Chapter 7. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 7. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy"

Transcription

1 Chapter 7 The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy

2 Problem 7 Why are modern societies characterized by social, political, and economic inequalities?

3 Questions 7-1 How do societies rank people in social hierarchies? 7-2 Why do social and economic inequalities exist? 7-3 How do people come to accept social hierarchies as natural? 7-4 How do people living in poverty adapt to their condition? 7-5 Can a non-stratified community exist within a larger hierarchal society?

4 Inequality There are few, if any, modern nations in which one portion of the population does not in some way enjoy privileges that other portions do not share. In the U.S., in 2006, the poorest 20% of the population earned 3.4% of the total income, whereas the richest 5% earned 22.3%.

5 Question 1: How do societies rank people in social hierarchies? Social classes: a system of social stratification based on income or possession of wealth and resources. Individual social mobility is possible in a class system. Castes: a system of social stratification based on assignment at birth to the ranked social or occupational groups of parents. There is no mobility from one caste to another, and intermarriage may be forbidden

6 American Social Hierarchies In American society people are stratified by income and personal possessions into social classes. They are classified by cultural or family background into ethnic groups or by skin color into racial categories. They are also classified by gender and age, as well as by standards such as education.

7 Caste System In a caste system, individuals are assigned at birth to the ranked social and occupational groups of their parents. A person s place in the social order is fixed; there is no mobility between castes. Castes are separated by rules that forbid intermarriage, eating together, speaking to each other and working together.

8 Youth and Class Excluded from local economies Neo-liberalism has cut off state aid Marginalized in society Crisis of masculinity Autonomy and own space

9 Youth and Class The dilemma of youth as a marginalized social category is also evident in the obsession with social structures that they create. These are particularly evident in the American high school. -Jocks -Nerds -Geeks -Cheerleaders -Punks

10 Question 2: Why do social and economic inequalities persist? There is a basic contradiction in Western values: We praise equality, but massive inequalities persist and, in fact, grow nationally and internationally.

11 Debt and the Redistribution of Wealth We can divide people into two economic categories: Net Debtors Net Creditors

12 Devaluing Labor Stratification arises when one group seeks to exploit the resources or labor of others. Means of production: the materials, such as land, machines, or tools, that people need to produce things Surplus value of labor: suggested by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels for the portion of a person s labor that is retained as profit by those who control the means of production

13 Outsourcing The movement of industry and jobs from richer countries to poorer countries Outsourcing has contributed to the decline in wages and the destruction of labor unions

14 Constructing a New Racism New racism is racism based on culture instead of biological characteristics. Modern forms of racism are a 17 th and 18 th century phenomenon created to justify European economic expansion, slavery, and the killing and subjugation of millions of people.

15 Constructing the Ideology of Racism Ideology of class: set of beliefs characteristic of stratified societies that justifies the division of a society into groups with differential rights and privileges as being natural and right

16 Constructing Race In the 1800s, Samuel George Morton collected and measured thousands of skulls to try to prove that whites were the naturally superior race. He believed he proved that white skulls (and therefore brains) were larger than those of other races, meaning that whites are naturally more intelligent.

17 Constructing Race His findings were disproved in 1977 by Stephen Jay Gould, who shows that Morton s finding were skewed and incorrect.

18 Constructing Intelligence The concept of intelligence neatly solves the problem of the presumed equality of opportunity in America. People accept the idea that intelligence explains how well people do in life. Thus, people s rank in society depends solely on their own natural ability. Moreover, if intelligence is inherited, then we can explain why the children of successful people tend to be successful and why certain groups are disproportionately poor.

19 Constructing Intelligence

20 Constructing Stratification by Gender The belief that the superiority of men over women was not socially constructed but natural. Many people believed that women s bodies defined both their social position and their role, which was to reproduce, as men s bodies dictated that they manage, control, and defend.

21 Constructing Gender There is still a belief, found in language, that men are naturally superior to women. Even the language of science contributes to this misconception.

22 Constructing Gender Our language still depicts the female body as a machine. Menstruation and menopause are viewed negatively. Menstruation: failure to reproduce Menopause: the body is no longer able to fulfill its proper goal

23 Question 4: How do people living in poverty adopt to their condition? Anthropologist Oscar Lewis coined the term culture of poverty to describe the worldview of people who inhabit urban and rural slums. Some anthropologists maintain that the behavior of people in poverty represents their adaptations to their socioeconomic condition. These conditions are the result of inequality, reinforced by racism and an economic system that requires cheap labor.

24 Reciprocity and Kinship In the late 1960s, anthropologist Carol B. Stack conducted studies of how families cope with poverty. She worked with a predominantly black community she called The Flats, in a Midwestern city of 55,000. Unemployment was over 20% and 63% of the jobs were in low-paying occupations such as maids, cooks, and janitors. Only 10% of whites lived in housing classed as deteriorating, compared with 26% of blacks.

25 Reciprocity and Kinship Stack discovered that the residents fostered kinship ties and created fictive kinship links to form cooperative groups that would ensure economic and social support in times of need. People regularly swapped food, shelter, child care, and personal possessions. Anthropologists call this type of sharing generalized reciprocity.

26 Reciprocity and Kinship The advantage of generalized reciprocity is that widespread sharing ensures that nobody lacks the basic needs for survival. In balanced reciprocity, items are exchanged on the spot. Negative reciprocity is an attempt to get something for nothing or make a profit.

27 Culture of Poverty Anthropologists have found that people living in poverty find ways to adapt to their circumstances. The Flats - El Barrio - Shantytowns They do not passively accept their position at the bottom of a stratified society. They have the same social and economic aspirations as those who have greater income and opportunity.

28 Crack in El Barrio Selling crack enables some members of El Barrio to amass both wealth and prestige. (?) In this environment of little economic opportunity, drugs play economic, psychological, and social functions. Women in El Barrio face their own special problems. They must be able to balance the demands of the two state agencies that dominate their lives the penal system and the welfare system.

29 Poverty

30 Question 5: Can a nonstratified community exist within a hierarchical society? For thousands of years, groups in stratified societies attempted to create utopian social settings. Anthropologist Charles Erasmus examined hundreds of utopian communities in an effort to discover why most failed but some succeeded. He found that the main problem was trying to motivate members to contribute to the common good without the promise of individual rewards.

31 The Hutterites The Hutterites originated during the Protestant Reformation. In 1528 they began to establish colonies throughout what Germany, Austria, and Russia. Their pacifism brought them into conflict with European governments, and in 1872, to avoid conscription, they immigrated to South Dakota.

32 The Hutterites During World War I, a confrontation over military conscription with state and federal authorities in the United States resulted in a Hutterite move to Canada. Their successful agricultural techniques were valued in the United States during the Great Depression and state governments persuaded them to return to the United States. In the early 1970s, there were more than 37,000 Hutterites distributed among 360 colonies in the United States and more than 9,000 in 246 colonies in Canada.

33 The Hutterites The Hutterites reject competition, violence, and war and believe that property is to be used and not possessed. They respect the need for government, but do not believe they should involve themselves in it or hold public office. It is a family-based, agricultural community in which everyone is expected to contribute to the work and share equally in the bounty.

34 The Hutterites Members do not participate in decision-making until they are married. Women are considered intellectually and physically inferior to men. Hutterites renounce private adornment and ostentatious displays of wealth and practice collective consumption.

35 The Hutterites The Hutterites, by a collective effort, have created within the larger society a community without poverty, without economic classes, with little or no crime, where each person, without the promise of material reward, contributes to the common good.

36 Hutterites of North Dakota

37

38 Glossary of Key Terms Balanced Reciprocity (p.285) A form of exchange in which items of equal or nearequal value are exchanged on the spot. Culture of Poverty (p. 284) A phrase coined by Oscar Lewis to describe the lifestyle and worldview of people who inhabit urban and rural slums. Generalized Reciprocity (p. 285) A form of exchange in which persons share what they have with others but expect them to reciprocate later. Gini Coefficient (p. 256) A measure of variability, developed by Italian statistician and demographer Corrado Gini, used to measure income distribution. Means of Production (p. 267) The materials, such as land, machines, or tools, that people need to produce things. Negative Reciprocity (p. 285) A form of exchange in which the object is to get something for nothing or to make a profit.

39 Outsourcing (p. 268) The process whereby corporations and businesses move all or some of their operations from rich countries to poorer ones to reduce their labor costs and escape environmental and labor laws. Racism (p. 270) A set of beliefs, behaviors, and symbolic representations that turn perceived or constructed differences among people thought to be indelible into inequality. Social Classes (p. 261) A system of social stratification based on income or possession of wealth and resources. Individual social mobility is possible in a class system. Structural Violence (p. 299) The actions or policies of governments or multilateral organizations that result in denial to the poor of basic rights of food, shelter, or livelihood. Surplus Value of Labor (p. 267) The term suggested by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels for the portion of a person s labor that is retained as profit by those who control the means of production.

Chapter 7 5/7/09. Problem 7. Social Inequality. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy

Chapter 7 5/7/09. Problem 7. Social Inequality. The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy Chapter 7 The Cultural Construction of Social Hierarchy Problem 7 Why are modern societies characterized by social, political, and economic inequalities? Social Inequality The worth of the 358 richest

More information

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Class 14 Social and economic hierarchies Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 Inequality We live in an unequal society,

Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Class 14 Social and economic hierarchies Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 Inequality We live in an unequal society, Introduction to Cultural Anthropology: Class 14 Social and economic hierarchies Copyright Bruce Owen 2011 Inequality We live in an unequal society, stratified by wealth a few people get a lot of the total

More information

Chapter 10. Resource Markets and the Distribution of Income. Copyright 2011 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

Chapter 10. Resource Markets and the Distribution of Income. Copyright 2011 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 10 Resource Markets and the Distribution of Income Resource markets differ from markets for consumer goods in several key ways First, the demand for resources comes from firms producing goods and

More information

1.Myths and images about families influence our expectations and assumptions about family life. T or F

1.Myths and images about families influence our expectations and assumptions about family life. T or F Soc of Family Midterm Spring 2016 1.Myths and images about families influence our expectations and assumptions about family life. T or F 2.Of all the images of family, the image of family as encumbrance

More information

Why study Social Stratification?

Why study Social Stratification? Chapter 7: What is Social Stratification? Social stratification a system in which groups of people are divided into layers according to their relative power, property, and prestige. Every society stratifies

More information

Edexcel (A) Economics A-level

Edexcel (A) Economics A-level Edexcel (A) Economics A-level Theme 4: A Global Perspective 4.2 Poverty and Inequality 4.2.2 Inequality Notes Distinction between wealth and income inequality Wealth is defined as a stock of assets, such

More information

19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY. Chapt er. Key Concepts. Economic Inequality in the United States

19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY. Chapt er. Key Concepts. Economic Inequality in the United States Chapt er 19 ECONOMIC INEQUALITY Key Concepts Economic Inequality in the United States Money income equals market income plus cash payments to households by the government. Market income equals wages, interest,

More information

Historical Study: European and World. Free at Last? Civil Rights in the USA

Historical Study: European and World. Free at Last? Civil Rights in the USA Historical Study: European and World Free at Last? Civil Rights in the USA 1918-1968 Throughout the 19 th century the USA had an open door policy towards immigration. Immigrants were welcome to make their

More information

MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES

MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES MARTIN LUTHER KING COALITION OF GREATER LOS ANGELES JOBS, JUSTICE AND PEACE MISSION STATEMENT "The Martin Luther King Coalition for Jobs, Justice and Peace is a broad coalition of individuals and community

More information

Defining poverty. Most people think of poverty in terms of deprivation lack of food, shelter, and clothing.

Defining poverty. Most people think of poverty in terms of deprivation lack of food, shelter, and clothing. Poverty and Wealth Outline for today Poverty and inequality Types of economic systems and views on poverty (capitalism, socialism, mixed economies) Poverty and environmental degradation Overconsumption

More information

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A.

SOCIAL STRATIFICATION. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. WHAT IS SOCIAL STRATIFICATION? Social Stratification a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. Based on 4 basic principles:

More information

Determinants of International Migration in Pakistan

Determinants of International Migration in Pakistan Determinants of International Migration in Pakistan Muhammad Farooq Associate Professor, Department of Sociology & Anthropology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi Shahnaz Tar q

More information

The Inequalities of. Wealth Distribution: its Economic and. Political Consequences. Dr David Rees

The Inequalities of. Wealth Distribution: its Economic and. Political Consequences. Dr David Rees The Inequalities of Wealth Distribution: its Economic and Political Consequences Dr David Rees Wealth Distribution Exercise Your opinion on wealth distribution is based on what you think is 'fair' or 'unfair'

More information

2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality

2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality Arab Development Challenges 2. Money Metric Poverty & Expenditure Inequality 1 Chapter Overview Kinds of poverty lines Low money metric poverty but high exposure to economic shock The enigma of inequality

More information

Poverty & Inequality. Poverty and Inequality. Seen Environmental Learning Information Sheet no 1. About poverty

Poverty & Inequality. Poverty and Inequality. Seen Environmental Learning Information Sheet no 1. About poverty Poverty and Inequality Poverty & Inequality Seen Environmental Learning Information Sheet no 1 About poverty Poverty has many aspects. Absolute poverty is defined according to an absolute minimum standard,

More information

Perspectives on the Americas

Perspectives on the Americas Perspectives on the Americas A Series of Opinion Pieces by Leading Commentators on the Region Trade is not a Development Strategy: Time to Change the U.S. Policy Focus by JOY OLSON Executive Director Washington

More information

HOW ECONOMIES GROW AND DEVELOP Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.)

HOW ECONOMIES GROW AND DEVELOP Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter 17 HOW ECONOMIES GROW AND DEVELOP Macroeconomics In Context (Goodwin, et al.) Chapter Overview This chapter presents material on economic growth, such as the theory behind it, how it is calculated,

More information

In tackling the problem of urban poverty, William Julius Wilson calls for a

In tackling the problem of urban poverty, William Julius Wilson calls for a Sandra Yu In tackling the problem of urban poverty, William Julius Wilson calls for a revitalization of the liberal perspective in the ghetto underclass debate. He claims that liberals dominated the discussions

More information

Book Discussion: Worlds Apart

Book Discussion: Worlds Apart Book Discussion: Worlds Apart The Carnegie Endowment for International Peace September 28, 2005 The following summary was prepared by Kate Vyborny Junior Fellow, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace

More information

CH 19. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

CH 19. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Class: Date: CH 19 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. In the United States, the poorest 20 percent of the household receive approximately

More information

Lesson 10 What Is Economic Justice?

Lesson 10 What Is Economic Justice? Lesson 10 What Is Economic Justice? The students play the Veil of Ignorance game to reveal how altering people s selfinterest transforms their vision of economic justice. OVERVIEW Economics Economics has

More information

How s Life in the United Kingdom?

How s Life in the United Kingdom? How s Life in the United Kingdom? November 2017 On average, the United Kingdom performs well across a number of well-being indicators relative to other OECD countries. At 74% in 2016, the employment rate

More information

In class, we have framed poverty in four different ways: poverty in terms of

In class, we have framed poverty in four different ways: poverty in terms of Sandra Yu In class, we have framed poverty in four different ways: poverty in terms of deviance, dependence, economic growth and capability, and political disenfranchisement. In this paper, I will focus

More information

Sociology Curriculum Maps

Sociology Curriculum Maps Sociology Curriculum Maps Unit 1: Culture and Social Structure Unit 2: The Individual in Society Unit 3: Social Inequality Unit 4: Social Institutions Unit 5: The Changing Social World Grade: 11 and 12

More information

SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SOCIAL IMPACT OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION I REPLACED THE TRADITION HIERACHRY WITH A NEW SOCIAL ORDER II THE GOLDEN AGE OF THE MIDDLE CLASS. 1. A new class of factory owners emerged in this period: the

More information

Chapter 7. Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy 7-1. Copyright 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved.

Chapter 7. Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy 7-1. Copyright 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. Chapter 7 Urbanization and Rural-Urban Migration: Theory and Policy Copyright 2012 Pearson Addison-Wesley. All rights reserved. 7-1 The Migration and Urbanization Dilemma As a pattern of development, the

More information

Defining Slums: A slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the conditions below:

Defining Slums: A slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the conditions below: What is a Slum? Defining Slums: A slum household is defined as a group of individuals living under the same roof lacking one or more of the conditions below: Access to improved water: Access to improved

More information

Poverty and Inequality

Poverty and Inequality 10 Poverty and Inequality Introduction This chapter deals with poverty and inequality which are among South Africa s most intractable development challenges linked to high unemployment. The concepts of

More information

How s Life in Austria?

How s Life in Austria? How s Life in Austria? November 2017 Austria performs close to the OECD average in many well-being dimensions, and exceeds it in several cases. For example, in 2015, household net adjusted disposable income

More information

Oxfam Education

Oxfam Education Background notes on inequality for teachers Oxfam Education What do we mean by inequality? In this resource inequality refers to wide differences in a population in terms of their wealth, their income

More information

SUSTAINING SOCIETIES: TOWARDS A NEW WE. The Bahá í International Community s Statement to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development

SUSTAINING SOCIETIES: TOWARDS A NEW WE. The Bahá í International Community s Statement to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development SUSTAINING SOCIETIES: TOWARDS A NEW WE The Bahá í International Community s Statement to the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development SUSTAINING SOCIETIES: TOWARDS A NEW WE The Bahá í International

More information

Rewriting the Rules of the Market Economy to Achieve Shared Prosperity. Joseph E. Stiglitz New York June 2016

Rewriting the Rules of the Market Economy to Achieve Shared Prosperity. Joseph E. Stiglitz New York June 2016 Rewriting the Rules of the Market Economy to Achieve Shared Prosperity Joseph E. Stiglitz New York June 2016 Enormous growth in inequality Especially in US, and countries that have followed US model Multiple

More information

Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam

Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam Understanding Social Equity 1 (Caste, Class and Gender Axis) Lakshmi Lingam This session attempts to familiarize the participants the significance of understanding the framework of social equity. In order

More information

New Economical, Political and Social Trends in Latin America, and the Demands for Participation

New Economical, Political and Social Trends in Latin America, and the Demands for Participation New Economical, Political and Social Trends in Latin America, and the Demands for Participation Bernardo Kliksberg DPADM/DESA/ONU 21 April, 2006 AGENDA 1. POLITICAL CHANGES 2. THE STRUCTURAL ROOTS OF THE

More information

Social Stratification Presentation Script

Social Stratification Presentation Script Social Stratification Presentation Script Slide 1: Before we begin talking about how the various sociological perspectives explain the answers to the questions in the content, let s take a quick look at

More information

Korean Women's Association United (KWAU)

Korean Women's Association United (KWAU) Korean Women's Association United (KWAU) Review of Korea Women s Human Rights 1. Introduction As a former CEO and candidate of an opposition party won the 17 th presidential election of South Korea in

More information

How s Life in Belgium?

How s Life in Belgium? How s Life in Belgium? November 2017 Relative to other countries, Belgium performs above or close to the OECD average across the different wellbeing dimensions. Household net adjusted disposable income

More information

Foreign Labor. Page 1. D. Foreign Labor

Foreign Labor. Page 1. D. Foreign Labor D. Foreign Labor The World Summit for Social Development devoted a separate section to deal with the issue of migrant labor, considering it a major development issue. In the contemporary world of the globalized

More information

Economic Theory: How has industrial development changed living and working conditions?

Economic Theory: How has industrial development changed living and working conditions? Economic Theory: How has industrial development changed living and working conditions? Adam Smith Karl Marx Friedrich Engels Thomas Malthus BACK David Ricardo Jeremy Bentham Robert Owen Classical Economics:

More information

Name Chapter 8--Stratification: United States and Global Perspectives Description Instructions

Name Chapter 8--Stratification: United States and Global Perspectives Description Instructions Name Chapter 8--Stratification: United States and Global Perspectives Description Instructions Modify Add Here 1 Multiple Choice 0 points Modify Remove Which of the following is NOT one of the three lessons

More information

STRENGTHENING RURAL CANADA: Fewer & Older: The Coming Population and Demographic Challenges in Rural Newfoundland & Labrador

STRENGTHENING RURAL CANADA: Fewer & Older: The Coming Population and Demographic Challenges in Rural Newfoundland & Labrador STRENGTHENING RURAL CANADA: Fewer & Older: The Coming Population and Demographic Challenges in Rural Newfoundland & Labrador An Executive Summary 1 This paper has been prepared for the Strengthening Rural

More information

The problem of growing inequality in Canadian. Divisions and Disparities: Socio-Spatial Income Polarization in Greater Vancouver,

The problem of growing inequality in Canadian. Divisions and Disparities: Socio-Spatial Income Polarization in Greater Vancouver, Divisions and Disparities: Socio-Spatial Income Polarization in Greater Vancouver, 1970-2005 By David F. Ley and Nicholas A. Lynch Department of Geography, University of British Columbia The problem of

More information

Michael Förster. OECD Social Policy Division. November 3 rd 2015

Michael Förster. OECD Social Policy Division. November 3 rd 2015 Michael Förster OECD Social Policy Division November 3 rd 2015 Rózsavölgyi Szalon Budapest 4 November 2015 Three major OECD studies since 2008 2008 2011 2015 2/16 Results from recent OECD study on inequality:

More information

Distribution of income and wealth among individuals: theoretical perspectives. Joseph E. Stiglitz Bangalore Advanced Graduate Workshop July 2016

Distribution of income and wealth among individuals: theoretical perspectives. Joseph E. Stiglitz Bangalore Advanced Graduate Workshop July 2016 Distribution of income and wealth among individuals: theoretical perspectives Joseph E. Stiglitz Bangalore Advanced Graduate Workshop July 2016 Outline Description of growth of inequality Brief description

More information

How s Life in Turkey?

How s Life in Turkey? How s Life in Turkey? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Turkey has a mixed performance across the different well-being dimensions. At 51% in 2016, the employment rate in Turkey is the lowest

More information

Industrial Rev Practice

Industrial Rev Practice Name: Industrial Rev Practice 1. A major reason the Industrial Revolution began in England was that England possessed A) a smooth coastline B) abundant coal and iron resources C) many waterfalls D) numerous

More information

How s Life in Poland?

How s Life in Poland? How s Life in Poland? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Poland s average performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. Material conditions are an area of comparative weakness:

More information

Democracy or Dictatorship: Does It Make a Difference?

Democracy or Dictatorship: Does It Make a Difference? Democracy or Dictatorship: Does It Make a Difference? Does regime type make a difference to material well-being? Do democracies produce higher economic growth? Do democracies produce higher economic growth?

More information

The Industrial Revolution. Europe s

The Industrial Revolution. Europe s The Industrial Revolution Europe 1780-1840s Another Ism Effects Europe: Industrialism Spurs of Industrial Revolution Why Did Industrialization Begin in England First? Industrial Revolution was largely

More information

Comments: Individual Versus Collective Responsibility

Comments: Individual Versus Collective Responsibility Fordham Law Review Volume 72 Issue 5 Article 28 2004 Comments: Individual Versus Collective Responsibility Thomas Nagel Recommended Citation Thomas Nagel, Comments: Individual Versus Collective Responsibility,

More information

Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality

Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality Dennis Gilbert Hamilton College The American Class Structure in an Age of Growing Inequality EIGHTH EDITION (DSAGE PINE FORGE Los Angeles London New Delhi Singapore Washington DC Contents About the Author

More information

Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political Poverty in Post-Soviet Countries

Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political Poverty in Post-Soviet Countries Olga Vladimirovna Nechiporenko Doctor of Sociology, Institute of Philosophy and Low, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk, Russian Federation Economic Reform, Social Policy and Political

More information

U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY: TRADE, INVESTMENT, AND AID ISSUES AND POLICIES

U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY: TRADE, INVESTMENT, AND AID ISSUES AND POLICIES 1 U.S. FOREIGN ECONOMIC POLICY: TRADE, INVESTMENT, AND AID ISSUES AND POLICIES I. TRADE THEORY AND BACKGROUND A. Free Trade versus Mercantilism: 1. Free trade ("liberal") doctrine holds that national prosperity

More information

National Quali cations

National Quali cations H 2016 X749/76/11 National Quali cations Modern Studies MONDAY, 30 MAY 9:00 AM 11:15 AM Total marks 60 SECTION 1 DEMOCRACY IN SCOTLAND AND THE UNITED KINGDOM 20 marks Attempt Question 1 and EITHER Question

More information

Chapter 8 4/21/2009. Economic System. How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Systems? Economic Systems

Chapter 8 4/21/2009. Economic System. How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Systems? Economic Systems Chapter 8 Economic Systems Economic System A means of producing, distributing, and consuming goods. All systems have: Production Exchange Consumption How Do Anthropologists Study Economic Systems? Anthropologists

More information

1 Introduction: state feminism and the political representation of women

1 Introduction: state feminism and the political representation of women 1 Introduction: state feminism and the political representation of women Joni Lovenduski The representation of women in a political system is a good test of its claims to democracy. The claims that women

More information

Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A.

Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies. Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. Social Change: Modern & Post-Modern Societies Jennifer L. Fackler, M.A. What Is Social Change? What Is Social Change? Social Change the transformation of culture and social institutions over time Can be

More information

Super-rich century. Why is inequality rising and will it now fall? ROBERT SKIDELSKY. Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty (Harvard, 29.

Super-rich century. Why is inequality rising and will it now fall? ROBERT SKIDELSKY. Capital in the 21st Century by Thomas Piketty (Harvard, 29. Over 1,000 people lie down on a San Francisco beach to spell out TAX THE 1% in October 2011 2011 JOHN MONTGOMERY Super-rich century Why is inequality rising and will it now fall? ROBERT SKIDELSKY Capital

More information

In 2000, an estimated 175 million people lived outside their place of birth, more than

In 2000, an estimated 175 million people lived outside their place of birth, more than Migration, Immigration & Settlement The Migration of Abuse Migration In 2000, an estimated 175 million people lived outside their place of birth, more than ever before (Doyle, 2004, p.1). From this number,

More information

Italy s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses

Italy s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses How s Life in Italy? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Italy s average performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. The employment rate, about 57% in 2016, was among the

More information

Spain s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses

Spain s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses How s Life in Spain? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Spain s average performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. Despite a comparatively low average household net adjusted

More information

Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis

Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis The Institute for Public Policy and Economic Analysis at Eastern Washington University will convey university expertise and sponsor research in social,

More information

How s Life in Canada?

How s Life in Canada? How s Life in Canada? November 2017 Canada typically performs above the OECD average level across most of the different well-indicators shown below. It falls within the top tier of OECD countries on household

More information

Gender equality policy Terre Sans Frontières. Gender equality policy

Gender equality policy Terre Sans Frontières. Gender equality policy Gender equality policy 1 PREAMBLE Equality between women and men is an integral part of TSF s core values. In 1999, the organization drafted its first gender policy, to make the principles of equality

More information

How s Life in the Slovak Republic?

How s Life in the Slovak Republic? How s Life in the Slovak Republic? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, the average performance of the Slovak Republic across the different well-being dimensions is very mixed. Material conditions,

More information

Gender Inequality in Post-Capitalism: Theorizing Institutions for a Democratic Socialism. Barbara E. Hopkins. Wright State University

Gender Inequality in Post-Capitalism: Theorizing Institutions for a Democratic Socialism. Barbara E. Hopkins. Wright State University Gender Inequality in Post-Capitalism: Theorizing Institutions for a Democratic Socialism Barbara E. Hopkins Wright State University December 22, 2017 To be Presented at URPE, ASSA, Philadelphia 2018 Most

More information

Economies in Transition Part I

Economies in Transition Part I Economies in Transition Part I The most important single central fact about a free market is that no exchange takes place unless both parties benefit. -Milton Friedman TYPES OF ECONOMIC SYSTEMS 2 Economic

More information

Poverty and Inequality

Poverty and Inequality Poverty and Inequality Sherif Khalifa Sherif Khalifa () Poverty and Inequality 1 / 44 Sherif Khalifa () Poverty and Inequality 2 / 44 Sherif Khalifa () Poverty and Inequality 3 / 44 Definition Income inequality

More information

Diversity and Democratization in Bolivia:

Diversity and Democratization in Bolivia: : SOURCES OF INCLUSION IN AN INDIGENOUS MAJORITY SOCIETY May 2017 As in many other Latin American countries, the process of democratization in Bolivia has been accompanied by constitutional reforms that

More information

How s Life in the Czech Republic?

How s Life in the Czech Republic? How s Life in the Czech Republic? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, the Czech Republic has mixed outcomes across the different well-being dimensions. Average earnings are in the bottom tier

More information

Chapter 12 The Market Revolution and Social Reform,

Chapter 12 The Market Revolution and Social Reform, Chapter 12 The Market Revolution and Social Reform, 1815 1850 Chapter Summary Chapter 12 offers an overview of the modernization of the American North during the period from 1815 to 1850. Topics discussed

More information

How s Life in Sweden?

How s Life in Sweden? How s Life in Sweden? November 2017 On average, Sweden performs very well across the different well-being dimensions relative to other OECD countries. In 2016, the employment rate was one of the highest

More information

The Marxist Critique of Liberalism

The Marxist Critique of Liberalism The Marxist Critique of Liberalism Is Market Socialism the Solution? The ruling ideas of each age have ever been the ideas of its ruling class. What is Capitalism? A market system in which the means of

More information

Class X Chapter 4 Gender Religion and Caste Social Science

Class X Chapter 4 Gender Religion and Caste Social Science Question 1: Mention different aspects of life in which women are discriminated or disadvantaged in India. In India, women are discriminated and disadvantaged n the following ways: (a) They are not provided

More information

Heritage and Citizenship - Grade 6

Heritage and Citizenship - Grade 6 Heritage and Citizenship - Grade 6 Early Explorers The Task There were many results of contact for both the Europeans and the First Nation peoples (e.g., sharing of beliefs/knowledge/skills; intermarriage;

More information

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND DECISION MAKING. Understanding Economics - Chapter 2

ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND DECISION MAKING. Understanding Economics - Chapter 2 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS AND DECISION MAKING Understanding Economics - Chapter 2 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Chapter 2, Lesson 1 ECONOMIC SYSTEMS Traditional Market Command Mixed! Economic System organized way a society

More information

How s Life in the United States?

How s Life in the United States? How s Life in the United States? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, the United States performs well in terms of material living conditions: the average household net adjusted disposable income

More information

Japan s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses

Japan s average level of current well-being: Comparative strengths and weaknesses How s Life in Japan? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Japan s average performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. At 74%, the employment rate is well above the OECD

More information

Ghana Lower-middle income Sub-Saharan Africa (developing only) Source: World Development Indicators (WDI) database.

Ghana Lower-middle income Sub-Saharan Africa (developing only) Source: World Development Indicators (WDI) database. Knowledge for Development Ghana in Brief October 215 Poverty and Equity Global Practice Overview Poverty Reduction in Ghana Progress and Challenges A tale of success Ghana has posted a strong growth performance

More information

Internal migration and current use of modern contraception methods among currently married women age group between (15-49) years in India

Internal migration and current use of modern contraception methods among currently married women age group between (15-49) years in India Internal migration and current use of modern contraception methods among currently married women age group between (15-49) years in India Pushpendra Mishra 1, Bhaskar Mishra 2 and Jay Shankar Dixit 3 Abstract:

More information

2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York July 2011

2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York July 2011 2011 HIGH LEVEL MEETING ON YOUTH General Assembly United Nations New York 25-26 July 2011 Thematic panel 2: Challenges to youth development and opportunities for poverty eradication, employment and sustainable

More information

How s Life in Portugal?

How s Life in Portugal? How s Life in Portugal? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Portugal has a mixed performance across the different well-being dimensions. For example, it is in the bottom third of the OECD in

More information

How s Life in New Zealand?

How s Life in New Zealand? How s Life in New Zealand? November 2017 On average, New Zealand performs well across the different well-being indicators and dimensions relative to other OECD countries. It has higher employment and lower

More information

How s Life in Finland?

How s Life in Finland? How s Life in Finland? November 2017 In general, Finland performs well across the different well-being dimensions relative to other OECD countries. Despite levels of household net adjusted disposable income

More information

Lesson 3: Do we need equality?

Lesson 3: Do we need equality? PAGE 1 Teaching Guide Lesson 3: Do we need equality? Study Guide: Lesson 1 2 Compelling Questions 3 Lesson Concepts & Vocabulary 3 Lesson 3 Background Essay: A Brief History of Equality 4 Discussion/Writing

More information

How s Life in Ireland?

How s Life in Ireland? How s Life in Ireland? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Ireland s performance across the different well-being dimensions is mixed. While Ireland s average household net adjusted disposable

More information

How s Life in Hungary?

How s Life in Hungary? How s Life in Hungary? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Hungary has a mixed performance across the different well-being dimensions. It has one of the lowest levels of household net adjusted

More information

europolis vol. 5, no. 2/2011

europolis vol. 5, no. 2/2011 europolis vol. 5, no. 2/2011 Charles Tilly. 1998. Durable Inequality. Los Angeles and London: University of California Press, 310 pages. Reviewed by Saleh Ahmed Department of Sociology, Social Work and

More information

How s Life in Iceland?

How s Life in Iceland? How s Life in Iceland? November 2017 In general, Iceland performs well across the different well-being dimensions relative to other OECD countries. 86% of the Icelandic population aged 15-64 was in employment

More information

A Global Caste System and Ethnic Antagonism

A Global Caste System and Ethnic Antagonism A Global Caste System and Ethnic Antagonism By Shawn S. Oakes SOCI 4086 CRGE in the Workplace Research Paper Proposal Shawn S. Oakes Student #: 157406 A Global Caste System and Ethnic Antagonism Written

More information

High School. Prentice Hall. Sociology, 12th Edition (Macionis) Indiana Academic Standards - Social Studies Sociology.

High School. Prentice Hall. Sociology, 12th Edition (Macionis) Indiana Academic Standards - Social Studies Sociology. Prentice Hall Sociology, 12th Edition (Macionis) 2008 High School C O R R E L A T E D T O High School Standard 1 - Foundations of Sociology as a Social Science Students will describe the development of

More information

The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in Europe

The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in Europe The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism in Europe Introduction Liberal, Social Democratic and Corporatist Regimes Week 2 Aidan Regan State institutions are now preoccupied with the production and distribution

More information

How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development?

How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development? Chapter 9- Development How does development vary amongst regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development? Human Development Index (HDI) Development process of

More information

Question Assess the claim that Australia was a working man s paradise from 1890 to 1914

Question Assess the claim that Australia was a working man s paradise from 1890 to 1914 Question Assess the claim that Australia was a working man s paradise from 1890 to 1914 During the years of 1890 and 1914, the myth of the Australian working man s paradise had become a key aspect of our

More information

BEYOND THE MYTHS. Making Sense of the Public Debate about Crime in New Mexico

BEYOND THE MYTHS. Making Sense of the Public Debate about Crime in New Mexico BEYOND THE MYTHS Making Sense of the Public Debate about Crime in New Mexico What is going on? Here in New Mexico, our criminal justice system is undergoing a series of reforms, aimed at ending unconstitutional

More information

Who wants to be an entrepreneur?

Who wants to be an entrepreneur? entrepreneurship Key findings: Italy Who wants to be an entrepreneur? Entrepreneurship is crucial to economic development, promoting social integration and reducing inequalities. OECD Entrepreneurship

More information

5 The Birth of Hierarchy

5 The Birth of Hierarchy 5 The Birth of Hierarchy Paul Seabright Archaeologists and anthropologists are now in broad agreement that forager societies were substantially more egalitarian than virtually all the societies that succeeded

More information

How s Life in Norway?

How s Life in Norway? How s Life in Norway? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Norway performs very well across the OECD s different well-being indicators and dimensions. Job strain and long-term unemployment are

More information

NEW POVERTY IN ARGENTINA

NEW POVERTY IN ARGENTINA 252 Laboratorium. 2010. Vol. 2, no. 3:252 256 NEW POVERTY IN ARGENTINA AND RUSSIA: SOME BRIEF COMPARATIVE CONCLUSIONS Gabriel Kessler, Mercedes Di Virgilio, Svetlana Yaroshenko Editorial note. This joint

More information

How s Life in Greece?

How s Life in Greece? How s Life in Greece? November 2017 Relative to other OECD countries, Greece has a mixed performance across the different well-being dimensions. Material conditions in Greece are generally below the OECD

More information