ROLE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION FOR STATUS OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN 21 ST CENTURY: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HYDERABAD KARNATAKA REGION

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1 ROLE OF INDIAN CONSTITUTION FOR STATUS OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT IN 21 ST CENTURY: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO HYDERABAD KARNATAKA REGION * Dr. Prahlad V Chengte Assistant Professor of Political Science GFGC, Humnabad, Dt: Bidar **Dr. Jaisheela B Assistant Professor of Commerce and Management GFGC, Aurad (B), Dt: Bidar ABSTRACT In the word Empowerment means to give somebody the power or authority to act. Therefore women empowerment means that the women have the power or capacity to regulate their day today lives, in the social, economic and political terms, a power which enables them to move from the periphery to the centre stage. Ambedkar said the main motive behind women empowerment is to protect their rights, to enrich their quality of life and involve them in decision making process at all levels, particularly in those decisions, which are related to their lives and families. The empowerment of women occurs when women are involved in decision making, which leads to their better access to resources, and therefore improved socio-economic and political status. In recent years, gender equality and women s empowerment have been recognized as crucial to the health and socio-economic development of entire country, not just individual families. This is evident in the fact that promotion of gender equality and empowering women is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals. The present paper observed that the Role of Indian Constitution for status of Women Empowerment in 21 st Century: with Special Reference to Hyderabad Karnataka Region. KEY WORDS: Empowerment, Legislative, Political Status, Economic Status, Decision making INTRODUCTION: Woman is an incarnation of Shakti the Goddess of Power. If she is bestowed with education, India s strength will double. Let the campaign of Kanya Kelavni be spread in every home; let the lamp of educating daughters be lit up in every heart. Narendra Modi The principle of gender equality is enshrined in the Indian Constitution in its Preamble, Fundamental Rights, Fundamental Duties and Directive Principles. The Constitution not only grants equality to women, but also empowers the state to adopt measures of positive discrimination in favour of women. Empowerment may be described as a process which helps people to assert their control over the factors which affect their lives. Empowerment of women means developing them as more aware individuals, who are politically active, economically productive and independent and are able to make intelligent discussion in matters that affect them. Women empowerment in simple words can be understand as giving power to decide for their own lives of inculcating such abilities in them so that they could be able to find their rightful place in the society. Women are an integral part of a society. They play an important role in determining the destiny of a nation. It has been rightly said by Swami Vivekanand, The Best thermometer to the progress of nation is its treatment of women. Therefore, due recognition to them in the society and their greater involvement in socio-economic and political affairs becomes all the more important. Every person should come forward to ensure equal status for women in all spheres of life. The present paper observed that the Role of Indian Constitution for status of Women Empowerment in 21 st Century: with Special Reference to Hyderabad Karnataka Region. According to the United Nations, women empowerment mainly had five components: 1) Generating women s sense of self-worth 2) Women s right to have and to determine their choices 3) Women s right to have access to equal opportunities and all kinds of resources 4) Women s right to have the power to regulate and control their own lives, within and outside the home and 5) Women s ability to a more just social, economical and political order. REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE: Dr. B.P Mahesh Chandra Guru, Mr.H.S.Shivraj, Dr.Madhu Gundlepet and Mr.M.Dileep Kumar (2015) published their article entitled Tribal Development in Karnataka State focuses on The Government of Karnataka has implemented certain programmes for the benefit of tribes who remain at the lowest rung of the social and economic orders. Programmes like free AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 16

2 housing, drinking water supply, electrical connectivity, ashram schools, scholarships, free text books and uniforms, midday meals and poverty reduction programmes have benefited the tribes who had experienced serious economic constraints. Dr. N. R. Savatikar (2014) in his article entitled Problems of Education among Scheduled Tribal P.G. students in Karnataka state opined that Education implies the transmission of culture from one generation to another by creating the power to awaken men to their social responsibilities. It provides a strong link between the past and the present with a view to fashioning a future that meets the socio-economic needs of mankind. Mamta Mokta (2014) in her paper entitled Empowerment of Women in India a Critical Analysis focuses on Empowerment of women means developing them as more aware individuals, who are politically active, economically productive and independent and are able to make intelligent discussion in matters that affect them. Women do not share the power of decisionmaking and are not involved in policy making in Indian democracy in proportion to their numerical strength. Thus there is a gap between the formal idea of women s participation and their meaningful use of power. M. Suguna (2011) in her article entitled Education and Women Empowerment in India Women education in India has also been a major preoccupation of both the government and civil society as educated women can play a very important role in the development of the country. Education is milestone of women empowerment because it enables them to responds to the challenges, to confront their traditional role and change their life. So that we can t neglect the importance of education in reference to women empowerment India is poised to becoming superpower, a developed country by Singh and Dr. Pushpanjali Thapar (2010) published their article entitled Gender Equality and women empowerment in India. They observed that the all round development which includes their physical, social, economical and political development. Keeping in view of this, the Government of India celebrated the year 2001 as the women empowerment year. Without the full and equal participation of women, there can be no sustainable human development. NEED FOR THE STUDY Very few studies have been made on status of women empowerment in India. No research has been made on the Role of Indian Constitution for status of Women Empowerment in 21 st Century: with Special Reference to Karnataka State. Therefore, it has in cited to undertaken this study to fulfill the following objectives. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 1. To analyse the implementation of Legislations and laws for women empowerment. 2. To ascertain the factors influencing the status of empowerment of women according to constitution of India 3. To identify the constraints of economic empowerment of women. 4. To suggest the suitable programmes and policy measures to achieve the goal of economic empowerment of women. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY: This study is exploratory and analytical case study. Primary Data: Primary data was collected through questionnaire. The questionnaire administered household women in Hyderabad Karnataka region. The collecting primary data 200 women households of Bidar (35), Gulbaraga (35), Yadgir (35) Raicur (35) Bellary (30) and Koppal (30) women in Hyderabad Karnataka. Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected mainly from the various published documents, books, journals and the annual report censes 2017 etc. Statistical tables and the simple average methods are used to analyse the status of empowerment of women in Hyderabad Karnataka Region. Statistical Analysis: The Chi-Square test was applied to examine the difference between the organisation and different variable. ² = Oi Ei Oi = Observed frequencies Ei = Expected frequency... Degree of freedom = (r-1) (c-1) E i 2 AREA OF THE STUDY: The study has been conducted in Hyderabad Karnataka Region of Karnataka State in order to reconsider the problems faced by rural poor, especially the tribal women while improving their socioeconomic and political status using locally available resources, expertise and their own creativity and also to find out possible solutions for hindrances which would be expected to be faced. AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 17

3 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: 1. Difficulty in collection of primary data from illiterate household women. The majority of women are involved in selfhelp group s activities and other small business activities having lack of general awareness. They don t have proper maintenance of records. 2. The study is based on random samples of household women in each district of Hyderabad Karnataka Region CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS FOR WOMEN: The Constitution of India contains various provisions, which provide for equal rights and opportunities for both men and women. The Followings Are The Salient Features 1) Indian constitution Article 14 said guarantees that the State shall not deny equality before the law and equal protection of the laws. 2) Indian constitution Article 15 prohibits discrimination against any citizen on the ground of sex. 3) Indian constitution Article 15(3) empowers the State to make positive discrimination in favour of women and children. 4) Indian constitution Article 16 provides for Equality of Opportunity in matters of public employment. 5) Indian constitution Article 23 prohibits trafficking in human beings and forced labour. 6) Indian constitution Article 39 (a) and (d) enjoins the State to provide equal means of livelihood and equal pay for equal work. 7) Indian constitution Article 42 enjoins upon the State to make provisions for securing just and humane conditions of work, and for maternity relief. 8) Indian constitution Article 51 A (e) imposes a Fundamental Duty on every citizen to renounce the practices derogatory to the dignity of women. LEGISLATIONS AND LAWS FOR WOMEN (Article 243 D (3) (xii): one-third of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every panchayat to be reserved for women Including the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a panchayat. (Article 243 D (4) (xiii): one third of the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats at each level to be reserved for women. (Article 243 T (3)) one-third of the total number of seats to be filled by direct election in every Municipality reserved for women Including the number of seats reserved for Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes women and such seats to be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality. (Article 243 T (4)): Reservation of offices of Chairpersons in Municipalities for the scheduled Castes, the Scheduled Tribes and Women in such manner as the legislature of a State may by law provide. SPECIAL LAWS Consistent with Constitutional Provisions as well as their sprit, the Government has also enacted specific laws for the protection of women and for the up gradation of their status. MARRIAGE RELATED LAWS Special Marriage Act 1954: Any girl of 18 years of age or boy of 21 years can take resort to this law irrespective of caste or religious considerations. Hindu Marriage Act 1955: Marriage is deemed to be solemnised on the performance of certain rights, especially Saptapadhi; while first marriage subsists, second marriage is forbidden; right to judicial separation and divorce is made available on certain grounds like, for example, unsound of mind, conversion to a different religion, incurable or communicable diseases, etc. Dowry Prohibition Act 1961: Giving, abetting or taking dowry is a cognizable, non-bailable offense against the state and is not punishable with less than five years of imprisonment and a fine of Rs. 15,000 or the amount representing the value of the dowry. Hindu Adoption and Maintenance Act 1955: An unmarried woman, a widow or a divorcee of sound mind can also take a child in adoption. Prohibition of Child Marriage Act 2006: To overcome the shortcomings of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, the Government of India enacted the Prohibition of Child Marriage Act It receives the assent of the president of India AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 18

4 on 10 January, The act came into effect from 1 November, 2007 to overcome the constraints of the former legislation in effectively dealing with the problems of child marriage in India and to put in place a comprehensive mechanism. PROPERTY RELATED LAWS The Hindu Succession Act 1956: It vests women with rights in the matter of inheritance as well as the alienation of property at par with males. Equal Remuneration Act 1976: This Act is enacted for providing equal remuneration to men and women, thereby to prevent discrimination against women on the grounds of sex. VIOLENCE RELATED LAWS Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act 1986: This Act was adopted in India as a follow-up of the International Convention on Immoral Traffic, This Act Underwent several changes and exists today as the Immoral Traffic (Prevention) Act This act aims at the prohibition of illegal traffic for purpose of sexual exploitation or abuse. It lays out procedure for rescue of a women or girl. Commission of Sati (prevention) Act 1987: This Act provides for the prevention of the commission of sati and its glorification. The Act lays out extensive provisions to check attempts to commit abet or glorify sati. The collector or District Magistrate is empowered by Act to offences relating to Sati. Protection of Women from Domestic Violence Act 2005: This Act of Parliament received the assent of the President on 13th Sep., The act provided for more effective protection of the rights of women guaranteed under the Constitution who are victims of any kind occurring within the family and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Under the Act 2005, Domestic Violence covers any abuse or threat thereof that is physical, sexual, verbal, emotional or economic. The Sexual Harassment of Women at Work Place (Prevention, Provision and Redressal) Act It is an act to provide protection against sexual harassment of women at work place and for the prevention and redressal of complaints of sexual harassment and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. Whereas sexual harassment results in violation of the fundamental rights of a women to equality under Article 14 and 15 of the Constitution of India and her right to life and to live with dignity under Article 21 of the Constitution and right to practice any profession to carry on any occupation, trade or business which includes a right to a safe environment from sexual harassment. And whereas the right to protection against sexual harassment and the right to work with dignity are universally recognised human rights by international conventions and instruments, such as Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women, which has been ratified on the 25thJune, 1993 by the Government of India. And whereas it is expedient to make provisions for giving effect to the said Convention for protection of women against sexual harassment at work place. STATUS OF WOMEN IN 21 ST CENTURY: The status of women in 21 st century is significant reflection of the level of social justice in that society. Women s status is often described in terms of their level of income, employment, education, health and fertility as well as their roles within the family, the community and society. The role of women in communities is substantial and crucial. They constitute about half the total population but in society women are more important than men, because they work harder and the family economy and management depends on them. Even after industrialization and the resultant commercialization swamped the economy, women continued to play a significant role. Collection of minor forest produce is done mostly by women and children. Many also work as laborers in industries, households and construction, contributing to their family income. However, women face problems and challenges in getting a sustainable livelihood and a decent life due to environmental degradation and the interference of outsiders. Undoubtedly, the programmes, oriented towards the empowerment of women, they have also improved their socio-economic conditions and status. However, there are wide variations across regions and women in terms of work participation, sex ratio, economic productivity and social life. The table -1 illustrate that the literacy rate of Tribal population in Karnataka. Comparing with the male, female literacy rate is more than the male. It is found that development of tribal women is good impact on the society in 21 century. FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATION: AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 19

5 Scheduled tribal population Table -1: Literacy Rate of women in Karnataka Percentage to total population in Karnataka Rural Urban Total Total Male Female Source: Censes of India, Primary Censes Abstract data highlights Karnataka series-30 Status of Tribal Women includes the following determinants: Table -2: Socio demographic characteristics of the study population Characteristics Frequencies Chisquare df sig Rural Urban Total value a Age group of respondents in years (10%) 25 (12.5%) 45 (22.5%) (19%) 42 (21%) 80 (40%) (16%) 30 (15%) 62 (31%) 61 and above 10 (5%) 03 (1.5%) 13 (6.5%) Total 100 (50%) 100 (50%) 200 (50%) b Socio Economic classes Upper 28 (14%) 25 (12.5%) 53 (26.5%) Middle 42 (21%) 40 (20%) 82 (41%) Lower 30 (15%) 35 (17.5%) 65 (32.5%) c Educational Background Primary Education 35 (17.5%) 15 (7.5%) 50 (25%) Secondary Education 38 (19%) 20 (10%) 58 (29%) Graduates 15 (7.5%) 42 (21%) 57 (28.5%) Post graduates 2 (1%) 13 (6.5%) 15 (7.5%) Others 10 (5%) 10 (5%) 20 (10%) d Health status Very good 38 (19%) 35 (17.5%) 73 (36.5%) Good 30 (15%) 43 (21.5%) 73 (36.5%) Normal 27 (13.5%) 10 (5%) 37 (16.5%) Ell Health 05 (2.5%) 12 (6%) 17 (8.5) e Economic Status of respondents (Monthly Income) Below (27.5%) 15 (7.5%) 70 (35%) to (15%) 23 (11.5%) 53 (26.5%) to (7.5%) 45 (22.5%) 60 (30%) and above 00 (0%) 17 (8.5%) 17 (8.5%) Political Status Very Good 45(22.5%) 20 (10%) 65 (32.5%) Good 22 (11%) 23 (11.5%) 45 (22.5%) Average 20 (10%) 40 (20%) 60 (30%) Not good 13 (6.5%) 17 (8.5%) 30 (15%) f Participation of decision making process in family All time (always) 10(5%) 45(22.5%) 60 (30%) AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 20

6 Some times 30(15%) 38(19%) 85 (42.5%) Not at all 60(30%) 17(8.5%) 55 (27.5%) Total 100(50%) 100 (50%) 200 (100%) g Environmental Status Very Good 20 (10%) 33 (16.5%) 53 (31.5%) Good 37 (18.5%) 48 (24%) 85 (42.5%) Average 32 (16%) 15 (7.5%) 47 (23.5%) Not good 11 (5.5%) 04 (2%) 15 (7.5%) Source: Field survey Table 2:a shows that the age group of the respondents, the majority of 80 (40%) of respondents were belonging to age group of years only least numbers of respondents 20 (10%) respondents were above 61 years of age group. Hence the present study reveals that, rural and urban area most of the women s are young and empowered their family and society. Table 2: b illustrates the economic status of women. Out of the 200 respondents 53 (26.5%) are rich their economic status is well. 82 (31%) of respondents are middle class women s. and 65 (32.5%) of the respondents are economically very poor, means still they require support from the society, support from family and economic support also required. Educational Status: Education is the key which opens the door of life, develops humanity and promotes national and self development. Education can be an effective tool for women empowerment. It enables the women to acquire knowledge for improving and empowering their tasks in all fields. Women relegated to the background as they lack educational, economic and political power necessary to actualize their potentials. Illiteracy is the major hurdle to women s empowerment in this region. Female children are usually not given adequate opportunity to acquire formal education which is necessary condition for empowerment. Education is a powerful tool for social transformation. Gender sensitivity must be developed. Education for tribal women has to be paid special attention. Table 2: c illustrates educational background of the respondents. The above table found that comparing with the rural to urban area. In this present study reveals that, particular in Urban area it fount maximum number of respondents were qualified in higher education like UG 42 (21%), PG 13 (6.5%) and in other professional courses are 10 (5%). At the same time in the Rural aria 15 (7.5%) are UG, 2 (1%) and 10 (5%) are qualified other courses. Hence it is found that facilities provided by the government are not reached to women in proper. Health: Women face risk of malnutrition hence focus should be paid on nutritional need of women at all stages of their lifecycle. The problem in the country is more serious among the women belonging to these indigenous groups. Table 2:d. Focuses on Health status of tribal women, in the both the areas maximum number of more than 73% of the respondents are having good and excellent health condition, because government hospitals, primary health centrals are providing very good medical facilities for rural as well as urban women health. Table 2: e. illustrates income level of women in urban and rural. As women we come to know that maximum numbers of women s are illiterate due to lack opportunities to empower themselves economically. Nearly 80% of them depend upon primary sector for their livelihood; they mainly have forest products for their earning. Poverty is reflected in almost all aspect of an average women s life. Hence in the rural area none of the respondents having above Rs / of income, where as in urban area some of figure counted respondents are earning above Rs / of monthly income. Political Status: Although most of women around the world have the right to vote and right to actively participate in political parties. Table 2: f. shows that the political status of women, comparing with urban women respondent, rural women s opined that in the rural area political status were good they are having opportunities to participate in Grama Panchayat, Taluka Panchayt Jilla Panchayat etc due to reservation system provided by government of India, hence in rural and urban area women s were satisfied. Decision-making and gender equality: Indian is one of the most powerful country s in the world. There is gender equality in the families is very important factor in the present study. Our society is accepted itself as male dominated society and decision making ability of women is very less in outside and in family but it is equal to male within families. Table 2: g examines the environmental status of the women empowered in rural and urban area also. More than 70% of respondents opined that some families are having equal opportunities to male and female in decision making and treated as both are equal and their surrounding environment always support to women. RECOMMENDATIONS: There should be a continuous attempt to inspire, encourage, motivate to women in rural and as well as urban area for better empowerment. AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 21

7 Attempts should be there to enhance the standards education of women in general as well making effective provisions for their training, practical experience and personality development programmes, to improvise their over-all personality standards for urban and rural women. The present study recommended establishing for them proper training institutes for enhancing their level of workknowledge, skills, risk-taking abilities, enhancing their capabilities in both the area like women and urban. Attempts to bring about a society attitude change, generation of awareness and consciousness on the policy of selfdevelopment of women in urban and rural. Attempts by various NGO s and government organisations to spread information about policies, plans and strategies on the development of women in the field of industry, trade, commerce, technology and business politics etc. Establishing various policies to offer easy finance schemes for economically strengthening the position of women. Offering seed capital, up-liftment schemes, women entrepreneurs fund etc. to encourage them economically. CONCLUSION: Thus higher education is necessary for upward mobility. It plays an important role as a powerful instrument of health, economic, environment, political and social changes. It makes significant contribution in raising the quality of life of people. It is through higher education that the all-round progress of tribal women in the society is possible. Thus the study shows that most of the respondents maintain their educational expenditure with the help of scholarship amount is not sufficient to meet all their expenditures but it require job facilities in tribal in rural aria as well as urban in Karnataka. REFERENCES: 1. Mamta Mokta Empowerment Of Women In India: A Critical Analysis Indian Journal of Public Administration/ Vol. Lx, No. 3, July-September M.Suguna Education and Women Empowerment,International Journal of Multidisciplinary Research Vol.1 Issue 8, December 2011, ISSN Antony, Vaslsmma (2006) Education and Employment: the key to Women Empowerment, Kurukshetra Vol 54 No 4, New Delhi pp Dr. Sarbjeet Singh and Dr. Pushpanjali Thapar, (2009) Gender Equality and Women Empowerment in India, Third Concept An International journal of Ideas, pp Mallikarjun Nayashetty and Somanath Reddy (2010) Political Empowerment of Women through PRIS Southern Economist, Vol 49 No.1 Pp Dash and Sidharth (2004) Women Empowerment in India, Orissa Review pp Chakrabarthy, Manas and Bhuia, YoungLahmu (2007) Empowering Indian Women in he New Wake of Globalisation, The Indian Journal of Political Science, Vol LXVIII, No 1 Meerat pp Ssssinha, Chadni (2007) Education and Empowerment of Women, Third Concept Vol.21, No 243 pp50 9. Dr. N. R. Savatikar (2014) Problems of Education among Scheduled Tribe P.G. Students in Karnataka, International Journal of Innovation and Research Development.. Vol.3, Issue 5, pp 352 to 357, May Dr.B.P.Mahesh Chandra Guru, Mr.H S Shivaraj, Dr.Madhu Gundlupet and Mr.M.Dileep Kumar (2015) Tribal Development in Karnataka, International Journal of English Language, Literature and Humanities, Vol-III, Issue II, April Dr. M.R.Singhaniya Dr. Ambedkar and Women Empowerment in India Quest Journals- Journals of Research in Humanities and Social Science, Volume 2~ Issue 1 (2014) pp: ISSN(Online) : AARMSS INTERNATIONAL JOURNALS Website: 22

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