Advanced Placement American Government and Politics REQUIRED SUMMER ASSIGNMENTS,

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1 Advanced Placement American Government and Politics REQUIRED SUMMER ASSIGNMENTS, Mrs. Janette H. Sierra, M.S., Ed. These three summer assignments are REQUIRED and will help prepare you for this collegelevel class (and the class will help you prepare for the AP exam). Remember, you chose to be in this class and your success will depend upon your willingness to prepare for it. Due dates are listed and vary from the second to third day of class. No summer assignment will be accepted late. I. Where We Got the Ideas: Philosophical & Political Roots Read the following documents (links provided on question page) Second Treaties of Civil Government, John Locke Social Contract, Jean Jacques Rousseau Common Sense, Thomas Paine *Do the questions on a separate sheet of paper. Due second day of class. II. What Made the Final Cut: The Constitution & Amendments Referring to the Constitution/Amendments, complete the guided reading questions. *Due the third day of class in August. Helpful Links: III. How Change Still Happens: Major Supreme Court Cases Research the listed court cases and provide BULLETED answers about the details and significance of each case and law. Helpful Link: *Complete all work on the charts provided. Due the third day of class in August **PLEASE CONTACT ME IF YOU HAVE ANY QUESTIONS:

2 PART I: PHILOSOPHICAL ROOTS John Locke s Second Treatise of Civil Government ( Chapter II On the State of Nature 1. Summarize Locke s description of the state of nature. Chapter IX 2. Summarize the first question Locke poses in paragraph one of this section. 3. The great chief end, therefore, of men uniting into commonwealth, and putting themselves under government is 4. List two of the three wants Locke lists next. 5. What inconveniences are discussed in the next paragraph? 6. What two powers does Locke say man has? 7. What does man give up as result?

3 Chapter XI 8. The great end of man s entering into society is what? 9. What are some the bounds of trust that are discussed in Section 142? Summary 10. What documents in American politics are influenced by John Locke? Social Contract, Jean Jacques Rousseau ( %20social%20contract.pdf) 11. To Rousseau, what is the fundamental question that he seeks to address in The Social Contract? Reword and analyze this question. 12. According to Rousseau, what is the social contract and what are the social contract s benefits to society? Explain thoroughly. 13. What is Rousseau s overall thinking on the concept of representative democracy vs. direct democracy? Explain in detail.

4 Common Sense, Thomas Paine ( 14. Before reading Paine, read the introduction in the book and discuss the historical context of Common Sense. When did he write this and why? What was his purpose? 15. How does Paine view the role and importance of government in general? Be specific. 16. What are Paine s views on the monarchy, both in general and that of England? Use supporting details from Common Sense. 17. What arguments does Paine use to support the notion that the American colonies would be better off as an independent nation?

5 PART 2: THE US CONSTITUTION Available at: or Directions: Read the US Constitution and complete the following questions directly on this handout. We will discuss this the second day of class and you will be responsible for this information on the first test. 2A - THE OVERALL STRUCTURE OF THE CONSTITUTION 1. Read each article of the Constitution. Summarize the general purpose or subject of each article in one or two sentences in the chart below. Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Article VII 2. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for members of the House? 3. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for members of the Senate? 4. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for the President? 5. What is the term of House member? What is the term of a Senator? What is the term of the President? How long may someone serve as President? 6. Who fills a vacant seat in the House?

6 7. How many Senators does each state have? How many House members does each state have? 8. Who is the leader of the House? President of the Senate? 9. Who determines the pay of Congress? Who determines the pay of the President? 10. Any bill raising revenue must begin in which house? 11. Who follows the President and Vice President in succession? 12. Who has the power to admit new states? 13. The powers of the Constitution that are specifically granted to the branches of government or to officeholders are called express powers. a. Identify two express powers of the president. b. What are the express powers of the vice president? c. Identify two express powers of Congress. 14. According to the principle of checks and balances, each branch of the government must have control over the other branches. Look at the first three articles of the Constitution and identify one of each type of checks and balances. Indicate where each power is listed in the Constitution. a. A power that the executive branch has over the legislative branch: This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution b. A power that the executive branch holds over the judicial branch. This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution c. A power that the legislative branch holds over the executive branch. This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution

7 d. A power that the legislative branch holds over the judicial branch. This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution e. A power that the judicial branch holds over the executive branch. This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution f. A power that the judicial branch holds over the legislative branch. This can be found in what article/section of the Constitution 15. According to Article I of the Constitution, who has the power to declare war? 16. What power does the Constitution give the President in the area of war? 2B CONSITUTIONAL MAJORITY AND SUPERMAJORITY The Constitution requires a simple majority for some actions and a supermajority for others. A simple majority means more than half, while supermajority requirements can involve a 2/3 majority or a ¾ majority. Most elections in the United States require a plurality, or the most votes, but not necessarily a majority. 1. a. What bodies have the power to override a presidential veto? b. What margin is required to override a presidential veto? c. Where in the Constitution is the veto power described? 2. a. What body has the power to ratify treaties? b. What margin is required to ratify treaties? c. Where in the Constitution is the ratification power described? 3. To impeach means to bring charges against or to indict. a. What body has the power to impeach the president? b. Where in the Constitution is the impeachment power described? 4. a. What body has the power to convict the president of charges brought against him in the impeachment process and thereby remove him from the presidency? b. What margin is required to convict and remove a president? c. Where in the Constitution is the impeachment power described?

8 5. a. What body has the power to accept or reject a president s nominations to the Supreme Court? b. What margins is required to elevate a president s nominee to a seat on the Court? c. Where in the Constitution are judicial nominations described? d. How long does a Supreme Court justice serve? 6. a. If no candidate for the presidency wins a simple majority of the total number of electoral votes, what body has the power to choose the president? b. What margin is required to choose the president? c. Where in the Constitution is the Electoral College described? (Hint: there are two parts) 7. The Constitution specifies a three-fourths majority for just one process. What? 8. See Article VI. Explain the supremacy clause in your own words. 9. What are two ways that amendments to the Constitution can be proposed? 10. What are two ways that amendments to the Constitution can be ratified? 11. How many states had to ratify the Constitution for it to go into effect? 2C - THE AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION The first ten amendments to the Constitution, the Bill of Rights protect citizens from the will of the majority. In other words, no majority could vote to take these rights away. Read each amendment to the Constitution and answer the questions below. 1. Outline the general purpose of the first 10 Amendments. Amendment 1 Amendment 2 Amendment 3 Amendment 4 Amendment 5

9 Amendment 6 Amendment 7 Amendment 8 Amendment 9 Amendment Which amendment(s) of the Constitution protect the rights of women? 12. Summarize what this amendment(s) of the Constitution says 13. Which amendments (s) of the Constitution protect the rights of African Americans? 14. How were US Senators chosen before the Seventeenth Amendment? 15. The Twenty-Fifth Amendment describes the sequence of events that would install the vice president as acting president against the will of the president. Outline that sequence of events.

10 PART 3: SUPREME COURT CASES Summary & Decision Significance Marbury v. Madison (1803) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) Engel v. Vitale (1962) Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) Reynolds v. United States (1879) Oregon v. Smith (1990)

11 Schenck v. United States (1919) New York Times v. Sullivan (1964) Roth v. United States (1951) Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District (1969) Texas v. Johnson (1989) Barron v. Baltimore (1833) Gitlow v. New York (1925) Weeks v. United States (1914)

12 Mapp v. Ohio (1961) Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) Miranda v. Arizona (1966) Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857) Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954) Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978) Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)

13 Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) Roe v. Wade (1973) Baker v. Carr (1962) Wesberry v. Sanders (1963) Korematsu v. United States (1944) United States v. Nixon (1974) Buckley v. Valeo (1976)

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