REGIONAL MIGRATION IN SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA

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1 REGIONAL MIGRATION IN SUB- SAHARAN AFRICA Guy Blaise NKAMLEU International Institute of Tropical Agriculture WorldBank Workshop on Job Creation in Africa, Eschborn-Germany, Nov 27-28, 26

2 Structure of the presentation Historical context Colonial Inheritance Chronological Pattern Migration and labor Market Migration and Remittances

3 Historical context Africa: A mobile continent. To deeply understand the migration in Africa, it is important to position the phenomenon correctly within the relevant anthropological context in which it originated. Elusiveness and instability of African Settlements and villages. In the post-colonial era, villages were easily created and easily abandoned = indicator of instability and mobility.

4 Historical context Movements in the past had taken different forms and directions. This was basically oriented towards trade, labor and religion (for pilgrimages) and was without legal restraints and barriers. But were associated largely with natural disasters, shifting cultivation practice, sociopolitical especially internecine warfare slavery and slave trade. Little-organized, these movements were generally circular, seasonal and of short duration.

5 Colonial inheritance The point of departure is after the Berlin conference 1884, when the European powers partitioned Africa into spheres of influence. Many authors reported that analysis of migration dynamic should be rooted in an understanding of the historical context of the region, particularly colonial strategies. With few exceptions, almost all countries in the study region are former colonies of England or France.

6 Colonial inheritance British colonial policy In Eastern and Southern Africa, British colonial policy promoted extensive European settlements. Head taxes were introduced to encourage small farmers to sell their labor to European plantations and mines. In West Africa, (where climate and malaria discouraged white settlers) British colonial policy in Nigeria, Ghana, The Gambia, and Sierra Leone sharply restricted plantation development and settlement by white farmers.

7 Colonial inheritance French colonial policy In contrast to British policy, French policy encouraged Europeans to establish plantations to grow coffee and cocoa in the Ivory Coast. Force labor recruitment were firstly adopted by the French colonial administration in West Africa.

8 Colonial inheritance French colonial policy Gradually, forced labor as a means of mobilizing workers for agricultural production came to be regarded as unsatisfactory and was replaced by the levying of taxes on the native population. The tax compelled the local populations to find ways of raising money and, hence, to participate in the emerging monetized, capitalist-oriented economy.

9 Colonial inheritance Tax policy coupled with unbalanced investment in the interior regions mobilize the short-term laborers who met their cash needs by migrating to work in mines and plantations in Eastern and Southern Africa, on peanut farms in Senegal, and cocoa plantations in Ghana and Ivory Coast. past investigations suggest that labor movements observed in tropical Africa began as a result of colonial policies and practices, Which superimposed a monetized economy On peasant production.

10 Chronological patterns: Overview West Africa Migrations was light until There was increasing forced recruitment for work in the plantations of Ivory Coast. But, Ghana was still the principal destination until Forced labor was officially abolished from but Ivory Coast became the principal destination after 195. In mali (Soudan francais), the motivation for young men to take up seasonal work in the groundnud regions of Senegal and Gambia was, as in Upper Volta, mostly to escape recruitment for forced labor and to earn money to pay taxes.

11

12 Chronological patterns: Overview Southern Africa The history of migrant labor in Southern Africa is tied to the capitalist development of plantation and mining and dates back to the 185s. But mining sector played the dominant role. The mines and plantations in Mauritius, Namibia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe attracted many migrant labour, which was mainly of temporary and oscillatory nature. But South Africa Republic was the most important destination. In 187 around 5-8, migrants came to work on diamond mines in Kimberley (South Africa).

13 Total Other Zimb Zam. Tanz. Swazi Moza. Mala. Lesoth. Bots. Ang. Years Chronological patterns: Overview Contract labor migration to South African mines, Source: Crush and Williams, 22.

14 Migrants as % of the population

15 Growth rate of the international migrants stock

16 Regional migration: Major issues Labor market In sending countries Migration and Remittances Migration Migration and Development Labor market In receiving countries

17 Migration and labor market in receiving countries Work opportunities as pull factors. The impact of the migrants on host country labor markets is diverse: Heterogeneity of migrants population mixed success What influence labor market success in receiving countries In part, labor market success is influenced by categories such as education and willingness to do dirty jobs, foreign language fluency. But labor demand remains the key determinant of labor market success.

18 Migration and labor market in receiving countries Concentration in cities and in some particular sector. Many migrants tend to gravitate to areas of both relative prosperity and where housing costs are relatively cheap, and where there are already others from their home country implication for sectoral labor supply Address skill shortage and foster job creation? The dynamic and multiplier effects, of immigrants activities will increase the demand for labor, offsetting the initial increase in the labor supply that migrants represent. This will happen only if markets are functioning well. If this is not the case, then it is theoretically possible for migration to generate higher unemployment for natives. Very little is known about the composition, Concentration and impact of migration on sectoral labor market in receiving countries in Sub-Saharan Africa region.

19 Migration and labor market in sending countries Narrow of wage income distribution In theory migration of predominantly unskilled labor, might reduce the supply of this class of labor in the sending country, therefore raising the salaries of unskilled workers, and generating an egalitarian trend. Replacement migration? Mali, Burkina Faso, Cote d'ivoire, Gabon Brain drain or brain gain? Brain drain Economic growth Labor market Return on Education Investment In education Brain Gain

20 Migration and labor market in sending countries Brain drain: good or bad? the withdrawal of any factor of production, such as highly skilled labor, diminishes returns to other factors remaining at home. Depend on how productively the highly skilled workers are employed, prior to their departure. Need of data on skill and qualification Categories of migrants to evaluate the effects of migration in sending countries. The net effect of migration will vary over time, from country to country depending on the skills of migrants, the sectors they leave the sector they work and whether they subsequently return.

21 Migration and remittances Remittances: An important financial flow Recent sources argued that remittance flow has doubled in the last decade, reaching 216 billion in 24, with $15 billion going to developing countries. Reported remittances in Sub-Saharan Africa is estimated to represent some five percent of total remittance to developing regions. An example that exemplifies the importance of remittance is Burkina Faso. Recent figures show that remittances from migrants accounted for a substantial portion, around a quarter of the GDP of Burkina Faso. for most countries, remittances exceed the volume of foreign aid and investment. For example; the total amount sent back by the 6, illegal Malian in France adds up to about 1 million euro, which is greater than the 6 million euros of French official aid flow to Mali. But poorly understood Official data on remittances do not capture flows of monies that take place through nonreporting and informal financial channels. Some estimates are that global remittances are about 2.5 times the size reported in the IMF Balance of Payments data. For example, the Bank of Ghana estimates that informal flows are at least as high as recorded flows. In Sudan, informal remittances are estimated to account for 85 percent of total remittance receipts.

22 Migration and remittances Remittances, development and. Labor market practitioners are now focusing the majority of their attention on both the development impact of remittances and on regulatory issues in sender and receiver markets. Through their effects on foreign exchange reserves, balance of payments, improved livelihoods, and investments in human capital, remittances are important particularly for African households and nations.. But the extent of the impact is questionable. But at least three issues counteract in this matter: Migration and investment, migration and production and migration poverty and income inequality.

23 Migration and remittances Remittances, development and. Labor market Converting remittance into investment determines its impact on development. But permanent remittance can create an implicit insurance contract between the migrant and his family and this can give rise to opportunistic behavior resulting in inefficiency among family in the country of origin. The main question here is whether remittance received is rather diverted into inefficient expenditures such as weddings, houses and other nonproductive assets intended only to keep the prestigious image of the family.

24 The potential developmental role of remittances in Africa is an Important topic needing further investigations. They will be need to Disaggregate the impact of remittance by sector, route, and all other characteristics pertaining to migrants and their home family. Looking ways to increase the benefits remittances provide is important. Policy makers do have an important regulatory role to play.

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