (A) Committing to the defense of Western Europe by joining the NATO alliance (B) Holding on to resource-rich African colonies after the war (C) Participating in the United Nations (D) Opposing the expansion of the European Union into Eastern Europe -25- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

31 Questions refer to the graph below. UNdata 42. The trend from 1950 to 1965 shown in the graph was most directly the result of which of the following? (A) The displacement of large numbers of Europeans caused by the Second World War (B) The increasing Cold War tensions between communist and noncommunist countries in Europe (C) Economic recovery and government policies (D) The growing popularity of feminist ideas 43. Which of the following contributed the most to the overall birth rate trend after 1965 shown in the graph? (A) The shift from an industrial economy to a service-based economy (B) The immigration of large numbers of people from former colonies to Western Europe (C) Population control efforts by the European Union (D) Medical advances and expanded educational and economic opportunities for women -26- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

32 44. The birth rate from 1950 to 1955 was a significant factor in which subsequent event? (A) The creation of the Berlin Wall in 1961 (B) The student revolts of 1968 (C) The collapse of the Soviet bloc in the late 1980s and early 1990s (D) The creation of the European Union in Concerns over the birth rate trend after 1965 contributed most directly to which of the following political developments in late-twentieth-century Western Europe? (A) Right-wing proposals to restrict immigration from areas outside Western Europe (B) Liberal attempts to mitigate the effects of poverty in Western Europe (C) Conservative resistance to greater economic and political integration of Western Europe (D) Centrist support for the expansion of NATO after the collapse of the Soviet Union -27- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

33 Questions refer to the following passage. It is hard to define the type of relationship that prevails between people in [communist countries] otherwise than as acting, with the exception that one does not perform on a theater stage but in the street, office, factory, meeting hall, or even the room one lives in. Such acting is a highly developed craft that places a premium upon mental alertness. Before it leaves the lips, every word must be evaluated as to its consequences. A smile that appears at the wrong moment, a glance that is not all it should be, can occasion dangerous suspicions and accusations. A visitor from [Eastern Europe] is shocked on coming to the West. In his contacts with others, beginning with porters or taxi drivers, he encounters no resistance. The people he meets are completely relaxed. They lack that internal concentration which betrays itself in a lowered head or in restlessly moving eyes. They say whatever words come to their tongues; they laugh aloud. Is it possible that human relations can be so direct? [In Eastern Europe], acting in daily life differs from acting in the theater in that everyone plays to everyone else, and everyone is fully aware that this is so... After long acquaintance with his role, a man grows into it so closely that he can no longer differentiate his true self from the self he simulates, so that even the most intimate of individuals speak to each other in Party slogans. Czeslaw Milosz, Polish writer, The Captive Mind, In the passage, Milosz is reacting most directly to which of the following aspects of life in communist Eastern Europe? (A) The collectivization of land and the nationalization of the means of production (B) Communist control over the visual and performing arts (C) The economic and military dependence on the Soviet Union (D) The oppressive political system and pervasive internal surveillance 47. Which of the following accurately compares Milosz s perspective in the passage with the ideas of European existentialism? (A) Both Milosz and the existentialists were sharply critical of communist society and the suffering communist policies had inflicted on the peoples of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. (B) Milosz was interested in the question of why individuals act in the way that they do, but existentialists did not share that interest. (C) In contrast to the existentialists, Milosz followed a Marxist materialist model in explaining human behavior and class conflict, but he shared the existentialists skepticism of the idea of constant progress. (D) Like the existentialists, Milosz was interested in the alienation of the individual in the face of absurd social circumstances, but he did not share existentialists critical attitude toward Western society GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

34 48. Which of the following later events would most directly challenge Milosz s assessment in the third paragraph of the impact of living under communism on the human psyche? (A) The declaration of martial law by the communist regime in Poland in 1981 (B) The limited extent of the de-stalinization program launched by Nikita Khrushchev in 1956 (C) The failure of the 1968 Prague Spring protests against communist rule in Czechoslovakia (D) The high levels of popular support for the anticommunist revolutions in All of the following statements about Milosz are factually correct. Which one would be most useful in identifying the intended audience of The Captive Mind? (A) Milosz was born in present-day Lithuania and throughout his life professed to have a dual identity as both a Lithuanian and a Pole. (B) Milosz worked as a diplomat for the Communist government of postwar Poland between 1946 and (C) Milosz defected to the West in 1951 and obtained political asylum in France. (D) Milosz emigrated to the United States in 1960 and became a professor at the University of California, Berkeley GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

35 END OF PART A IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON PART A. DO NOT GO ON TO PART B UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE DONE THE FOLLOWING. PLACED YOUR AP NUMBER LABEL ON YOUR MULTIPLE-CHOICE ANSWER SHEET WRITTEN AND GRIDDED YOUR AP NUMBER CORRECTLY ON YOUR MULTIPLE-CHOICE ANSWER SHEET TAKEN THE AP EXAM LABEL FROM THE FRONT OF THIS BOOKLET AND PLACED IT ON YOUR MULTIPLE-CHOICE ANSWER SHEET -30

36 EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION I, Part B Time 50 minutes 4 Questions Directions: Read each question carefully and write your responses in the Section I, Part B: Short Answer booklet on the lined pages provided for that question. Answer all parts of every question. Use complete sentences; an outline or bulleted list alone is not acceptable. You may plan your answers in this exam booklet, but no credit will be given for notes written in this booklet. Only your responses on the designated pages of the Section I, Part B: Short Answer booklet will be scored. Sources have been edited for the purposes of this exercise. Use the passage below to answer all parts of the question that follows. The best way to assess the depth and scope of the Scientific Revolution is to compare and contrast the science that came into fruition in the seventeenth century with its nearest equivalent in the late Middle Ages... Traditionally, knowledge had been based on faith and insight, on reason and revelation. The new science discarded all of these as ways of understanding nature and set up experience experiment and critical observation as the foundation and ultimate test of knowledge. The consequences were as revolutionary as the doctrine itself. For not only did the new method found knowledge on a wholly new basis, but it implied that men and women no longer had to believe what was said by eminent authorities; they could put any statement to the test of controlled experience. I. Bernard Cohen, historian, Revolution in Science, a) Identify TWO specific examples of scientific discovery that support Cohen s argument and explain how each one supports his argument. b) Explain ONE way in which the shift in scientific inquiry described by Cohen affected European views of society or politics in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

37 Use the passages below to answer all parts of the question that follows. When [the Dutch burgher] goes home from Church, does he take God s Holy Book with him to ponder the sermon? No. Instead he picks up the day s [business] gazette and busies himself with calculations of interest and the liquidation of debts. It would be better [if] on the Lord s Day he gave some accounting of himself and, instead of reckoning his profits, reckoned up his sins. Simonides, minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, Four Books on God s Judgment, 1655 So, Amsterdam has risen through the hand of God to the peak of prosperity and greatness... The whole world stands amazed at its riches and from east and west, north and south they come to behold it. The Great and Almighty Lord has raised this city above all others...yeahehaseventaken from them the [commerce] of the east and the west (for in former times Lisbon flourished) and has spilled their treasure into our bosom. Melchior Fokkens, Dutch historian, Description of the Widely Renowned Merchant City of Amsterdam, a) Describe ONE important difference between the views of commerce and prosperity expressed in the two passages. b) For EACH of the passages, identify and explain ONE factor (such as a historical development, an intellectual or philosophical trend, or a religious belief) that likely informed the view of commerce and prosperity expressed in that passage GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

38 Answer all parts of the question that follows. 3. Many historians contend that the development of railroads in the early 1800s was a significant turning point in European history. a) Identify TWO specific pieces of evidence that support the contention, and explain how each piece supports the contention. b) Identify ONE specific piece of evidence that undermines the contention, and explain how it undermines the contention. Note: A fourth short -answer question appeared on this exam, but was not scored. It has therefore been removed from this version of the exam GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

39 END OF SECTION I IF YOU FINISH BEFORE TIME IS CALLED, YOU MAY CHECK YOUR WORK ON THIS SECTION. DO NOT GO ON TO SECTION II UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. MAKE SURE YOU HAVE DONE THE FOLLOWING. PLACED YOUR AP NUMBER LABEL ON YOUR SECTION I, PART B: SHORT ANSWER BOOKLET COMPLETED THE IDENTIFICATION INFORMATION AS REQUESTED ON THE FRONT AND BACK COVERS OF THE SECTION I, PART B: SHORT ANSWER BOOKLET USED THE SAME SET OF AP NUMBER LABELS ON ALL AP EXAMS YOU HAVE TAKEN THIS YEAR -34

40 AP European History Exam SECTION II: Free Response 2016 DO NOT OPEN THIS BOOKLET UNTIL YOU ARE TOLD TO DO SO. At a Glance Total Time 1 hour, 30 minutes Number of Questions 2 Percent of Total Score 40% Writing Instrument Pen with black or dark blue ink Question 1 (DBQ): Mandatory Suggested Reading and Writing Time 55 minutes Reading Period 15 minutes. Use this time to read Question 1 and to plan your answer. You may begin writing your response before the reading period is over. Suggested Writing Time 40 minutes Percent of Total Score 25% Question 2 or 3: Choose One Question Answer either question 2or3 Suggested Writing Time 35 minutes Percent of Total Score 15% Instructions The questions for Section II are printed in the orange Questions and Documents booklet. You may use that booklet to organize your answers and for scratch work, but you must write your answers in this Section II: Free Response booklet. No credit will be given for any work written in the Questions and Documents booklet. The proctor will announce the beginning and end of the reading period. You are advised to spend the 15-minute period reading the question and planning your answer to Question 1, the document-based question (DBQ). If you have time, you may also read Questions 2 and 3. You may begin writing your responses before the reading period is over. Section II of this exam requires answers in essay form. Write clearly and legibly. Circle the number of the question you are answering at the top of each page in this booklet. Begin each answer on a new page. Do not skip lines. Cross out any errors you make; crossed-out work will not be scored. Manage your time carefully. The proctor will announce the suggested time for each part, but you may proceed freely from one part to the next. Go on to Question 2 or 3 if you finish Question 1 early. You may review your responses if you finish before the end of the exam is announced. After the exam, you must apply the label that corresponds to the question you answered. For example, if you answered Question 2, apply the label to the front cover. Failure to do so may delay your score. Form O Form Code 4MBP 43

41 EUROPEAN HISTORY SECTION II Total Time 1 hour, 30 minutes Question 1 (Document-Based Question) Suggested reading and writing time: 55 minutes It is suggested that you spend 15 minutes reading the documents and 40 minutes writing your response. Note: You may begin writing your response before the reading period is over. Directions: Question 1 is based on the accompanying documents. The documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise. In your response you should do the following. Thesis: Present a thesis that makes a historically defensible claim and responds to all parts of the question. The thesis must consist of one or more sentences located in one place, either in the introduction or the conclusion. Argument Development: Develop and support a cohesive argument that recognizes and accounts for historical complexity by explicitly illustrating relationships among historical evidence such as contradiction, corroboration, and/or qualification. Use of the Documents: Utilize the content of at least six of the documents to support the stated thesis or a relevant argument. Sourcing the Documents: Explain the significance of the author s point of view, author s purpose, historical context, and/or audience for at least four documents. Contextualization: Situate the argument by explaining the broader historical events, developments, or processes immediately relevant to the question. Outside Evidence: Provide an example or additional piece of specific evidence beyond those found in the documents to support or qualify the argument. Synthesis: Extend the argument by explaining the connections between the argument and ONE of the following. o A development in a different historical period, situation, era, or geographical area. o A course theme and/or approach to history that is not the focus of the essay (such as political, economic, social, cultural, or intellectual history). o A different discipline or field of inquiry (such as economics, government and politics, art history, or anthropology). 1. Evaluate whether the policies of Otto von Bismarck s government represented traditional conservatism or a new kind of conservatism in nineteenth-century Europe. -6- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

42 Document 1 Source: Legislation passed by Bismarck s government, Law Concerning the Equality of all Religions with Respect to Civil Rights and Citizenship of July 3, 1869: All restrictions on citizenship or civil rights based on differences in religious confession are abolished. The right to hold public office shall be independent of religious confession. School Inspection Law of March 11, 1872: The supervision of all public and private school and educational institutions is solely under the control of the state and not of any clergy. Law Concerning the Order of the Society of Jesus [The Jesuits] of July 4, 1872: The Order of the Society of Jesus and similar order-like Congregations, are banned hereby from the territory of the German Reich. The members of the Order of the Society of Jesus or similar order-like Congregations can be banished, if they are foreigners; if they are natives, their residence in certain districts or places can be denied, or they can be banished. Law Against the Publicly Dangerous Endeavors of Social Democracy from October 21, 1878: Societies which aim at the overthrow of the existing political or social order through social-democratic, socialist, or communist endeavors are to be prohibited. Public festivities and processions shall be treated the same as meetings. Publications in which social-democratic, socialist, or communist endeavors aimed at the overthrow of the existing political or social order are manifested in a manner calculated to endanger the harmony among all classes of the population are to be prohibited. -7- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

43 Document 2 Source: Wilhelm Liebknecht, German socialist, political speech, 1869 Is it the duty of the Socialists to send delegates to the Reichstag [German parliament] at all? Our Social-Democratic Party (SPD)* must not, under any circumstances, or in any field, engage in transactions with its opponents. We can only transact business where there is a common basis. To do business with those who are your opponents in principle is equivalent to a sacrifice of principle... The slightest concession in matters of principle is a relinquishing of the principle entirely. He who parliamentarizes, compromises. Suppose a candidate comes up for election and the government is absolutely opposed to having him in the Reichstag. The government will confiscate the newspapers that advocate his election it will do so legally; it will confiscate his election handbills also legally; or it will give permits for meetings of electors and then dissolve them again legally; it will arrest the candidate s campaign managers quite legally; it will arrest the candidate himself also legally. They recently arrested a delegate to the Reichstag, and that delegate would still be in prison right now if the National Liberals** had not been convinced by Bismarck of his harmlessness. There is no possibility of our having an influence on legislation. Tell me, in heaven s name, what would be the use of a presentation of our principles in the Reichstag? Do you think you would convert the members of the Reichstag? The idea is more than childish; it is infantile. *the largest socialist party in Germany **one of the main parties supporting Bismarck s government at the time Document 3 Source: Hermann Wagener, high public official and conservative politician, memorandum written for Otto von Bismarck, Why the Government Cannot Ignore the Social Question: A Conservative View, 1872 It is extremely dangerous to take up the battle against the ultramontane [extremely Catholic] and socialist parties simultaneously. It is important to keep those pursuing anti-national aims away from the social movement but it would be a political mistake to subject socialist leaders to emergency laws on account of their social advocacy, particularly without also doing something substantial to satisfy the just efforts of their followers. It would be hopeless to fight a powerful idea merely with material means, and, with respect to the extremely powerful Catholic-clerical idea, there is currently only one idea that can be used as a political counterweight with any prospect of success and that is the social idea. The social Kaiser has a stronger position than even the social Pope. At the moment, the mass of the population is wavering, unsure of the direction in which to turn. So far, the international agitation has not gained a broader basis; where the masses turn, however, will be of crucial significance not just for politics but also for the character of the army. The army will only be completely reliable if the workers, who make up its main contingent, are won over and bound to the idea of the Reich through its very benefits and performance. -8- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

44 Document 4 Source: At the helm, political cartoon portraying Bismarck, published in a satirical German magazine, 1879 bpk, Berlin / Dietmar Katz / Art Resource, NY Caption: The Liberal says to the other two: Don t worry; when the wind shifts, I ll be on top again. -9- GO ON TO THE NEXT PAGE.

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