Chapter 8 The Presidency - Section 1 SSCG12&13 Duties of the President President s Term Salary and Benefits

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1 The Presidency Chapter 8 The Presidency - Section 1 SSCG12&13 Duties of the President The constitutional duties of the nation s first president,, and those of a modern president are much the same. However, presidents today have enormous power and responsibility. 1) Commander in chief of armed forces 2) Appoints (with consent) heads of executive departments, federal court judges and other top officials 3) Makes treaties with the advice and consent of the Senate 4) Meets with heads of state 5) Hosts foreign officials 6) Appoints ambassadors to represent the United States in other countries 7) Ensures that all the laws of the United States are faithfully executed (a vast bureaucracy assists the president) 8) Pardons people convicted of federal crimes, except impeachment 9) Reduces a person s jail sentence or fine 10) Delivers an annual State of the Union Address to Congress 11) Leadership role in proposing policy changes President s Term Originally, the Constitution did not specify how many four-year terms a president could serve. George Washington set a long held precedent when he served eight years and refused to run for a third term. In 1940 and 1944, broke this tradition when he ran and was elected for a third and fourth term. In 1951, Congress proposed and the states ratified the as a reaction to Roosevelt s four terms and concern over too much executive power. This amendment secured the traditional presidential limitation of two terms, while allowing a vice president who takes over the presidency and serves two years or less of the former president s term to serve two additional terms. Thus it is possible for a president to serve up to years. Salary and Benefits Salary - annually Nontaxable travel allowance - annually cannot increase or decrease a the salary during a president s term, other planes, helicopters and limousines are made available Free medical, dental and health care Live in the, a 132-room mansion with a swimming pool, bowling alley, private movie theater and tennis courts Large White House domestic staff Pays all expenses of operating the White House that relate to government business Lifetime pension of annually when they retire Free office space, free mailing service (franking privilege) and annually for office help After the death of the president, the spouse is eligible for a pension of annually Presidential Qualifications

2 Constitutional Requirements 1) 2) 3) These requirements are found in of the Constitution. The same requirements apply to the vice president. Why? Informal requirements in government (provides the opportunity to form political alliances and gain name recognition) (candidates must have the ability to raise money to pay for very costly campaigns) (both parties tend to choose people with moderate party views to appeal to a wide variety of people) Personal Characteristics of Past Presidents Northern European family backgrounds (some exceptions) White (Obama is exception) Married Protestant (exception Catholic) RECAP: Why do you think the personal qualifications for the presidency are more demanding than the Constitutional qualifications? What qualifications do you think are most necessary for carrying out the duties of the office of the president?

3 Presidential Succession presidents have died in office (four were assassinated and four died of natural causes) After assassination in 1963, the country realized that the rules for presidential succession established by the Constitution were inadequate. The ratified in 1967 established the order of succession to the presidency and spelled out what happened when the vice presidency becomes vacant. This amendment was first applied in after Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned and was replaced by Gerald Ford. Less than a year later, Nixon resigned and Ford became president and nominated Nelson Rockefeller as vice president. This has been the only time in our nation s history that neither the president nor the vice president were elected. Presidential Succession pg 217 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) 12) 13) 14) 15) 16) 17) 18) Presidential Disability The Amendment sets forth a series of rules to be followed when a president is disabled. The amendment provides that the vice president becomes acting president under one of the following two conditions: 1) if the president informs of his or her inability to perform the duties of the office 2) if the vice president and a majority of the or another body authorized by law informs Congress that the president is unable to perform the duties of the office The provisions of this amendment allow the president to resume the powers and duties of president at any time by simply notifying that the disability no longer exists. If the vice president, a majority of the cabinet or other authorized body disagrees with this assessment, Congress has to settle the dispute within days. Unless the Congress decides in favor of the vice president by a 2/3 s vote in each house, the president may resume office.

4 The Vice President The Role of the Vice President The Constitution gives the vice president only two duties. 1) The vice president presides over the and votes in that body in case of a tie. 2) The vice president helps decide if the is disabled and acts as president should that occur. vice presidents have become president. Nine of these have succeeded to the office upon the death or resignation of the president. Modern Responsibilities A vice president s work and power depend upon what responsibilities, if any, the assigns. The presidents before usually ignored their vice presidents. Since Eisenhower, presidents have tried to give their vice presidents more responsibility. Participate in discussions Special assignments such as making to defend the president s policies activities such as representing the president overseas Member of the

5 Chapter 8 The Presidency - Section 2 Electing the President Historical Background Initially, the Founders at the Constitutional Convention proposed that should choose the President without a popular or electoral vote. They gave up on this idea because it violated the principle of and would have allowed the Congress to dominate the presidency. They disregarded a vote because they believed that citizens did not know enough about the candidates to make a wise choice and that the most popular candidate might not make the best president. After weeks of debate, the Founders settled on a compromise introduced by. This compromise set up an indirect method of election called the. (Article II, Section I) The Electoral College The Original System Each state would choose by a method set up by state legislatures. Each would have as many electors as it had senators and representatives in Congress. At election time, the electors would meet in their own and cast votes for two presidential candidates. There was no vote. All electoral votes would be counted by a joint session of. The candidate receiving the most votes would become and the one with the second most votes would become. In the event of a tie or if no candidates received a majority, the would choose both offices, with each state getting one vote only. Impact of Political Parties was the unanimous choice of the Electoral College to be the president in 1789 and After his retirement, began to have an unexpected and profound impact on the Electoral College. By 1800, two parties had nominated two candidates for president and vice president and electors from each state. It was understood that if they were chosen that these electors would vote for the party s candidates. The election of ended with a tie in the electoral votes which had to be decided by the House. In 1804, the was added to the Constitution which provided that the president and vice president be elected on ballots. If no candidate receives a majority, the chooses from the three candidates who have the most electoral votes. If no candidate receives a majority for vice president, the chooses from the top two candidates. In the states began to put candidate s names on the ballot and political parties have chosen electors by popular vote. have also changed their method of nominating presidential candidates to give the people more of a vote.

6 The Electoral College System Today Parties choose their nominees for president in held late in the summer. Voters cast their ballot for president every four years on the Tuesday after the first Monday during the month of. Although the candidate s name is printed on the ballot, voters are actually casting their votes for their party s state. In (Monday following the second Wednesday in state capitals), the electors cast the official vote for president and vice president. The ballots are mailed to the president of the to be counted later. The Electoral College included electors a number determined by the total of House and Senate members plus three for the. To be president or vice president, a candidate must win at least of the 538 electoral votes. The Electoral College is a system with the exception of and. the electoral vote is counted by both houses of Congress in the House of Representatives. Congress then officially declares a winner. Most states do not require electors to vote for the candidate who wins the popular vote, but most do. Only electors have broken this custom. The Electoral Map 1) 2) 3) 4) Weaknesses of the Electoral College System Winner Take All System (In the elections of 1824 John Quincy Adams, 1876 Rutherford B. Hayes, 1888 Benjamin Harrison and 2000 George W. Bush.) Third-Party Candidates Election by the (Each state gets one vote and the candidate who gets 26 votes wins) There are : 1) small states have equal. 2) if a majority of representatives cannot agree on a candidate 3) if some representatives favor a. it could be difficult for any to get 26 votes

7 Ideas for Reform 1. Choose electors from each state would have two electoral votes plus one from each congressional district. The candidate who received the most votes would get the vote from the congressional district and the candidate who won most districts would get the. 2. The candidate would win the same as they won the popular vote. (third parties could force the election to be decided by the House if they got too many electoral votes) 3. Do away with the completely and let the people vote for the president and vice president directly. (this may undermine by taking away the states role in choosing a president and would only focus on high areas) The Inauguration The new president is called the president-elect until the inauguration which takes place at noon on in the year following the election. The Constitution requires the president to take a. The president-elect rides with the outgoing president from the White House to the Capitol for the. The chief justice administers the oath and the. The Cabinet One of the president s first duties is to Today, the president appoints the secretaries that head the 15. The 15, the vice president and several other top officials make up the president s. Major Factors in Appointments A major consideration is that the appointee have a with the department he or she will lead. Another consideration is.(ex: Secretary of Ag is typically from a farm state, Sec of HUD is from a big city.) Acceptability to is also important. (Secretary of Labor must be acceptable to labor groups) in the role they are assuming is also important, along with race and. As have gained political power, presidents have considered.

8 became the first African-American department leader when Lyndon Johnson appointed him as the head of HUD. FDR appointed the first woman to the cabinet with Secretary of Labor. The Role of the Cabinet The cabinet is intended to serve as an. The cabinet meets when the. Recent presidents have used their cabinets as more of a sounding board for ideas rather than the. The Executive Office The consists of individuals and agencies that directly assist the president. Today s EOP consists of the and several specialized agencies that all report directly to the. The (OMB) is the largest agency in the EOP. The OMB prepares the that the president proposes to Congress each year. The White House Office The has become one of the most important parts of the EOP. These become the inner circle around the president. Positions include the president s, White House l, and press. Key aides to the president decide. Presidential Powers Many are not listed in the Constitution. The presidency is defined not just by the Constitution, but the personal energy and influence of the individual and the of the people have shaped the presidency into its modern form. Roles of the President Head of Chief Chief Legislator Economic

9 Party Chief Commander in Chief The president has broad powers to manage and the workings of the federal. The president can issue rules,, and instructions called, which have the binding force of law upon federal agencies but do not require. The president may also negotiate with foreign countries that are not subject to. Head of State The president represents the. As the nation s chief, he hosts visiting kings, queens and other heads of government. The president is both. In most countries, these two roles are held by. Chief Executive As chief executive, the president sees that the laws passed by. The employs more than two million people to enforce the laws and programs passed by. Chief Legislator Congress expects the to propose it wishes to see enacted. The president describes his in the annual State of the Union address. The president can use or his veto power as. Economic Planner The Employment Act of 1946 expanded the president s role as economic planner by 1) requiring the president to submit an c report to Congress 2) creating a Council of Economic 3) requiring the government to promote the of the country 4) requiring the president to prepare an annual

10 Party Leader The president is expected to be the. He may give speeches or attend to help raise money for the party. The president also selects the party s national chairperson and help plan the party s future. Presidents are expected to appoint to available jobs. (patronage) Chief Diplomat The president directs the of the United States, making key decisions about the relations the United States has with. The president shares powers with. The has an advantage because it has more access to information than Congress. Commander in Chief The Constitution makes the president the of the armed forces. The president shares with the Congress the. Although other military leaders run the military on a, the president is responsible for key. The president may also use the military to control in the nation.

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