AP U.S. Government and Politics/Economics AP U.S. Government Summer Assignment Mr. Vasquez

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1 AP U.S. Government and Politics/Economics AP U.S. Government Summer Assignment Mr. Vasquez THE U.S. CONSTITUTION STUDY GUIDE Available at: (You can use other RELIABLE resources, but DO NOT use WIKIPEDIA) Welcome to AP U.S. Government and Politics. This will be the first year this AP course will go through the redesign curriculum set by College Board. DIRECTIONS: Read the U.S. Constitution and complete the following questions in complete sentences. You are required to get a 2- inch BINDER for this course. Make sure to write all your responses and include it in your binder. Please organize your binder according to the following: (1) DO NOWS, (2) VOCABULARY, (3) NOTES, (4) CLASSWORK/HOMEWORK, and (5) SUPPLEMENTAL READINGS. Your summer assignment should be under NOTES. The summer assignment SHOULD BE TYPED and PRINTED. This is DUE on Friday, August 10, I will check and grade your binder. Make sure it is organized according to the five sections mentioned above. You will also take an EXAM on the following sections of this summer assignment: 1. SEVEN ARTICLES OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION Under Part II 2. CERTAIN CLAUSES AND CONCEPTS/VOCABULARY THAT THE U.S. GOVERNMENT FOLLOWS Under Part III AND IV 3. ALL TWENTY- SEVEN (27) AMENDMENTS of the U.S. Constitution Under Part V 4. FIFTEEN (15) U.S. SUPREME COURT CASES Under Part VI The exam will take place during the first days of school (August 10, 2018). Make sure to read, understand, and analyze ALL sections of the U.S. Constitution, legal concepts, vocabulary, and court cases. This will serve as a brief introduction for the AP course. The AP U.S. Government and Politics exam will be administered on Monday, May 6 th, I believe every student has a chance to pass the AP U.S. Government exam, but it will take commitment, self- discipline, and hard work throughout your senior year. The AP U.S. Government and Politics class heavily focuses on American historical foundations, vocabulary, analysis of current events, application and analysis of major concepts and political themes, and debate on significant and political issues that affect many Americans. Also, there will be POP QUIZZES when I see it is necessary that students demonstrate mastery of the content. Make sure to follow academic honesty protocol. If there is evidence of academic dishonesty, you will receive an automatic 0 (ZERO) on your summer assignment, will be part of the Ethics Committee, get a parent call about this DISHONEST matter, AND will also receive a 0 (ZERO) on your first exam that is related to your summer assignment. So don t even try. If you have any questions, please ask me before summer break and you can contact me at or stop by my classroom. Please ask questions. I m here to help you succeed and prepare for this AP course. See you on August 8, Good luck and enjoy your summer break! 1

2 PART I: U.S. HISTORY 1. Describe the purpose and effects of the American Revolution and the Declaration of Independence. 2. Explain the main ideals that influenced the Framers (Founding Fathers) to declare independence from the British. 3. Explain the ideals of the New Jersey Plan and Virginia Plan. 4. Explain the Connecticut Compromise (Great Compromise). What was established under this compromise? 5. Define limited government. Why is it significant in the United States government? 6. Describe the purpose and effects of the Enlightenment Period. 7. Define laissez faire. Who coined the term of laissez faire? Compare and contrast communism and capitalism. 8. Identify the characteristics of the Federalists and Anti- Federalists. What are the differences between these groups during the beginnings of this country? 9. What were the main reasons that led to the failure of the Articles of Confederation? 10. Compare the Articles of Confederation and U.S. Constitution regarding the role of the national/federal government. 11. Explain the Monroe Doctrine. Why was it significant? 12. Describe the purpose of Manifest Destiny. 13. Explain what was the Three- Fifths Compromise. 14. Describe the effects of the Louisiana Purchase. Why was it significant? 15. Describe the Missouri Compromise. Why was it significant? 16. Explain the impact and effects of the Mexican- American War. 17. Explain the purpose and effects of the U.S. Civil War. 18. Describe the significance and impact of the Emancipation Proclamation. 19. Explain the purpose of Reconstruction after the U.S. Civil War. 20. Describe the role of the Radical Republicans before, during, and after the U.S. Civil War. 21. Explain the effects of the Industrial Revolution. Identify THREE inventions that were contributed to the Industrial Revolution. 2

3 22. Define political machine. Explain the legacy and effects of Boss Tweed and Tammany Hall. 23. Explain the causes and effects of the Spanish- American War. 24. Describe the Roosevelt Corollary. Why was it significant? 25. Explain the purpose and effects of the Open Door Policy. 26. Define suffrage. Identify and describe the amendment of the U.S. Constitution that expanded women s suffrage. 27. Describe the Gilded Age. What were the effects during this time period? 28. Describe the main reasons that led the U.S. to go through the Great Depression. 29. Explain the effects of the Great Depression towards the American people and the role of the national/federal government. 30. Describe the contributions and controversies of the presidency of Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR). Describe the purpose of Roosevelt s New Deal social programs. 31. Identify and describe FIVE New Deal programs that were created during the Great Depression. 32. Describe the Truman Doctrine. Why was it significant? 33. Describe the containment policy. Why did the U.S. government pursuit this policy? 34. Describe the causes and effects of U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War. 35. Describe the purpose and effects of the U.S. Civil Rights Movement. 36. Describe the Watergate Scandal. Why was this significant towards ending the presidency of Richard M. Nixon and the role of media? 37. How did the Watergate Scandal affect public opinion towards Nixon? 38. Define the domino theory. Why was it significant during the Cold War? 39. Describe the causes and effects of the Korean War. 40. Describe the Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis. 41. Compare and contrast NATO and the Warsaw Pact. 42. Define Reaganomics (also known as trickle- down economics and supply- side economics). Why was it significant during the 1980 s? 43. Explain the main reasons that led to the collapse of the Soviet Union (USSR). 3

4 44. Explain the effects of the 9/11 terrorist attacks towards U.S. foreign policy. PART II: THE OVERALL STRUCTURE OF THE U.S. CONSTITUTION 1.Read each article of the Constitution. Summarize the general purpose or subject of each article in 2 sentences. Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Article VII 2.Compare Article I with Article II. Which article is longer and more detailed? 3.Identify two powers denied from Congress in the Constitution. 4.How does the House of Representatives determine the rules of proceedings (the ability to have debates, amendments, etc.) 5. Identify two powers the Constitution prohibits from the States. 6. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for members of the House? 7. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for members of the Senate? 8. What eligibility requirements does the Constitution establish for the President? 9. Define enumerated powers (also known as expressed powers, delegated powers, or formal powers). 10. Define implied powers. Why are they significant? 11. Define inherent powers. Why are they significant for the U.S. President? 12.The powers of the Constitution that are specifically granted to the branches of government or to office holders are called expressed powers. a. Identify two expressed powers of the president. b. What are the expressed powers of the vice president? c. Identify two expressed powers of Congress. 13. According to the principle of checks and balances, each branch of the government must have control over the other branches. Look at the first three articles of the Constitution and identify one of each type of 4

5 checks and balances. Indicate where each power is listed in the Constitution. a. A power that the executive branch has over the legislative branch: b. A power that the executive branch holds over the judicial branch: c. A power that the legislative branch holds over the executive branch: d. A power that the legislative branch holds over the judicial branch: e. A power that the judicial branch holds over the executive branch: f. A power that the judicial branch holds over the legislative branch: 14. According to Article I of the U.S. Constitution, who has the power to declare war? Why is this significant? 15.What power does the U.S. Constitution give the President in the area of war? Describe the significance of this power. PART III: IMPORTANT CLAUSES AND LEGAL CONCEPTS 1. Describe the Commerce Clause under Gibbons v. Ogden. 2. Define the Necessary and proper clause (also known as the Elastic clause ). How does this clause affect the U.S. Congress? 3. Describe the Supremacy clause under McCulloch v. Maryland. 4. How might these clauses above have impacted the power of the federal government? 5. Define habeas corpus. Why is it significant? 6. Compare the full faith and credit clause AND privileges and immunities. Why are they significant? 7. Define the full faith and credit clause. Why is it significant? 8. Describe the due process clause of the 14 th Amendment? Why is this clause important for every American? 9. Describe the equal protection clause of the 14 th Amendment? Why is this clause important for every American? 10. Describe the Reserved Powers Clause? Why is it significant for the states in the U.S.? 5

6 11. Define civil liberties and civil rights. What is the difference between these two concepts? 12. Define the establishment clause and the free exercise clause that are included in the First Amendment. Why are they significant? PART IV: VOCABULARY 1. Explain the role of the Electoral College. Describe one reason that the framers chose to use the Electoral College as the method to elect the president. How does the Electoral College work? How many electoral votes does a candidate need to gain to win the U.S. Presidency? Explain why California, Texas, and New York do not appear prominently in the election campaign for the U.S. presidency. 2. Define the winner- take- all system. Describe the effects of this concept towards party representation in the U.S. 3. Define separation of powers. Why is it significant? 4. Define checks and balances. Why is it significant? 5. Describe the major characteristics of what makes a liberal and conservative. 6. Explain the role of political parties and interest groups in U.S. government and politics. Identify TWO activities that political parties do to win elections. Why are they significant? 7. Define linkage institutions. Identify the FOUR linkage institutions that form help people link their participation to U.S. government and politics. 8. Describe the role of the federal bureaucracy. 9. Define federalism. Describe the purpose of the Federalist Papers and Anti- Federalist Papers and their view of the government. Why are these concepts and documents significant to understand U.S. government and politics? 10. Compare categorical grants and block grants. 11. Define divided government. Explain ONE effect of divided government in the policymaking process. 12. Describe the purpose of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and Voting Rights Act of Describe the role of the courts in the policy process. 14. Describe the role of the media in the policy process. 15. Identify the primary role of Congress in the policy process. 16. Compare Political Action Committees (PACs) and Super PACS. Why are they significant? 17. Define incumbent. Why do incumbents have an advantage over first time challengers when running for political office? 6

7 18. Describe the purpose of the filibuster in the U.S. Senate. How can a filibuster be formally ended? 19. Compare discretionary spending and entitlement spending. 20. Describe SIX (6) constitutional amendments that expanded suffrage rights. 21. Compare judicial activism and judicial restraint. 22. Compare Plessy v. Ferguson and Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas. 23. Compare fiscal policy and monetary policy. 24. Compare Gibbons v. Ogden and U.S. v. Lopez. 25. Define devolution. Why is it significant for states? Part V: THE AMENDMENTS TO THE CONSTITUTION Some parts of the Constitution require a simple majority, others a supermajority, while still others protect citizens from the will of the majority. The first ten amendments to the Constitution, known as the U.S. Bill of Rights, protect citizens from the will of the majority. In other words, no majority could vote to take these rights away. Read each amendment to the Constitution and answer the questions below. 1. Outline the general purpose of all 27 Amendments. Amendment 1 Amendment 2 Amendment 3 Amendment 4 Amendment 5 Amendment 6 Amendment 7 Amendment 8 Amendment 9 Amendment 10 Amendment 11 Amendment 12 Amendment 13 Amendment 14 Amendment 15 Amendment 16 Amendment 17 Amendment 18 Amendment 19 Amendment 20 Amendment 21 Amendment 22 Amendment 23 Amendment 24 7

8 Amendment 25 Amendment 26 Amendment Which amendment(s) of the U.S. Constitution protect the rights of women? Why is it important? 3. Which amendment (s) of the U.S. Constitution protect the rights of African Americans? Why is it important? 4. How were U.S. Senators chosen before the Seventeenth Amendment? 5. The Twenty- Fifth Amendment describes the sequence of events that would install the vice president as acting president against the will of the president. List the succession line to become U.S. president. PART VI: LANDMARK U.S. SUPREME COURT CASES These FIFTEEN (15) U.S. Supreme Court cases are considered to be one of the most important and will be referenced in the new redesigned AP U.S. Government and Politics curriculum and exam. For each U.S. Supreme Court case, you are required to do the following: 1.) Students should know the major details of each case 2.) Briefly describe the holding in the majority opinion 3.) Identify and describe the constitutional principle used by the justices to support their finding 4.) Explain the overview of the argument(s) by dissenting justices (if applicable). 1. Marbury v. Madison (1803) 2. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) 3. Schenck v. United States (1919) 4. Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas (1954) 5. Baker v. Carr (1961) 6. Engel v. Vitale (1962) 7. Gideon v. Wainwright (1963) 8. Tinker v. Des Moines Independent Community School District (1969) 9. New York Times Co. v. United States (1971) 10. Wisconsin v. Yoder (1972) 11. Roe v. Wade (1973) 12. Shaw v. Reno (1993) 13. U.S. v. Lopez (1995) 14. McDonald v. Chicago (2010) 15. Citizens United v. FEC (2010) 8

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