1 Nations Unies et ONG: Quelle place ensemble dans les processus du développement? d Ricardo Espinosa Chef, Unité de liaison avec les ONG Office des Nations Unies à Genève, ONUG
2 The UN today Il n y a pas de définition universellement reconnue du paradigme «développement» Pour le PNUD: «Le développement humain vise à élargir l éventail des choix des populations» L approche du système multilatéral est multidimensionnelle et multisectorielle, dans le temps et dans l espace: santé, travail, éducation, environnement, droits de l homme, paix, aide humanitaire, gouvernance,
3 The UN today (I) 193 states More than employees («UN Family») UN budget : 5.15 billion US$ (without Agencies,, Programs, ) Peacekeeping Operations: 16 Peacekeepers: Peacekeeping budget: 7.84 billion US$
4 The UN today (II) Broad range of fundamental issues: sustainable development, environment, refugees protection, disaster relief, counter terrorism, disarmament and non-proliferation, Promotion of democracy, human rights, gender equality and the advancement of women, governance, economic and social development and international health, clearing landmines, expanding food production, etc and more, in order to achieve its goals and coordinate efforts for f a safer world for this and future generations.
5 Organization (I) Main bodies (Article 7 of the Charter) : General Assembly : 193 member states Security Council : 5 permanent members and 10 non permanent Economic and social Council (ECOSOC) : 54 members Trusteeship Council International court of justice : 15 judges Secretariat And subsidiary bodies as Human Rights Council for the General Assembly or Peacekeeping operations and political missions for the t Security Council.
6 Organization (II) 15 Specialized agencies (World (World Health Organization/WHO, UNESCO, International Labour Organization/ILO, ) 11 Programmes (UN High (UN High Commissioner for Refugees/HCR, United Nations Development Programme/UNDP, ) 3 Funds (United Nations Children s Fund/UNICEF, ) Research and training institutes (United for Training and Research /UNITAR, ) Other entities (Joint ) (United Nations Institute (Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS,
8 The General Assembly - GA The GA: Main deliberative organ of the UN Decisions on important questions (peace (peace and security, admission of new members and budgetary matters a two-thirds thirds majority). Decisions on other questions: by simple majority. Each country has one vote The UNGA has established a number of Councils, Working Groups, Boards, etc The General Assembly adopts its own rules of procedures and elects its one year President. One regular session (from September to December) - thereafter as required. The UNGA plays a significant role in the process of standard-setting setting and the codification of international law.
9 The Security Council SC (I) The SC s primary responsibility: maintaining international peace and security Functions continuously Possibility of excluding one of its Member Participation of UN Member States not members of the SC: without vote The Presidency of the SC rotates monthly
10 The Security Council (II) to maintain international peace and security; to investigate any dispute or situation to recommend methods of adjusting such disputes or the terms of settlement; to formulate plans for the establishment of a system to regulate armaments; to determine the existence of a threat to the peace or act of aggression and to recommend what action should be taken; to call on Members to apply economic sanctions and other measures not involving the use of force to prevent or stop aggression; to take military action against an aggressor; to recommend the admission of new Members; to exercise the trusteeship functions of the United Nations in "strategic areas"; to recommend to the General Assembly the nomination of the Secretary tary- General and to elect the Judges of the International Court of Justice.
11 The economic and social Council (I) The ECOSOC (54 Members) works under the authority of the GA, It coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and the UN family of organizations, Is the central forum for international economic and social issues, Formulates policy recommendations and plays a key role in fostering international cooperation for development, Consults with non-governmental organizations and civil society organizations, Its Members M are elected by the GA and holds a substantive session in July, including a High-Level Segment (Ministers and higher representatives), Council's subsidiary bodies meet regularly and report back to it. Five regional commissions promote economic development and cooperation in their respective regions.
12 The economic and social Council (II) The UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (Rés /22 ECOSOC) + Special Raporteur on the situation of HR and fundamental freedoms of indigenous peoples (Human( Rights Council) + Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous People (HRC) On the 13 September 2007,, Adoption of the «United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples» Gathers once a year (UNHQ/NY) 16 Independent Experts (8 nominated by the ECOSOC, 8 elected by Indigenous Organizations UN Member States, Indigenous People Organizations, NGOs,, CSO, UN Agencies & Programs, Intergovernmental Organizations, are allowed to attend ; Six mains areas: Economic & Social Development; ; Culture; Environment; Education; Health and Human Rights.
13 The Trusteeship Council Established to provide international supervision to 11 Trust Territories administered by the UN; By 1994, all Trust Territories had achieved autonomy or independence, either as autonomous States or by joining neighbouring independent countries; Having achieved its task, the Trusteeship Council meets as and where occasion may require.
14 The international court of justice The ICJ, also known as the World Court (UN Tribunal) is the main judicial organ of the UN; Based in The Hague (NL); 15 judges (elected by the GA and the Security Council); For a term of 9 years; The ICJ shall decide on disputes between countries (not between individuals); Members State which participate in a proceeding, must implement decisions of the Court; The Court also gives advisory opinions to the United Nations Specialized agencies, Programs and other Entities.
15 The Secretariat The Secretariat carries out the substantive and administrative work of the United Nations; Its head is the Secretary-General General; The Secretariat consists of Departments and Offices (total staff of about 44,000 under the regular budget); Duty stations include UN Headquarters in New York, as well as UN offices in Geneva, Vienna, Nairobi and many other locations.
16 UN & Civil Society "Our times demand a new definition of leadership - global leadership. They demand a new constellation of international cooperation - governments, civil society and the private sector, working together for a collective global good. The Article 71 of the UN Charter; Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon Speech at World Economic Forum Davos,, Switzerland (29 January 2009) More and more, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations (CSOs)) are UN system partners; CSOs play a key role at major United Nations Conferences and at country level; The UN organizes and hosts, on a regular basis, briefings, meetings and conferences for NGO representatives who are accredited to UN Offices, Programmes and Agencies
17 UN & Civil Society Contribution aux processus de développement: Projets sur le terrain Plaidoyer Recherches, Publications, Formation, Portes d entrée: Agences, Programmes, Entités, Conférences, réunions, Sommets Système des «Points focaux pour les ONG/OSC
18 UN & Civil Society Financements: Projets sur le terrain Plaidoyer: très rare Recherches, Publications, Formation,.. Statuts: Agences, Programmes, Entités, ECOSOC Conférences, réunions, Sommets Droits, obligations, responsabilités
19 UN & Civil Society Succès: Développement local (PNUD, OMS, HCR, UNICEF...) Plaidoyer: Droits de l homme, Mines anti-personnel, droits de l enfant, handicapés, Recherches, Publications, Formation,.. : paix, sécurité, prévention de conflits Echecs: Les moyens matériels et financiers Relatif: les responsabilités sont du domaine des Etats Aucun pouvoir formel de décision Rio+20: un succès ou un échec? Pour qui?
20 The UN Millenium Declaration In 2000, 189 Nations made a promise to free people from extreme poverty and multiple deprivations. This pledge became the eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by In September 2010, the world recommitted itself to accelerate progress towards these goals.
21 The Millenium Development Goals MDGs 1.Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger 2. Achieve universal primary education 3. Promote gender equality and empower women 4. Reduce child mortality 5. Improve maternal health 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 8. Develop a global partnership for development
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