Voluntary Export Restraints in WTO and EU Law

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1 Studies in global economic law 13 Consumers, Trade Regulation and Competition Policy Bearbeitet von Sabina Nüesch 1. Auflage Taschenbuch. 374 S. Paperback ISBN Format (B x L): 15 x 22,2 cm Gewicht: 530 g Recht > Handelsrecht, Wirtschaftsrecht > Europäisches, internationales Wirtschaftsrecht Zu Leseprobe schnell und portofrei erhältlich bei Die Online-Fachbuchhandlung beck-shop.de ist spezialisiert auf Fachbücher, insbesondere Recht, Steuern und Wirtschaft. Im Sortiment finden Sie alle Medien (Bücher, Zeitschriften, CDs, ebooks, etc.) aller Verlage. Ergänzt wird das Programm durch Services wie Neuerscheinungsdienst oder Zusammenstellungen von Büchern zu Sonderpreisen. Der Shop führt mehr als 8 Millionen Produkte.

2 Table of Contents Preface... XIII Abbreviations... XV Treaty of Lisbon: A Note on Terminology... XIX Bibliography... XXIII CHAPTER I Voluntary Export Restraints 1 Introduction A Word on the Concepts and the Notion of VERs Some Factual and Legal Observations Outline of the Thesis The Political Economy of Voluntary Export Restraints The Economy of Voluntary Export Restraints The Impact of VERs on Price Levels The Creation of Rent-Seeking Activities The Effect of VERs on Different Import Sources The Impact of VERs on Domestic Output Summary The Politics of Voluntary Export Restraints The Political Advantages of VERs for the Government and the Competitors of the Importing Country The Political Advantages for the Government and the Competitors in the Exporting Country The History of Voluntary Export Restraints The Emergence of VERs in the Trade Relations of the EC The Example of Japan Japan s Accession to the GATT... 38

3 VIII Recourse to GATT Article XXXV The Replacement of the EC Member State Representations by the Community within the GATT Common Commercial Policy versus National Measures The Japanese VERs on Motor Cars The EC Japan VER on Video Cassette Recorders (VCRs) The EC s Controversial Perception of VERs The Popularity of Voluntary Export Restraints and the Rarity of Case Law Understanding the Functioning and Popularity of VERs The Rarity of Judicial Decisions on VERs The EC s Challenge of the U.S.-Japan Arrangement on Semi-Conductors a) The Meaning of Measures Covered by GATT Article XI b) The Degree of Government Involvement Necessary to Be Caught under GATT Article XI c) Brief Analysis of the Conclusions of the Panel The U.S. Consumers Union s Challenge of the VERs on Steel a) The Affirmative Findings of the Court of Appeals b) The Dissenting Opinion of Circuit Judge Leventhal Preliminary Conclusion CHAPTER II The Relationship of WTO Law and EU Law 1 The Status of International Agreements in the EU Legal Order International Agreements as Integral Part of EU Law The Doctrine of Direct Effect The Classification of International Agreements in the Hierarchy of Norms

4 Table of Contents IX 1.4 The Judicial Application of International Agreements The Domestic Legal Status of the WTO/GATT The Approach of the EC Institutions in the Case of the WTO/GATT The Reluctance of the Court of Justice to Grant Direct Effect to WTO Rules Flexibility An Argument for any Occasion? Reciprocity The Imperfection of Mutual Commitments Dispute Settlement Negotiation rather than Adjudication? The Situation after the Entry into Force of the WTO Agreement and its Annexes Cases on the Effect of WTO Provisions Cases on the Effect of WTO Dispute Settlement Body Decisions Invocability of Directly Effective WTO Provisions Locus Standi under Article 263 TFEU (ex Article 230 EC Treaty) Reference for a Preliminary Ruling under Article 267 TFEU (ex Article 234 EC Treaty) A Short Comment on Liability Preliminary Conclusion CHAPTER III The Boundaries of Challenging Voluntary Export Restraints within the EU Legal Order 1 Reliance on the Agreement on Safeguards before the Courts The Implementation of the Agreement on Safeguards in the EU Legal Order Relationship between the Agreement on Safeguards and GATT Article XIX The Regional Application of Safeguard Measures

5 X The Conduct of an Investigation The Legal Prerequisites of Safeguard Measures a) Increased Quantities and Conditions of Import b) The Determination of Serious Injury or Threat thereof c) The Causal Link between Imports and Injury d) The Notion of Like or Directly Competitive Products aa) The Two-Step Approach versus the Aim and Effects Test in the Differentiation of Products bb) The Determination of Like Products cc) The Determination of Directly Competitive Products dd) Lessons for Safeguard Investigations Evaluation under the Implementation Principle Clear Reference to the Agreement on Safeguards? Intention to Implement the Agreement on Safeguards? Preliminary Conclusion Challenging Practices Inconsistent with the Agreement on Safeguards under the Trade Barriers Regulation (TBR) The Position of Private Parties under the Trade Barriers Regulation The Court of First Instance Ruling on the Trade Barriers Regulation in FICF et al. v. Commission Findings on Substantive Matters a) The Definition of Obstacle to Trade b) The Interpretation of Adverse Trade Effects c) The Requirement of Community Interests Findings on Procedural Matters a) The Right to a Fair Hearing b) The Non-Binding Nature of Time-Limits Preliminary Conclusion

6 Table of Contents XI 3 Applicability of EU Competition Law to VERs The Commission s Approach to Privately Negotiated VERs and Other Restrictions on Trade The Approach of the European Courts Regarding Immunity from Competition Liability due to Government Involvement Preliminary Conclusion CHAPTER IV The Boundaries of Challenging Voluntary Export Restraints within the WTO Dispute Settlement System 1 Government Involvement The Concept of Governmental Measure The Degree of Government Involvement Required for there to be Encouragement or Support under Article 11:3 Agreement on Safeguards The Application of Domestic Competition Laws versus Effects on Competition -Test The Nature and Effect of Export Cartels The Limitations of Positive Comity Advocating an Effects on Competition -Test under the Agreement on Safeguards The Application of Non-violation Complaints to Competition Law Matters Measure as Practice Tolerated or Required by Domestic Regulations Different Terms Similar Meanings Preliminary Conclusion

7 XII CHAPTER V Summing Up the Non-Complaint Situation of Voluntary Export Restraints 1 VERs: Flexible Enough to Bend (not Break) the Law? The No-Fault Insurance Protection Security and Predictability for All Economic Operators The (In)Availability of Legal Remedies to Private Economic Operators No Direct Access of Private Parties to the WTO Dispute Settlement System Incomplete Access of Private Parties to Domestic and/or Community Courts Limited Invocability of WTO Provisions and DSB Reports Denial of Compensation for Damages Insufficient Reach of EU Competition Law Targeting the Non-Complaint Situation by Introducing an Effects on Competition -Test

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