CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

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1 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics

2 1 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics Table of Contents 1. Power Sharing Federalism Democracy and Diversity Gender, Religion and Caste... 5 Technical Terms Popular Struggles and Movements... 6 Technical Terms Political Parties... 8 Technical Terms Outcomes of Democracy... 9 Technical Terms

3 2 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics 1. Power Sharing Power Sharing: Power sharing is necessary to ensure the stability of political order in a democracy. It is desirable to reduce the possibility of conflict between social groups. It ensures stability of government and unity of the nation. Forms of Power Sharing: Power sharing can be between (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) Organs of government Governments at different levels Social groups Political parties and Pressure groups. Majoritarianism: It means a belief that the majority community should be able to rule a country in its own way. They can disregard the views and wishes of the minority. It exists in Sri Lanka where Sinhala people (74%) constitute the majority and Tamils (about 18%) constitute the minority. Community Government: A form of government which is elected by the people belonging to one language community. This type of government exists in Belgium where Dutch, French and German speaking people, no matter where they live in the country, elect their government. Coalition Government: When no single party is able to get an absolute majority in the legislature, two or more parties join to form the government. Such a government is known as coalition government. The present UPA government in India, with S. Man Mohan Singh as Prime Minister, is a coalition government. Civil War: A war like conflict between two opposite groups in a country (between Sinhala and Tamils in Sri Lanka) is known as civil war.

4 3 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics 2. Federalism Federalism: is a system of government in which powers of the government are divided between the central government and the governments of the constituent units (States or Provinces) of the country. Unitary: form of government is a government in which all the powers of government are concentrated into the hands of one central government and all the units are subordinate and under the central government. Coming Together Federation: It is a federation in which several independent states come together on their own to form a union in order to increase their security and maintain their identity against a common enemy. U.S.A. and Australia are such Federation. Holding Together Federal: It is a type of federation in which a large country decides to divide power between the central government and the governments of the units. India and Spain are such federations. How India is a Federation: India is a federation as powers of government are divided by the Constitution into three lists (i) (ii) (iii) Union list State list and Concurrent list. Residuary powers have been given into the hands of union (central) government. Unitary as well as Federal: Although the Constitution of India contains all the features of a federation, yet it also has certain unitary features. That is why it is called federal in form but unitary in spirit. Indian federation: Have 29 States and 7 Union Territories. Union Territories are the areas which are administered by the union government. Linguistic States: India is multilingual state where people speak different languages. Out of them 22 languages have been recognized as Scheduled languages by the Constitution. The states in India have been organized mainly on linguistic basis. Local Government: Besides the central and state governments, another lower level of governments has been established in India to look after and administer the local problems of the areas. In the rural areas, Gram Panchayats, Panchayat Samitis and Zila Parishads have been established whereas in big cities and towns, Municipal Corporations and Municipal Councils have been set up.

5 4 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics 3. Democracy and Diversity Social Division: Social division is the division of society on the basis of language, caste, religion, sex or region. Social Differences: Social differences are the situations where people are discriminated against on the basis of social, economic and racial inequality. Minorities: It refers to those communities who are less than half the total population of the country. Homogeneous Society: A society that has similar kinds of people, especially where there are no significant ethnic differences.

6 5 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics 4. Gender, Religion and Caste Technical Terms Sexual division of labour: A system in which all work inside the home is either done by the women of the family, or organized by them through the domestic helpers. Feminist: A woman or a man who believes in equal rights and opportunities for women and men. Patriarchy: Literally, rule by father, this concept is used to refer to a system that values men more and gives them power over women. Family Laws: Those laws that deal with family related matters such as marriage, divorce, adoption, inheritance, etc. In our country, different family laws apply to followers of different religions. Urbanization: Shift of population from rural areas to urban areas. Occupational Mobility: Shift from one occupation to another, usually when a new generation takes up occupations other than those practiced by their ancestors. Caste hierarchy: A ladder like formation in which all the caste groups are placed from the highest to the lowest castes. Democracy: Indian democracy is the largest democracy in the world. Government is forefending by the representatives who are elected by the people. Representation of Women: The participation of women in the elections is very low. The number of women in Indian Parliament has always been less than 10 per cent. Same is the position in state legislatures. In local government institutions, however, one-third of the seats have been reserved for women. In Delhi and Haryana, this ratio has been raised to 50 percent. Casteism: The role of casteism in Indian politics is very significant. A large number of voters vote for the candidate belonging to their own caste. In the distribution of tickets by various political parties, caste is always a consideration.

7 6 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics Cormmunalism: Communalism means to distinguish people on the basis of religion to treat the people belonging to one s own religion as friends and others as enemies. Communalism also plays an important role in Indian political system. Secularism: India is a secular state. There is no state religion. The state cannot discriminate against any citizen on the basis of his/her religion. 5. Popular Struggles and Movements

8 7 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics Technical Terms Maoists: Those communists who believe in the ideology of Mao, the leader of the Chinese revolution. They seek to overthrow the government through an armed revolution so as to establish the rule of workers and peasants. Political Part: A political party is an organized group of people who share same economic and political views, and whose aim is to capture power (form the government) by peaceful and constitutional means he through elections. Sectional Interest Groups: Those interest groups which seek to promote the interests of a particular section of the people. Public Interest Groups: Those groups which represent some public or common interest and seek to promote them. They are also called Promotional Groups as they promote collective or public good and not selective good. Movement: It means a struggle on collective action aimed at achieving a certain aim or aims. SPA: SPA is a Seven Parties Alliance formed by all the major political parties of Nepal to struggle for the abolition of monarchy and establishment of democracy. The alliance has already been successful in its aim. It has captured power in Nepal and has abolished monarchy and established democracy in Nepal. Fedecor: Fedecor was an organization which comprised of local professionals, including engineers and environmentalists. The movement against the privatization of water in Bolivia was led by this organization. Interest Group: When people belonging to a common interest organize themselves, they form an interest group. Pressure Group: When any interest group starts seeking government help or exerts pressure on government for the promotion of its interests, it turns into a Pressure group. Public Opinion: It is an opinion of the public on certain issues of public importance or interest.

9 8 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics Technical Terms 6. Political Parties Partisan: A person who is strongly committed to a party, group or faction. Partisanship is marked by a tendency to take a side and inability to take a balanced view on an issue. Defection: Changing party allegiance from party on which a person got elected (to a legislative body) to a different party. Affidavit: A signed document submitted to an officer, where a person makes a sworn statement regarding her personal information. Political Party: A political party is an organized group of persons who have common views on the social and economic problems and their solutions. They try to capture power i.e., government by constitutional means i.e., through elections. Ruling Party: Ruling party is the party that forms the government and runs the administration. Opposition: The political party or a group of parties that are a part of the legislature, but not a part of the government. Election Commission: It is an independent multi-member body (at present 3 members) which is constituted for the superintendence, direction and conduct of elections in the country. Multiple Party System: A political system when a country has more than two political parties who contest election to come to power. Regional Political Party: The party which originates in a particular state or a region and works for it and its people is called Regional Political Party.

10 9 CBSE Class 10 Social Notes Civics Technical Terms 7. Outcomes of Democracy Democracy: is a form of government in which the power of governance resides in the hands of the people. They exercise their power directly or through the representatives elected by them. Outcomes means: Results successes or failures of democracy. Democracy political and economic equality, social justice and dignity of the individual. Dictatorship: is a form of government in which the power of the government is in the hands of one person or party and no opposition to the dictator is tolerated. Rule of law: means that everyone is equal in the eyes of law, no one is above law and anyone who violates law will get the same punishment irrespective of his official or financial status. Transparency: It means that a citizen can know about the process of decision-making and can examine it also. Accountable: means that in democracy government is responsible and accountable to the people. Civil Liberties: Civil liberties are rights and privileges of the people which are considered necessary for the functioning of democracy. Legitimate Government: Legitimate government is a government which is chosen legally. Responsive Government : A government in which people have the right to know the decisions taken by the government and also have the right and means to examine the process of decisionmaking

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