Does Decentralization Matters For Human Development?

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Does Decentralization Matters For Human Development?"

Transcription

1 1 Does Decentralization Matters For Human Development? J. Nagaraj Tejbir Singh Soni

2 2 Does Decentralization Matters For Human Development? Abstract: The objective of this paper is to answer the question that whether decentralization matters for development? It has been often cited that decentralization is the panacea for underdevelopment. The paper seeks to find out that are these two variables correlated and the extent of their correlation. The methodology used to answer the above objective is to consider two National Human Development Index scores (2001 and 2011) prepared by planning commission of India and consider the devolution index scores of 2009 as being brought forward by National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER). What the analysis yields is that there is moderate positive correlation between the human development index of 2011 and Devolution Index of Further considering the performance of states with respect to Human development Index within the decade there are some states which have deteriorated in their scores over time despite them being having better devolution index ranks. Consequently to answer the question whether decentralization matters for development and taking into picture the moderately positive correlation between the two we come up with some of the likely factors which are pre-requisite for not just decentralization but effective decentralization. The main finding of this paper is that states which have prioritized social capital have also yielded better results with respect to decentralization. Decentralization, in common parlance, means transfer of authority and responsibility from higher levels to lower levels of government. It involves the relocation of decision making authority with respect to political and administrative issues from central to local levels. In India there had been various committees appointed which explicitly or implicitly talked about the linkage between decentralization and development. To mention some of these committees Balwant Rai Mehta Committee (1957) to examine the working of Community Development Programme and National Extension Scheme; G.V.K.Rao Committee (1985) on Administrative Arrangement for Rural Development and Poverty

3 3 Alleviation Programme; L.M.Singhvi Committee (1986) on Revitalization of Panchayati Raj Institutions for Democracy and Development. In development discourse it is the belief that decentralization would ultimately lead to better social development. The stress on decentralization stems from its impact in improving service delivery to marginalized with respect to education, health and social security by improving accessibility, reducing delays, it develops self-respect among the lower levels of the government, tweaking development programmes according to local needs, providing voice to the people, encouraging participation which would strengthen democracy at the grass roots that would ultimately enhance accountability. It would lead to better targeting of the poor and would help to reduce the inequities prevalent in the state. These inequities would be addressed by better prioritization of development programmes. This paper would examine the relationship between decentralization of Indian States after the emergence of 73 rd constitutional amendment act or Panchayati Raj Act and their relative position in Human Development Index () report for various Indian states prepared by Planning Commission of India. The ranking of various states with respect to decentralization is found in the Devolution Index (DI) which is prepared by the National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER). Rationale The purpose of this paper is to find out whether the buzz word decentralization is the answer to all the problems of under development. It has been often cited that the best means of development is through democratic self-governance or decentralization. This paper would try exploring that whether there is any correlation between decentralization and human development index of various Indian sates. If there is not a perfect correlation between the

4 4 two scores then the report intends to focus on various likely factors that might be contributing to differential ranking of states in devolution index and human development index. The subsequent parts of the paper would be presented in three sections the first section would cover a brief note on the concept of devolution index. The paper will explain what we mean by the transfer of functions, funds and functionaries. It would also explain the concept of human development index. Second section would focus on the comparative ranks of the states of India with respect to both the indices. Third section would focus on some states where a gap exists in the two indices. This section would show why despite having better devolution index these states have witnessed downfall in human development index. The fourth section would conclude by suggesting what should be the preconditions for effective devolution. 1. Methodology To find out the relationship between Devolution Index and National Human Development Index the data used is taken from planning commission. Supporting secondary data is collected from the magazines, newspapers and government sources. Devolution Index is defined as an aggregate of the number of functions, funds and functionaries transferred by the state governments to the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI s). It was been calculated to measure the relative ranks of states and the extent of democratic decentralization. Devolution Index had been prepared primarily based on the research paper of Alok and Bhandari (2004). It has been in usage since the year The original index was revised in 2009 which along with including the above mentioned 3F s (functions, funds and functionaries) also included framework. The concept of framework seeks to rank states in accordance with their adherence to the four basic constitutional mandates as

5 5 enshrined in the 73 rd Amendment Act. These four components include the presence and functioning of (i) state finance commission (SFC); (ii) regular elections (in a span of five years); (iii) state election commission (SEC) and (iv) district planning committee (DPC). These four components within the framework are not comprehensive enough to accommodate all the provisions envisaged in the Act but it has been assumed that the other mandatory provisions had been adhered to by all the states. These four requirements have to be fulfilled by the states for the purpose of calculation of devolution index from In the revised version of calculation of devolution index NCAER has made it a stage-wise process and the first stage is the fulfilment of framework criterion. The second stage evaluates the devolution of funds, functionaries and finances. The table below highlights the functions, finances and functionaries that are used while calculating the devolution index. Table 1. Indicators used for calculation Devolution Index and Sub-Indices. Functions Finances Functionaries 1. De facto transfer of 29 functions listed in 11th Schedule. 2. Detailed Activity Mapping conducted for these 29 functions. 6. Authorization of PRIs to collect taxes, duties, tolls etc. 7. PRIs own revenue as percentage of PRIs expenditure 21. Expert Institutions and entities to support PRIs for the preparation of their Annual Plans specified 22. Expert institutions and entities to support capacity building/ training of elected officials of PRIs specified

6 6 3. Whether DPC is involved in the preparation of District Plan? 4. Are GP implementing the major Flagship Programmes? 5. Are GP fully empowered to sanction expenditure? 8. Timely action on latest SFC s major recommendations. 9. Percentage of funds devolved to PRIs that are untied.(plan) 10. Percentage of funds devolved to PRIs that are untied. (Nonplan). 11. Promptness with which Twelfth Finance Commission Funds transferred to PRIs. 12. Allocation of funds to PRIs based on apportionment formula 13. Are GP fully empowered to prepare plans for expenditure? 23. Amount of money provided for the capacity building/ training of elected officials of PRIs 24. Amount of money provided for the capacity building/training of appointed officials of PRIs? 25. Annual Report for last fiscal year released 26. Functionary wise accountability to PRIs: GP 27. Functionary wise accountability to PRIs: IP 28. Functionary wise accountability to PRIs: DP 14. Whether there is a separate budget line for PRIs in the State Budget for ? 15. Devolution of finances corresponds to functions? 29. Average days of training of Functionaries: Elected Officials; GP 30. Average days of training of Functionaries: Appointed Officials; GP

7 7 16. Percentage of PRIs whose accounts are audited(gp) 17. Percentage of PRIs whose accounts are audited(bp) 18. Percentage of PRIs whose accounts are audited(dp) 19. Specify the registers in which the accounts of GP are updated 20. Do any funds directly go to the GP with respect to the functions? 31. Average days of training of Functionaries: Elected Officials; IP 32. Average days of training of Functionaries: Appointed Officials; IP 33. Average days of training of Functionaries: Elected Officials; DP The National Human Development Index () is calculated by Planning Commission of India. There are three components covered in the which includes education, health and living standards. The component of education has two sub components which includes (i) Mean years of schooling for adults aged 25 and (ii) Expected Years of schooling for children of school entering age. The second component of life expectancy is calculated using the minimum value of 20 years and a maximum value of 83.4 years. The maximum age is the observed maximum amongst all the countries within a time span of The third component with respect to wealth component or living standard has a minimum of 100$ PPP and a maximum of 107,721$ PPP. This is calculated for a span of

8 8 In this paper we intend to show the relative position of states in India with respect to their scores in Devolution Index of 2009 and Human Development Index of 2001 and The primary reason for choosing two reports of Human Development Index is to compare the change in the Human Development Index over a decade with Devolution index. In this report we wish to focus on specific states and analyse empirically whether the states which have got better in decentralization scores have also got better human development scores? In short we would be focussing on the question that does decentralization and human development go hand in hand? Or are there certain other residual factors which determine better human development scores? It is out of scope of this paper to cover all the states of India so our objective would be to focus on some specific states and provide insights into the factors which determine any change in human development index over the decade. Table 2. and Devolution Index of various Indian States. Devolution 2011 Index 2009 STATES Scores Ranks Scores Rank KERALA KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL MAHARASHTRA MADHYA PRADESH GUJARAT ANDHRA PRADESH HIMACHAL PRADESH HARYANA ORISSA

9 9 UTTAR PRADESH BIHAR RAJASTHAN GOA CHHATTISGARH PUNJAB UTTARAKHAND ASSAM Analysis This section of the paper will focus on the comparative ranks of states in both the indices and would try to find out the correlation between the two scores. Table 3. Net Scores ( ) Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index scores STATES KERALA KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL MAHARASHTRA MADHYA PRADESH GUJARAT ANDHRA PRADESH HARYANA ORISSA UTTAR PRADESH BIHAR RAJASTHAN PUNJAB ASSAM

10 10 The above table shows the scores of Indian states in two human development reports (2001 & 2011) and the scores of these states in devolution index for On the basis of the above table we have classified the states into three categories. 1. States which have a positive percentage change in their Human Development Index over the decade by more than 10 % and simultaneously have scored more than 50 in devolution index scores. These states include Kerala; Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Table 4. High % Change High Devolution Index Net Scores ( ) Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index scores States KERALA GUJARAT ANDHRA PRADESH States which have a positive percentage change in their Human Development Index over the decade by less than 10 % and simultaneously have scored more than 50 in devolution index scores. These states include Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

11 11 Table 5. Low Change High Devolution Index Net Scores ( ) Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index scores States KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL States which have a positive percentage change in their Human Development Index over the decade by more than 10 % but ironically have scored less than 50 in devolution index scores. These states include Assam and Punjab. Table 6. High % Change Low Devolution Index Net Scores ( ) Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index scores States PUNJAB ASSAM Amongst the first category of states we have considered Kerala, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh to come up with certain reasons for their better performance in devolution index and. Amongst the three states taken into consideration we would not focus on Andhra Pradesh since it started in 2001 with quite low scores of 0.42 and even in a decade its score has achieved a modest growth of 13.7% to reach This 2011 score of Andhra Pradesh is almost equal to or below the 2001 scores of Karnataka (0.48); Tamil Nadu (0.53) and West Bengal (0.47).

12 12 Table 7. Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index Scores STATES Net Scores KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL ANDHRA PRADESH Similarly amongst the second category of states Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal are important to analyse, because these states have done well in devolution index than the rest of the states. The paper tries to find out the reasons why the above mentioned states irrespective of having respective ranks of 2, 3 and 4 on devolution index 2009, have not achieved substantial growth in their scores over the decade( ). With respect to states in the third category which includes Punjab and Assam this paper would not focus on Assam because it started in 2001 with a low score of 0.39 and has achieved a score of 0.44 in a decade ( 2011). This is quite low comparing the of other states in 2001 for example Karnataka (0.48); Tamil Nadu (0.53) and West Bengal (0.47) Table 8. Percentage Change ( ) Devolution Index Scores STATES Net Scores KARNATAKA TAMIL NADU WEST BENGAL ASSAM

13 13 Taking into consideration the states mentioned in Table 2 the correlation between the ranks of devolution index (2009) and human development index (2011) is This moderately positive correlation states that it is not necessary that by improvement in decentralization human development would automatically improve. Rather there might be certain other variables which determine the relationship between these two ranks. Infact this moderately positive correlation forms the basis for finding the causes why certain states despite having high decentralization scores or ranks have deteriorated in their human development index scores or ranks. 25 Comparison of 2011 and 2009 DI Scores Rank 2009 DI Rank Reasons This section would focus on contemplating reasons for relatively slow performance with respect to states in the second category which includes Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and West Bengal. The absence or presence of these set of factors are the reasons for better performance of states in the first category.

14 Caste Inequalities Considering the case of Tamil Nadu we find that caste and gender inequalities are still prevalent and even though the act ensures reservations there are various informal mechanisms in which a caste conscious society dilutes the reservation provision of the act. S.Viswanathan cited in The Hindu that In Tamil Nadu rich and powerful caste Hindu groups either forced Dalit aspirants to keep off the polls, or fielded handpicked farm workers as candidates, or auctioned the PRI posts to the highest bidder. Even if Dalits wins the election there have been various forms of discriminations and un-cooperative behaviour towards them. There are several instances in Tamil Nadu where they have been disrespectfully treated. There are five village panchayats in Tamil Nadu that are reserved for Dalits but there have been no elections conducted in these panchayats for initial two-five years term due to resistance from upper caste group. So what comes out of this case is that not merely by having a constitutional provision, rather there are certain other residual factors responsible for the effective functioning of the Acts. In one of the study being conducted by Evidence, a Madurai based organization, in Tamil Nadu amongst the 171 Dalit Panchayat Presidents interviewed there is evidence that un-touchability still prevails. Since most of them were not even allowed to sit on chairs; there was severe discrimination and most of the Panchayat presidents were ignorant about their constitutional rights with respect to un-touchability. The reality of the matter is that after a decade of passing Panchayati raj act, the caste Hindus have not co-operated with respect to conducting elections in Pappapatti, Keeripatti and Nataramangalam village in Tamil Nadu. These village Panchayats are reserved for Dalits, finally the Scheduled Caste/Scheduled Tribe Commission intervened and elections were held with great challenges for the state government. This clearly shows how even operationalizing

15 15 the constitutionally recognized duty of conducting regular, free and fair polls might be tweaked on the lines of caste. Amongst one more reason for relative decline in the position in index of Karnataka is the role of caste based politics. It has deepened its roots in village, the big national politics like Bhartiya Janta Party, Congress and Janta Dal(Secular) are also playing caste politics, particularly BJP and JD(S) polarised the Vokkaligas and Lingayats. 3.2 Gender Inequality There are several cases where Dalit women who cook food for mid-day meal scheme faces discrimination and social boycott. This was being reported for various villages in Kadayampatti Union in Salem district, Tamil Nadu. Parents have been voicing their boycott for these Dalit women by preaching their children not to have food cooked by these women and it is a sin to eat food cooked by them. Another evisdence for the prevailing gender inequality comes from the Human Development Report conducted by Gandhigram University for the period The study shows how Deeply rooted gender inequality has led to denial of access to women access to health care in Nagapathinam, Tamil Nadu. The study shows how gender inequality has led to vicious cycle of poverty of health. There were several issues which were highlighted in the study which includes the patriarchal structure, multiple pregnancies, and preference for sons and women not having voice to take a stand against their families. This report highlights high incidence of still births, Infant mortality rates, maternal mortality rates and antenatal anaemia in Nagapathinam.

16 Caste & Gender Discrimination: Double Marginalisation There are also cases amongst second category states where there is not just discrimination due to caste but it has been further intensified when gender component is added to it. This leads to dual burden of being a women and belonging to lower caste. A specific case of a Dalit woman named A.Kalaimani, a village Panchayat president of Kara Vadatheru village Panchayat near Vadakadu, Tamil Nadu. She was being denied the rights to hoist the national flag on republic day from the Panchayat office by the people from Kallar Community. This case highlights how caste restricts the freedom of people even with respect to some of the basic rights. There is yet another case of Valli Deivanai, a Dalit woman, who is the president of Pasuvapatti village Panchayat in Chennimalai block, Erode district. She was not allowed to occupy the chair allotted for the elected president. 3.4 Inequality in Literacy Another factor which needs to be taken into consideration while comparing the ranks of states in devolution index and human development index is the rate of literacy prevailing in these states. If we take into consideration the literacy rates in Kerala it is higher in comparison to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. Table 9. States Literacy Rate (2011 Census) Literacy Rate 2011 census Literacy Rate Male (2011 census) Literacy Rate Female (2011 census) Gap (Male- Female) Kerala 93.90% 96.00% 92.00% 4.00% Tamil 80.30% 86.80% 73.90% 12.90% Nadu Karnataka 75.60% 82.80% 68.10% 14.70%

17 17 From the above table we can observe that the gap between male and female literacy is higher in the case of Karnataka in comparison to Kerala. This higher gap highlights the extent of gender inequality prevalent in the society % 90.00% 80.00% 70.00% 60.00% 50.00% 40.00% 30.00% 20.00% 10.00% 0.00% 93.90% 96.00% 92.00% 86.80% 80.30% 82.80% 73.90% 75.60% 68.10% Literacy Rate 2011 census Literacy Rate Male (2011 census) Literacy Rate Female (2011 census) Kerala Tamil Nadu Karnataka Yet another variable that needs to be taken into consideration while discussing the literacy rates is the spending of these three states with respect to education. The underlying table shows the proportion of developmental expenditure on education of these three states. Table 10. Proportion of developmental expenditure on education States 1980/ / / / / / / /98 Kerala Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu West Bengal Source: Calculated from data given in RBI bulletins (various issues) The above chart clearly highlights that the proportion of developmental expenditure on education is high in Kerala compared to other states. The social welfare spending pattern could directly contribute to higher human development index.

18 Intra-state Variations. There are variations even among the states for example within Karnataka gender and income inequality is relatively higher in the northern and north eastern part. The Human Development index of these regions such as Yadgir, Raichur, Bagalkot, Bijapur is very low. Table 11. Districts Literacy (2001 & 2011 census) Karnataka. Literacy % (2001) Literacy % (2011) Districts Literacy % (2001) Literacy % (2011) Bangalore 82.96% 88.48% Yadgir 39.90% 52.36% Dakshina 83.25% 88.62% Raichur 48.81% 60.46% Kannada Udupi 81.25% 86.29% Chamarajanagar 50.87% 61.12% Uttara Kannada 76.60% 84.03% Gulburga 54.34% 65.65% Taking into consideration the gap with respect to literacy within Karnataka, the picture that comes out is that there is huge variation within the state from Bangalore s (84.48%) and Yadgir s (52.36%) the gap is 36.12%. Even the gender gaps within the district shows that there is regional variation for example it is lowest for Bangalore 7.02% and is highest for Yadgir 22.02%. Table 12. Districts Literacy %(Male) Literacy (2011 census) Karnataka. Literacy % (Female) Districts Literacy %(Male) Literacy % (Female) Bangalore Yadgir Dakshina Raichur Kannada Udupi Chamarajanagar Uttara Kannada Gulbarga

19 19 The above table shows the variation within the state with respect to male and female literacy. The most dramatic picture comes for the Yadgir district especially with respect to female literacy. According to Karnataka state Human development report 2005 there are huge variations within the state. Comparing the Human Development Scores of Raichur with Bangalore urban with a score of what comes out is that within the same state there is a difference of human development score of a. Health Care Table 13. Health Care spending in India, Percent Spent by Per capita expenditure (Rs.) Household Public Other Per capita Public expenditure State Kerala Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Karnataka

20 20 Tamil Nadu Punjab Assam All India Source: Report of National Commission on Macroeconomics and Health, Government of India 2005 The above chart shows that maximum per capita public expenditure on health care is in case of Punjab followed by Kerala in the year This has helped Punjab to achieve high health index component of Human development index. Even though the devolution of powers in case of Punjab being as low as (according to devolution index 2009) in comparison to Kerala s devolution score of the state has provided better support with respect to health care. Table 14. States Human Development Index and its Components by States, & Health Index 2000 Health Index 2008 Income Index Income Index Education Index Education Index Kerala Gujarat Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu West Bengal Punjab Assam Source: India Human Development Report 2011.

21 Health Index 2008 Income Index Education Index According to the above mentioned table and graph with respect to Gujarat the contribution from health index to human development index has been much more compared to its other components. Gujarat with respect to health care have come up with innovative plans for maternal health, child health and reducing disease burden. There are some of the successful schemes for example Chiranjeevi Yojana (a public private partnership); Bal Sakha Yojna; Mamta divas; beti vadhavo; E-mamta etc. Taking into consideration the case of Punjab their health index in 2000 itself was very high (second among above mentioned states), further there has been an improvement. In Punjab income index is also very high form the year 2000 and has further improved consequently yielding better scores. Punjab has also got a better score in Education index it ranks third in the education index of the above considered states. So the case of Punjab clearly shows that decentralization does not necessarily yield better Human Development Index score. The decentralization index score for Punjab is as low as but it has been able improve its score from 0.54 to 0.61 over the decade.

22 22 Table 15. & I for specific Indian States State I Ratio Loss (%) Rank Rank I Difference Kerala Karnataka Tamil Nadu India The above mentioned table highlights the inequality adjusted human development index (I) clearly shows that first category states namely Kerala have no difference in their rank and Inequality adjusted Human Development Index ranks which is an evidence of low levels of inequality here in comparison to Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Table 16. Key Indicators: Indian States PPP Income per capita (PPP 2008 $) Life Expectancy at birth. (years) ( ) Mean Years of Schooling (years) (2004/05) School Life Expectancy (Years) (2007/08) State Kerala Karnataka Tamil Nadu India The above table shows the Purchasing Power Parity income has a direct relationship with the other three components namely life expectancy at birth, mean years of schooling and school life expectancy. However the caveat that needs to be considered is that this might be two way relationship like mean years of schooling contributing to improvement in purchasing power parity per capita. Decentralization will not help all societies in improving human development unless presence of certain favourable condition to accommodate decentralization. The society which

23 23 has higher inequality particularly gender inequality, caste discrimination, caste domination in the village politics are not going to improve the Human Development Index. Kerala has been able to benefit from decentralization in comparison to Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, because the first category of states has some favourable social, political and economic condition. In Kerala the gender inequality is less; female literacy rate is high, not much caste politics in village level and so on. And in Gujarat they have focussed more on health care than other states, and caste politics has been losing it importance due to more urbanisation. Conclusion This paper started with the purpose of finding the correlation of devolution index (2009) with human development index (2011) and the results from this exercise revealed that there is a moderate positive correlation between the two variables. However to further find out the reasons behind not so better performance of some states which are high on decentralization the paper considers that there are certain preconditions or pre-requisites requires benefiting from decentralization. These set of preconditions of ground work includes certain favourable social political and economic conditions that were typically present in the first category of states. Which means even before the introduction of decentralization the initial endowments with respect to social capital was high in these states and so they were better able to absorb the benefits from decentralization and further improve on their human development index. There was relatively less inequality prevalent, caste politics was less active and high female literacy in the states considered in first category. Even considering the proportion of developmental expenditure on education (table 10) the analysis that comes forward is that category 1 states (Kerala & Andhra Pradesh) are spending more that category 2 states

24 24 (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal). As is being shown in Table 11 there is also high variation within the state of Karnataka (category 2). With respect to health care spending also Table 13 clearly comes out that category 1 states are spending more in comparison to category 2.

25 25 References- 1. Planning Commission, Mid-term Appraisal of the Eleventh Five Year Plan Governance. _gover.pdf 2. National Council of Applied Economics Research, An Index of Devolution for Assessing Environment for Panchayati Raj Institutions in the States, Ministry of Panchayati Raj, New Delhi State Ranks Second in Devolution of Power to Panchayat Raj Bodies. The Hindu Constitutionally Empowered Act. The Hindu Now, the Food They Cook Is untouchable. The Hindu Gender Inequality Fails Women s Access to Healthcare. The Hindu Literacy Rate In Indian State: Census TheOnlineGK /. 8. Gender Gap in Literacy Still a Matter of Concern. The Hindu Panchayati Raj Update, Our panchayats- Our Future. Institute of Social Science. Nineteenth Year of Publication (February 2012), viewed on 21 September 2012, viewed on 01 September 2012.

26 26 List of Tables. 1. Indicators used for calculation Devolution Index and Sub-Indices. Table 1 2. and Devolution Index of various Indian States. Table 2 3. Scores (2001 & 2011); Net Scores; Percentage change & DI Scores. Table 3 4. High % Change High Devolution Index. Table 4 5. Low Change High Devolution Index. Table 5 6. High % Change Low Devolution Index. Table 6 7. scores 2001 & 2012, Net Scores, percentage change and DI Scores (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal & Andhra Pradesh) Table 7 8. scores 2001 & 2012, Net Scores, percentage change and DI Scores (Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal & Assam) Table 8 9. Literacy rates 2011 (Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka) Table Proportion of developmental expenditure on education. Table Literacy (2001 & 2011 census) Karnataka. Table Literacy (2011 census) Karnataka. Table Health Care spending in India, Table Human Development Index and its Components by States, & Table & I for specific Indian States Table Key Indicators: Indian States. Table 16.

27 27 Abbreviations. 1. Devolution Index DI 2. Human Development Index- 3. Inequality Adjusted Human Development Index- I 4. National Council of Applied Economic Research NCAER 5. Panchayati Raj Institutions PRI s 6. Functions, funds and functionaries 3F s 7. State Finance Commission SFC 8. State Election Commission SEC 9. District Planning Committee DPC 10. Gram Panchayat- GP

Public Affairs Index (PAI)

Public Affairs Index (PAI) Public Affairs Index (PAI) A Closer look at Andhra Pradesh NOTE: All the data and rankings presented in PAI represent the united Andhra Pradesh (before the bifurcation) Contents of the Presentation About

More information

International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai (INDIA)

International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai (INDIA) Kunal Keshri (kunalkeshri.lrd@gmail.com) (Senior Research Fellow, e-mail:) Dr. R. B. Bhagat (Professor & Head, Dept. of Migration and Urban Studies) International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai

More information

Policy for Regional Development. V. J. Ravishankar Indian Institute of Public Administration 7 th December, 2006

Policy for Regional Development. V. J. Ravishankar Indian Institute of Public Administration 7 th December, 2006 Policy for Regional Development V. J. Ravishankar Indian Institute of Public Administration 7 th December, 2006 Why is regional equity an issue? Large regional disparities represent serious threats as

More information

EXTRACT THE STATES REORGANISATION ACT, 1956 (ACT NO.37 OF 1956) PART III ZONES AND ZONAL COUNCILS

EXTRACT THE STATES REORGANISATION ACT, 1956 (ACT NO.37 OF 1956) PART III ZONES AND ZONAL COUNCILS EXTRACT THE STATES REORGANISATION ACT, 1956 (ACT NO.37 OF 1956) PART III ZONES AND ZONAL COUNCILS Establishment of Zonal Councils. 15. As from the appointed day, there shall be a Zonal Council for each

More information

Perspective on Forced Migration in India: An Insight into Classed Vulnerability

Perspective on Forced Migration in India: An Insight into Classed Vulnerability Perspective on in India: An Insight into Classed Vulnerability By Protap Mukherjee* and Lopamudra Ray Saraswati* *Ph.D. Scholars Population Studies Division Centre for the Study of Regional Development

More information

RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS

RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS 46 RECENT CHANGING PATTERNS OF MIGRATION AND SPATIAL PATTERNS OF URBANIZATION IN WEST BENGAL: A DEMOGRAPHIC ANALYSIS Raju Sarkar, Research Scholar Population Research Centre, Institute for Social and Economic

More information

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN POST REFORM INDIA

FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN POST REFORM INDIA Man In India, 96 (4) : 1075-1082 Serials Publications FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT AND REGIONAL DISPARITIES IN POST REFORM INDIA Ripudaman Singh The largest democracy, second largest population and third

More information

Online Appendix: Conceptualization and Measurement of Party System Nationalization in Multilevel Electoral Systems

Online Appendix: Conceptualization and Measurement of Party System Nationalization in Multilevel Electoral Systems Online Appendix: Conceptualization and Measurement of Party System Nationalization in Multilevel Electoral Systems Schakel, Arjan H. and Swenden, Wilfried (2016) Rethinking Party System Nationalization

More information

Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions

Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions Women Empowerment in Panchayati Raj Institutions Om Prakash Bairva Abstract The political scenario is changing at grass root level i.e., panchayati raj institutions having 33 per cent of women reservation

More information

Socio Economic and Regional Disparities: Some Implications for India

Socio Economic and Regional Disparities: Some Implications for India Int. Journal of Management and Development Studies 5(4): 61-66 (2016) ISSN (Online): 2320-0685. ISSN (Print): 2321-1423 Impact Factor: 0.715 Socio Economic and Regional Disparities: Some Implications for

More information

Table 1: Financial statement of MGNREG scheme

Table 1: Financial statement of MGNREG scheme MGNREGA AND MINIMUM WAGE DEBATE - A fight for the right to get minimum wage The Government of India has introduced several social security schemes, but the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee

More information

Poverty alleviation programme in Maharashtra

Poverty alleviation programme in Maharashtra Poverty alleviation programme in Maharashtra 1. Mr. Dhiraj. R. Ovhal Asst. Prof. NSS College of Commerce & Eco. Tardeo. Mumbai 400034 2. Dr. Deepak. M. Salve The Bharat Education Society s Sant Gadge Maharaj

More information

CHAPTER 3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF MINORITIES OF INDIA

CHAPTER 3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF MINORITIES OF INDIA CHAPTER 3 SOCIO-ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF MINORITIES OF INDIA 73 List of Contents S.No. Chapter-3 Socio economic condition of Minorities of India on the Page number basis HDI indicators 3.1 Defination of

More information

Land Conflicts in India

Land Conflicts in India Land Conflicts in India AN INTERIM ANALYSIS November 2016 Background Land and resource conflicts in India have deep implications for the wellbeing of the country s people, institutions, investments, and

More information

POVERTY BACKGROUND PAPER

POVERTY BACKGROUND PAPER CAPE India, Supplementary Linked Document 3 POVERTY BACKGROUND PAPER 1. This report provides an overview of poverty trends in India in recent years, highlighting the diversity of these trends across India

More information

INDIA ELECTORAL LAWS

INDIA ELECTORAL LAWS INDIA ELECTORAL LAWS The President and Vice-President The President of India Election of President Manner of election of President Term of office of President 52. The President of India.- There shall be

More information

MIGRATION AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA

MIGRATION AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA 1 Working Paper 414 MIGRATION AND URBAN POVERTY IN INDIA SOME PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS William Joe Priyajit Samaiyar U. S. Mishra September 2009 2 Working Papers can be downloaded from the Centre s website

More information

Calculating Economic Freedom

Calculating Economic Freedom 2 Calculating Economic Freedom Laveesh Bhandari 1 Background As discussed in the previous chapter, the term economic freedom can have many connotations and depending upon which one is used the measurement

More information

Tribal Women Experiencing Panchayati Raj Institution in India with Special Reference to Arunachal Pradesh

Tribal Women Experiencing Panchayati Raj Institution in India with Special Reference to Arunachal Pradesh IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS) Volume 22, Issue 1, Ver. 2 (January 2017) PP 46-50 e-issn: 2279-0837, p-issn: 2279-0845. www.iosrjournals.org Tribal Women Experiencing Panchayati

More information

Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis

Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis Published Quarterly Mangalore, South India ISSN 0972-5997 Volume 5, Issue 4; Oct -Dec 2006 Original Article Population Stabilization in India: A Sub-State level Analysis Authors Brijesh C. Purohit Advisor,

More information

An analysis into variation in houseless population among rural and urban, among SC,ST and non SC/ST in India.

An analysis into variation in houseless population among rural and urban, among SC,ST and non SC/ST in India. An analysis into variation in houseless population among rural and urban, among SC,ST and non SC/ST in India. Abstract: Subash Kumar Research scholar, department of economics Jammu University The census

More information

Illiteracy Flagging India

Illiteracy Flagging India Learning Community: 7(3): 287-295, December, 2016 2016 New Delhi Publishers. All rights reserved DOI: 10.5958/2231-458X.2016.00031.2 Illiteracy Flagging India Shiv Prakash Katiyar Independent Researcher,

More information

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN STATE ASSEMBLIES

POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN STATE ASSEMBLIES POLITICAL PARTICIPATION AND REPRESENTATION OF WOMEN IN STATE ASSEMBLIES Manpreet Kaur Brar Research Scholar, Dept. of Political Science, Punjabi University, Patiala, India ABSTRACT Throughout the world,

More information

Women and Wage Discrimination in India: A Critical Analysis March

Women and Wage Discrimination in India: A Critical Analysis March International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 2 Issue 4 ǁ April. 2013ǁ PP.06-12 Women and Wage Discrimination in India: A Critical

More information

Social Science Class 9 th

Social Science Class 9 th Social Science Class 9 th Poverty as a Challenge Social exclusion Vulnerability Poverty Line Poverty Estimates Vulnerable Groups Inter-State Disparities Global Poverty Scenario Causes of Poverty Anti-Poverty

More information

KERALA: A UNIQUE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL IN INDIA?

KERALA: A UNIQUE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL IN INDIA? Chapter 3 KERALA: A UNIQUE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT MODEL IN INDIA? 3.1 Introduction 53 3.2 The Demographic Dimension 59 3.3 The Health Dimension 65 3.4 The Knowledge Dimension 70 3.5 The Standard of Living Dimension

More information

REGIONAL INEQUALITY OF SOCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

REGIONAL INEQUALITY OF SOCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA REGIONAL INEQUALITY OF SOCIAL SECTOR DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Hemanta Saikia* Debraj Roy College, Golaghat, Assam-78562 (India); Email: hemantaassam@yahoo.com *Address for correspondence Biographical note

More information

Working Paper. Why So Few Women in Poli/cs? Evidence from India. Mudit Kapoor Shamika Ravi. July 2014

Working Paper. Why So Few Women in Poli/cs? Evidence from India. Mudit Kapoor Shamika Ravi. July 2014 Working Paper Why So Few Women in Poli/cs? Evidence from India Mudit Kapoor Shamika Ravi July 2014 Brookings Ins8tu8on India Center, 2014 Why So Few Women in Politics? Evidence from India Mudit Kapoor

More information

OCCASIONAL PAPER. India: Towards the Millennium Development Goals. United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report Office

OCCASIONAL PAPER. India: Towards the Millennium Development Goals. United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report Office United Nations Development Programme Human Development Report Office OCCASIONAL PAPER Background paper for HDR 2003 India: Towards the Millennium Development Goals Nirupam Bajpai 2003 Background Paper

More information

DISPARITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE CONTEXT OF SCHEDULED CASTES IN INDIAN SOCIETY

DISPARITY IN HIGHER EDUCATION: THE CONTEXT OF SCHEDULED CASTES IN INDIAN SOCIETY IMPACT: International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature (IMPACT: IJRHAL) ISSN(E): 2321-8878; ISSN(P): 2347-4564 Vol. 2, Issue 4, Apr 2014, 35-42 Impact Journals DISPARITY IN HIGHER

More information

Rural Labour Migration in India: Magnitude and Characteristics

Rural Labour Migration in India: Magnitude and Characteristics I nte rnational J ournal of Applie d Rese arc h 2015; 1(2): 114-118 ISSN Print: 2394-7500 ISSN Online: 2394-5869 Impact Factor: 3.4 IJAR 2015; 1(2): 114-118 www.allresearchjournal.com Received: 15-12-2014

More information

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS LOK SABHA STARRED QUESTION NO.*158 TO BE ANSWERED ON THE 8 th MARCH, 2016/PHALGUNA 18, 1937 (SAKA) FLOOD RELIEF *158. SHRIMATI KOTHAPALLI GEETHA: SHRI CHHEDI

More information

IMPACT OF QUOTA SYSTEM ON WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT

IMPACT OF QUOTA SYSTEM ON WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT Abstract: IMPACT OF QUOTA SYSTEM ON WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT There is a growing demand for increasing presence of women in political decisionmaking. It is argued that women need to be empowered in the dominion

More information

FACTORS INFLUENCING POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC REFORMS IN POVERTY REDUCTION

FACTORS INFLUENCING POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC REFORMS IN POVERTY REDUCTION Journal of Social and Economic Policy, Vol. 11, No. 1, June 2014, pp. 83-91 FACTORS INFLUENCING POVERTY AND THE ROLE OF ECONOMIC REFORMS IN POVERTY REDUCTION N. NARAYANA * Poverty is a situation of helplessness

More information

PARTY WISE SEATS WON AND VOTES POLLED (%),LOK SABHA 2009

PARTY WISE SEATS WON AND VOTES POLLED (%),LOK SABHA 2009 PARTY WISE AND (%),LOK SABHA 2009 S. NO. PARTY NAME PARTY STATE NAME TOTAL ELECTORS 1 All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam S Tamil Nadu 30390960 41620460 9 6953591 22.88 2 All India Forward Bloc S

More information

Regional Inequality in India: A Fresh Look. Nirvikar Singh + Laveesh Bhandari Aoyu Chen + Aarti Khare* Revised December 2, 2002.

Regional Inequality in India: A Fresh Look. Nirvikar Singh + Laveesh Bhandari Aoyu Chen + Aarti Khare* Revised December 2, 2002. Regional Inequality in India: A Fresh Look Nirvikar Singh + Laveesh Bhandari Aoyu Chen + Aarti Khare* Revised December 2, 2002 Abstract There are concerns that regional inequality in India has increased

More information

DYNAMICS OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN KARNATAKA*

DYNAMICS OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN KARNATAKA* Draft: Not to be quoted DYNAMICS OF LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN KARNATAKA* Kripa Ananthpur Asst. Professor, Madras Institute Of Development Studies, Chennai, India. kripa@mids.ac.in * This paper is a product of

More information

Internal Migration for Education and Employment among Youth in India

Internal Migration for Education and Employment among Youth in India WP-2014-004 Internal Migration for Education and Employment among Youth in India S Chandrasekhar, Ajay Sharma Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai January 2014 http://www.igidr.ac.in/pdf/publication/wp-2014-004.pdf

More information

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF TOURIST HOUSEHOLDS

DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF TOURIST HOUSEHOLDS DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF TOURIST HOUSEHOLDS It has been estimated that there were about 196 million households in India in the year 2002: 141 million (72 per cent) in rural and 55 million (28 per cent) in

More information

Internal Migration, Remittance, and Contraceptive Use in India. Session 265: Internal Migration and Wellbeing. IUSSP 2013 Busan, Korea

Internal Migration, Remittance, and Contraceptive Use in India. Session 265: Internal Migration and Wellbeing. IUSSP 2013 Busan, Korea Internal Migration, Remittance, and Contraceptive Use in India Session 265: Internal Migration and Wellbeing IUSSP 2013 Busan, Korea Apoorva Jadhav Population Studies Center, University of Pennsylvania

More information

Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers. Fig.2 : Consistency in the seats won by the BJP: (See page 66 for text)

Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers. Fig.2 : Consistency in the seats won by the BJP: (See page 66 for text) Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers Fig.2 : Consistency in the seats won by the BJP: 1989-2004 (See page 66 for text) Transactions Vol. 36, No. 1, 2014 61 Trans. Inst. Indian Geographers Fig.3 : Consistency

More information

The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India

The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India The Redistributive Effects of Political Reservation for Minorities: Evidence from India Aimee Chin 1 and Nishith Prakash 2, 3 This Draft: February 2009 Abstract We examine the impact of political reservation

More information

Women Participation in Panchayati Raj: A Case Study of Karimganj District of Assam Suchitra Das

Women Participation in Panchayati Raj: A Case Study of Karimganj District of Assam Suchitra Das International Journal of Humanities & Social Science Studies (IJHSSS) A Peer-Reviewed Bi-monthly Bi-lingual Journal of Humanities & Social Science ISSN: 2349-6959 (Online), ISSN: 2349-6711 (Print) Volume-I,

More information

The Impact of Reservation in the Panchayati Raj: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment

The Impact of Reservation in the Panchayati Raj: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment The Impact of Reservation in the Panchayati Raj: Evidence from a Nationwide Randomized Experiment by Raghabendra Chattopadhyay and Esther Duflo November 2003 1 Introduction The 73rd Amendment paved the

More information

WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT IN HARYANA: ROLE OF FEMALE REPRESENTATIVES OF PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS

WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT IN HARYANA: ROLE OF FEMALE REPRESENTATIVES OF PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS WOMEN S EMPOWERMENT IN HARYANA: ROLE OF FEMALE REPRESENTATIVES OF PANCHAYATI RAJ INSTITUTIONS Dr. Ritesh Nagpal* *Assistant Professor, Department of Public Administration, Chandigarh, India. INTRODUCTION

More information

A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY

A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY A PREVENTIVE APPROACH TO AVOID POVERTY FROM SOCIETY SUNITA RANI Research Scholar, department of economics CDLU, SIRSA (India) ABSTRACT The main reason of undevloping country is poverty. India is also one

More information

Legal Framework and Citizen Participation in South Asia Regional Report (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh)

Legal Framework and Citizen Participation in South Asia Regional Report (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) Legal Framework and Citizen Participation in (India, Nepal, and Bangladesh) LogoLink research Legal Frameworks for Citizen Participation Manoj Rai PRIA - Society for Participatory Research in Asia LogoLink

More information

Fragmentation and Decline in India s State Assemblies: A review

Fragmentation and Decline in India s State Assemblies: A review Fragmentation and Decline in India s State Assemblies: A review 1967-2007 Francesca Refsum Jensenius and Pavithra Suryanarayan This is a pre-copyedited version of an article forthcoming in Asian Survey

More information

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT

ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT (ISSN: 2321-4155), 33-46 Economics ECONOMIC CONDITIONS OF THE MIGRANT WORKERS IN KERALA: A STUDY IN THE TRIVANDRUM DISTRICT Dilip Saikia* ABSTRACT In recent years, Kerala has been experiencing a large

More information

AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SCHEDULED CASTES: A STUDY OF BORDER AREAS OF JAMMU DISTRICT

AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SCHEDULED CASTES: A STUDY OF BORDER AREAS OF JAMMU DISTRICT Indian Streams Research Journal ISSN:-2230-7850 AN ANALYSIS OF SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS OF SCHEDULED CASTES: A STUDY OF BORDER AREAS OF JAMMU DISTRICT ORIGINAL ARTICLE Pradeep Arora and Virendar Koundal Research

More information

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] POLITICAL PARTIES SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] 1. How do political parties shape public opinion? Explain with three examples. Political parties shape public opinion in the following ways. They

More information

TOR for Gender Convergence Officer (GCO)

TOR for Gender Convergence Officer (GCO) Advertisement Government of India Ministry of Women and Child Development National Resource Centre for Women National Mission for Empowerment of Women With a view to empower women socially, economically,

More information

Access from the University of Nottingham repository: Pub.

Access from the University of Nottingham repository:  Pub. Spary, Carole (2014) Women candidates and party nomination trends in India: evidence from the 2009 general election. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics, 52 (1). pp. 109-138. ISSN 1743-9094 Access from

More information

Gender-based Wage Differentials in India: Evidence Using a Matching Comparisons Method 1

Gender-based Wage Differentials in India: Evidence Using a Matching Comparisons Method 1 Gender-based Wage Differentials in India: Evidence Using a Matching Comparisons Method 1 Tushar Agrawal Associate Fellow National Council of Applied Economic Research (NCAER) Parisila Bhawan, 11- Indraprastha

More information

not to be republished NCERT MIGRATION Types, Causes and Consequences Unit I Chapter 2

not to be republished NCERT MIGRATION Types, Causes and Consequences Unit I Chapter 2 Unit I Chapter 2 MIGRATION Types, Causes and Consequences Ram Babu, working as an engineer in Bhilai Steel Plant, Chhattisgarh, was born in a small village of district Bhojpur, Bihar. At an early age of

More information

Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India.

Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India. Are Female Leaders Good for Education? Evidence from India. Irma Clots-Figueras Department of Economics, London School of Economics JOB MARKET PAPER October 2005 Abstract This paper studies the impact

More information

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS

GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS GOVERNMENT OF INDIA MINISTRY OF HOME AFFAIRS LOK SABHA UNSTARRED QUESTION NO. 70 TO BE ANSWERED ON THE 21 ST JULY, 2015/ASHADHA 30, 1937 (SAKA) HUMAN TRAFFICKING 70. SHRI SUNIL KUMAR SINGH: SHRI MD. BADARUDDOZA

More information

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS]

SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] DEVELOPMENT SHORT ANSWER TYPE QUESTIONS [3 MARKS] 1. What is meant by economic development? What are the two bases of measuring economic development of a country? Economic development can be defined as

More information

Internal Migration in India Initiative

Internal Migration in India Initiative Internal Migration in India Initiative Internal Migration in India Initiative What is the Internal Migration in India Initiative (IMII)? The Internal Migration in India Initiative (IMII) was jointly launched

More information

FEMALE MIGRATION TO MEGA CITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Kailash C. Das and Arunananda Murmu

FEMALE MIGRATION TO MEGA CITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Kailash C. Das and Arunananda Murmu FEMALE MIGRATION TO MEGA CITIES AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA Kailash C. Das and Arunananda Murmu Abstract Pattern and causes of female migration are changing in India. An increasing proportion of women are

More information

The Gender Youth Migration Initiative A UNESCO Online Initiative on Migration

The Gender Youth Migration Initiative A UNESCO Online Initiative on Migration The Gender Youth Migration Initiative A UNESCO Online Initiative on Migration With the support of The Gender Youth Migration Initiative What is the Gender Youth Migration Initiative (GYM)? The Gender Youth

More information

econstor Make Your Publications Visible.

econstor Make Your Publications Visible. econstor Make Your Publications Visible. A Service of Wirtschaft Centre zbwleibniz-informationszentrum Economics Suryanarayana, M. H.; Agrawal, Ankush Working Paper Promoting human development in India:

More information

THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992

THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992 1 of 15 7/27/2010 4:32 PM THE CONSTITUTION (SEVENTY-THIRD AMENDMENT) ACT, 1992 Statement of Objects and Reasons appended to the Constitution (Seventy-second Amendment) Bill, 1991 which was enacted as the

More information

Regional disparities in india

Regional disparities in india Regional disparities in india N.J.Kurian I. Historical Trends India has had a glorious past. Our cultural heritage is comparable to that of China or Egypt. We had great kings and kingdoms. Half of the

More information

Sri Lanka. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR

Sri Lanka. Country coverage and the methodology of the Statistical Annex of the 2015 HDR Human Development Report 2015 Work for human development Briefing note for countries on the 2015 Human Development Report Sri Lanka Introduction The 2015 Human Development Report (HDR) Work for Human Development

More information

5.0 OBJECTIVES 5.1 INTRODUCTION. Structure. 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Migration : Significance, Concept, Forms and Characteristics

5.0 OBJECTIVES 5.1 INTRODUCTION. Structure. 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Migration : Significance, Concept, Forms and Characteristics UNIT 5 MIGRATION Structure 5.0 Objectives 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Migration : Significance, Concept, Forms and Characteristics 5.2.1 Sociological Significance 5.2.2 Concept 5.2.3 Forms 5.2.4 Characteristics

More information

Political commitment in India s social policy implementation: Shaping the performance of MGNREGA

Political commitment in India s social policy implementation: Shaping the performance of MGNREGA ESID Working Paper No. 50 Political commitment in India s social policy implementation: Shaping the performance of MGNREGA Deepta Chopra May, 2015 1 Research Fellow, Institute of Development Studies, UK

More information

Political Participation of Women in Gram Panchayat Elections in Odisha: A Case Study of Hindol Block in Dhenkanal District

Political Participation of Women in Gram Panchayat Elections in Odisha: A Case Study of Hindol Block in Dhenkanal District International Journal of Humanities and Social Science Invention ISSN (Online): 2319 7722, ISSN (Print): 2319 7714 Volume 2 Issue 2 ǁ February. 2013ǁ PP.38-46 Political Participation of Women in Gram Panchayat

More information

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF MUMBAI SUBURBAN DISTRICT

DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF MUMBAI SUBURBAN DISTRICT CHAPTER 3 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTIC OF MUMBAI SUBURBAN DISTRICT Introduction: Mumbai Suburban.District is the 31 st district formed in 1990 in the state of Maharashtra followed by the formation of other

More information

Opinion Polls in the context of Indian Parliamentary Democracy

Opinion Polls in the context of Indian Parliamentary Democracy Opinion Polls in the context of Indian Parliamentary Democracy Director Chennai Mathematical Institute rlk@cmi.ac.in Opinion Polls in the context of Indian Parliamentary Democracy - 1 Contents How can

More information

CHANGING CONTOURS OF DISTRICT COLLECTOR IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN INDIA

CHANGING CONTOURS OF DISTRICT COLLECTOR IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN INDIA CHANGING CONTOURS OF DISTRICT COLLECTOR IN LOCAL GOVERNANCE IN INDIA Nagendra Ambedkar Sole, PhD, Associate Prof. Head of the Department, Department of Public Policy Law and Governance, Central University

More information

GOVERNMENT OF MADHYA PRADESH. World Bank assisted. Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project (MPRCP) Vulnerability Framework.

GOVERNMENT OF MADHYA PRADESH. World Bank assisted. Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project (MPRCP) Vulnerability Framework. Public Disclosure Authorized GOVERNMENT OF MADHYA PRADESH SFG3457 Public Disclosure Authorized World Bank assisted Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project (MPRCP) Vulnerability Framework Public Disclosure

More information

Socio-Economic Causes of Rural to Urban Migration in India

Socio-Economic Causes of Rural to Urban Migration in India 138 ISSN 0975 5942 Vol.III(2), July-Dec 2011, pp.138-158 Visit: http://www.socialsciences-ejournal.org International Society for Asia-Pacific Studies (ISAPS), www.isapsindia.org Socio-Economic Causes of

More information

Perspectives. Delimitation in India. Methodological Issues

Perspectives. Delimitation in India. Methodological Issues Perspectives Delimitation in India Methodological Issues Previous exercises on the delimitation of Lok Sabha and assembly constituencies have been largely fair and satisfactory. However, the current delimitation

More information

CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS REGARDING THE MINORITIES

CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS REGARDING THE MINORITIES Chapter 2 CONSTITUTIONAL AND LEGISLATIVE PROVISIONS REGARDING THE MINORITIES Who are the minorities? 1. The Constitution of India uses the word minority or its plural form in some Articles 29 to 30 and

More information

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND

INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION I. BACKGROUND Bihar is the second most populous State of India, comprising a little more than 10 per cent of the country s population. Situated in the eastern part of the country, the state

More information

India's Silent Revolution

India's Silent Revolution CHRISTOPHE JAFFRELOT India's Silent Revolution The Rise ofthe Low Castes in North Indian Politics permanent black CONTENTS Acknowledgements page ν Introduction 1 The North-South opposition 5 The two ages

More information

CHAPTER - II DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL POPULATION

CHAPTER - II DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL POPULATION CHAPTER - II DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF RURAL POPULATION The study of population characteristic is one of the most important topics in the geographical analysis of any region. The element of man has

More information

Caste, Courts and Business

Caste, Courts and Business Caste, Courts and Business Tanika Chakraborty Anirban Mukherjee Sarani Saha Divya Shukla Abstract The growth of business, especially small and medium scale enterprises (SME) are critical for employment

More information

HOW MUCH DIFFERENCE DOES POLITICS MAKE? REGIME DIFFERENCES ACROSS INDIAN STATES AND RURAL POVERTY REDUCTION

HOW MUCH DIFFERENCE DOES POLITICS MAKE? REGIME DIFFERENCES ACROSS INDIAN STATES AND RURAL POVERTY REDUCTION HOW MUCH DIFFERENCE DOES POLITICS MAKE? REGIME DIFFERENCES ACROSS INDIAN STATES AND RURAL POVERTY REDUCTION John Harriss Development Studies Institute, LSE The objective of this paper is to attempt to

More information

DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA

DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA 1 DECENTRALISED MANAGEMENT OF EDUCATION IN INDIA Krishna Kant Tripathi Anjali Bajpai Management of education has to be decentralised in order to achieve the goal of Education for All, through devolving

More information

Population Bulletin INDIA APPROACHES REPLACEMENT FERTILITY BY CARL HAUB AND O.P. SHARMA POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU VOL. 70, NO. 1.

Population Bulletin INDIA APPROACHES REPLACEMENT FERTILITY BY CARL HAUB AND O.P. SHARMA POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU VOL. 70, NO. 1. POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU VOL. 70, NO. 1 AUGUST 2015 www.prb.org Population Bulletin BY CARL HAUB AND O.P. SHARMA INDIA APPROACHES REPLACEMENT FERTILITY POPULATION REFERENCE BUREAU The Population Reference

More information

Visualizing. Rights C E SR. Making Human Rights Accountability More Graphic. Center for Economic and Social Rights. fact sheet no.

Visualizing. Rights C E SR. Making Human Rights Accountability More Graphic. Center for Economic and Social Rights. fact sheet no. Center for Economic and Social Rights India Making Human Rights Accountability More Graphic This fact sheet is intended to contribute to ongoing monitoring work to hold states accountable for their economic

More information

The Other Indias : Two Analytical Narratives (Redistributive and Natural Resources) on States Development

The Other Indias : Two Analytical Narratives (Redistributive and Natural Resources) on States Development The Other Indias : Two Analytical Narratives (Redistributive and Natural Resources) on States Development 13 CHTER Please understand, Your Excellency that India is two countries: an India of Light, and

More information

Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya

Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya Regional Disparities in Employment and Human Development in Kenya Jacob Omolo 1 jackodhong@yahoo.com; omolo.jacob@ku.ac.ke ABSTRACT What are the regional disparities in employment and human development

More information

Empowerment of Women Representatives in Panchayati Raj Institution in Gulbarga District in Karnataka

Empowerment of Women Representatives in Panchayati Raj Institution in Gulbarga District in Karnataka Quest Journals Journal of Research in Agriculture and Animal Science Volume 2 ~ Issue 3 (2014) pp:09-14 ISSN(Online) : 2321-9459 www.questjournals.org Research Paper Empowerment of Women Representatives

More information

Human development in China. Dr Zhao Baige

Human development in China. Dr Zhao Baige Human development in China Dr Zhao Baige 19 Environment Twenty years ago I began my academic life as a researcher in Cambridge, and it is as an academic that I shall describe the progress China has made

More information

INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN EARNINGS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE: THE CASE OF INDIAN MEN. by Ashish Singh*

INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN EARNINGS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE: THE CASE OF INDIAN MEN. by Ashish Singh* roiw_485 79..106 Review of Income and Wealth Series 58, Number 1, March 2012 DOI: 10.1111/j.1475-4991.2011.00485.x INEQUALITY OF OPPORTUNITY IN EARNINGS AND CONSUMPTION EXPENDITURE: THE CASE OF INDIAN

More information

Published online: 07 Jun 2013.

Published online: 07 Jun 2013. This article was downloaded by: [IIPS - The Intl Inst for Population Scie], [R.B. Bhagat] On: 07 June 2013, At: 23:02 Publisher: Routledge Informa Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number:

More information

Contemporary Human Geography

Contemporary Human Geography Chapter 9 Lecture Contemporary Human Geography rd 3 Edition Chapter 9: Development Marc Healy Elgin Community College 9.1 Development Regions A developed country, also known as a More Developed Country

More information

IX Geography CHEPTER 6 : POPULATION

IX Geography CHEPTER 6 : POPULATION IX Geography CHEPTER 6 : POPULATION Introduction: The people are important to develop the economy and society. The people make and use resources and are themselves resources with varying quality. Resources,

More information

Measuring Inter-Personal Variations of Well-being in India: A Household-Level Study on Sen s Capability Approach

Measuring Inter-Personal Variations of Well-being in India: A Household-Level Study on Sen s Capability Approach Measuring Inter-Personal Variations of Well-being in India: A Household-Level Study on Sen s Capability Approach Anindita Sengupta (University of Burdwan, India) Paper Prepared for the IARIW 33 rd General

More information

INDIA ENTREPRENEURSHIP REPORT 2015

INDIA ENTREPRENEURSHIP REPORT 2015 INDIA ENTREPRENEURSHIP REPORT 2015 Fostering A New Wave Of Entrepreneurship Foreword Founded in 1959, Amway is today the world s largest Direct Selling FMCG Company in the world with operations in more

More information

India s Internal Labor Migration Paradox

India s Internal Labor Migration Paradox Policy Research Working Paper 8356 WPS8356 India s Internal Labor Migration Paradox The Statistical and the Real Gaurav Nayyar Kyoung Yang Kim Public Disclosure Authorized Public Disclosure Authorized

More information

Changing Economic Status and Life Style of Migrated Tribal Women s (A Geographical Study of Dindori District)

Changing Economic Status and Life Style of Migrated Tribal Women s (A Geographical Study of Dindori District) Changing Economic Status and Life Style of Migrated Tribal Women s (A Geographical Study of Dindori District) Dr. Lokesh Shrivastava D. Litt. 1, Dr. Ritu Rani 2, Shashikant Nag 3 Dept.of Post Graduate

More information

THE PREVENTION OF ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ACT, 1988 ACT NO. 46 OF 1988

THE PREVENTION OF ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ACT, 1988 ACT NO. 46 OF 1988 THE PREVENTION OF ILLICIT TRAFFIC IN NARCOTIC DRUGS AND PSYCHOTROPIC SUBSTANCES ACT, 1988 ACT NO. 46 OF 1988 [6th September, 1988.] An Act to provide for detention in certain cases for the purpose of preventing

More information

Original citation: Iyer, Lakshmi, Mani, Anandi, Mishra, Prachi and Topalova, Petia (2011) The power of political voice : women's political representation and crime in India. Working Paper. Coventry, UK:

More information

WomeninPolitics. EvidencefromtheIndianStates

WomeninPolitics. EvidencefromtheIndianStates WomeninPolitics. EvidencefromtheIndianStates IrmaClots-Figueras Department of Economics, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid September 11, 2008 Abstract Thispaperusespaneldatafromthe16largerstatesinIndiaduringtheperiod1967-2000

More information

Session 1. Session 1.1 Title Evolution of PRI Session 1.2 Title Constitution and establishment of GP

Session 1. Session 1.1 Title Evolution of PRI Session 1.2 Title Constitution and establishment of GP Session 1 Session 1.1 Title Evolution of PRI Session 1.2 Title Constitution and establishment of GP Instructor s Guide PowerPoint Slides Exercise Solution Participants Note Instructor s Guide Session 1

More information

A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups

A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups A Consultative Study on Synergy between Panchayati Raj Institutions and Self Help Groups Kaushik Roy & Rajesh Datta AHEAD Initiatives Addressing Hunger Empowerment And Development Foreword The subject

More information