1 Gilded Age Politics 2 POLITICAL MACHINES 3 In Counting There is Strength 4 What is a Political Machine? Well organized political parties run by a

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1 1 Gilded Age Politics 2 POLITICAL MACHINES 3 In Counting There is Strength 4 What is a Political Machine? Well organized political parties run by a political boss Controlled cities governments Oversaw improvements in public services Quid Pro Quo mentality 5 Who did they help? Immigrants, working poor, working class, union workers Immigrants = most loyal supporters Politicians provided jobs and housing for votes 6 Positives Gave political and social voice to minorities & poor Provided jobs and housing Improved city s services 7 Negatives Election Fraud: Needed to win elections to keep support & power Offered jobs, housing & political favors for

2 Offered jobs, housing & political favors for votes In extreme cases, turned to Voting Fraud Philly district = 100 registered voters had 252 votes Graft: Gaining $$ through illegal or dishonest methods Kickbacks = politician receives $$ for giving certain person/ company a contract/ job 8 Tammany Hall & Boss Tweed Social & Political organization, began in 1789 During 1860s, William Boss Tweed controlled Tammany Hall Controlled contracts for public projects & gov t jobs... Gained $$ for jobs & contracts The Tweed Ring collected $200 million from Thomas Nast created a series of Political Cartoons revealing Tweed Ring corruption... Public opinion drastically turned on Tweed

3 Thomas Nast created a series of Political Cartoons revealing Tweed Ring corruption... Public opinion drastically turned on Tweed Tweed convicted of fraud & extortion in Tammany Tiger 10 City Boss in Jail? 11 The Tweed Ring 12 The Kelly Motor 13 American River Ganges 14 Homework How did Political Machines gain & maintain support? Did they do more good or bad for their supporters/ communities? Explain. What effect did Thomas Nast s cartoons have on public opinion of NYC Political Machines? What did the cartoons expose about the Political Machines? Do you believe Political Machines were a positive or negative on American politics during the Gilded Age? Today? 15 RESTORING HONEST GOVERNMENT 16 Grant s Scandals

4 Do you believe Political Machines were a positive or negative on American politics during the Gilded Age? Today? 15 RESTORING HONEST GOVERNMENT 16 Grant s Scandals Grant = President from Grant ordered his Sec. of Treasury sold $4 million in US Gold reserve before Economic Crash = Black Friday Grant s VP received Kickbacks from Credit Mobilier of America <-- RR Construction Company Members of Grant s Cabinet received kickbacks from taxes put on Whiskey Spoils System = giving jobs to political allies or personal friends 17 Garfield s Assassination Election of 1880 James Garfield won Presidency July 2, 1881 (4 months after inauguration) Charles Guiteau shot Garfield Garfield died in September 1881

5 James Garfield won Presidency July 2, 1881 (4 months after inauguration) Charles Guiteau shot Garfield Garfield died in September nd President Assassinated His VP Chester Arthur became President 18 Reforms?? & Reactions Chester Arthur carried on Garfield s call for Reform Pendleton Civil Service Act (1883): Civil Service Commission examined individuals seeking gov t jobs (spoils system done?) Only impacted 10% of federal jobs Many were angered by Arthur s reforms Republican Party split during 1884 Election Causing President Grover Cleveland to win election 19 More Reforms?? Doubled amount of federal jobs requiring Civil Service Exams (spoils system done??) Election of 1888: Cleveland vs. Benjamin

6 Election of 1888: Cleveland vs. Benjamin Harrison Cleveland won Popular Vote... Harrison won Electoral College & election <-- SCANDAL!!! Harrison rolled by Arthur s & Cleveland s reforms By 1890 Republicans controlled Congress & Presidency <-- gave all non civil service jobs to friends Congress gave so much $$ to supporters they were called Billion Dollar Congress 20 POPULISM 21 Farmer s Fall From Grace Urbanization hurt farmers <-- massive population increase had to be fed U.S. farmers grew more animals, planted more crops, bought more land & machinery... U.S. began to buy from other countries... Too much supply not enough demand = prices rapidly fell Many farmers borrowed

7 U.S. farmers grew more animals, planted more crops, bought more land & machinery... U.S. began to buy from other countries... Too much supply not enough demand = prices rapidly fell Many farmers borrowed $$ or put land up for security for loans... Caused many to lose their land OR were forced to become tenant farmers The railroads have never been so prosperous... The banks have never done a better business... And yet agriculture languishes. - Unnamed Farmer 22 Farmer s Organize Grange Movement: Focused on economic & political issues Farmers worked together to produce food & lower costs, sold goods directly to markets = make more $$ Pressured states to regulate RR shipping costs & storage rates Many midwest states passed Granger Laws Interstate Commerce

8 Pressured states to regulate RR shipping costs & storage rates Many midwest states passed Granger Laws Interstate Commerce Act (1887) = prevented RR s from giving secret kickbacks to large shippers & overcharging small/ short shippers... Reasonable & just shipping rates 23 Farmer s Organize Alliance Movement Farmers wanted more $$ in circulation Thought they could charge more $$ for goods Farmers could pay off their bank loans Before 1873 US $$ was backed by silver & gold... After 1873 US $$ only backed by gold Why was this bad? Alliance movement supported EVERY profarmer candidate in 1890 Elections Gained over 40 seats in Congress & 4 Governorships 24 Populist Party

9 Alliance movement supported EVERY profarmer candidate in 1890 Elections Gained over 40 seats in Congress & 4 Governorships 24 Populist Party Alliance & Grange members, Union leaders & politicians = The People s Party aka Populist Party Platform: Graduated income tax, bank regulation, nationalization of RR & telegraph companies, free & unlimited coinage of silver, restrictions on immigration, shorter workday & voting reforms 1892 Presidential Election = (D) Grover Cleveland, (R) Benjamin Harrison, (P) James Weaver Cleveland won Presidency, Populists won over 10 seats in Congress & dozens of state gov t positions Weaver won 1 million votes & 22 Electoral votes Depression

10 Weaver won 1 million votes & 22 Electoral votes Depression Economic Depression of 1893 was blamed on the Populists & the Sherman Silver Purchase Act 26 Election of 1896 & The End of Populist Party Ohio (R) William McKinley vs. (D) William Jennings Bryan (a free silver & populist supporter) Populist Party supported Bryan McKinley won the election by 500,000 total votes Populist Party faded as a national party after election The seeds we sowed out in Kansas did not fall on barren ground. - Populist leader Mary Elizabeth Lease (1914) 27 Homework Can you think of any modern day Populist Party in America or any other country? Why do you believe this group is a Populist political party? Explain.

11 Can you think of any modern day Populist Party in America or any other country? Why do you believe this group is a Populist political party? Explain.

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