2 Standards SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States Constitution. a. Explain how weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation and Daniel Shays Rebellion led to a call for a stronger central government. b. Evaluate the major arguments of the anti-federalists and Federalists during the debate on ratification of the Constitution as put forth in The Federalist concerning form of government, factions, checks and balances, and the power of the executive, including the roles of Alexander Hamilton and James Madison. c. Explain the key features of the Constitution, specifically the Great Compromise, separation of powers (influence of Montesquieu), limited government, and the issue of slavery. d. Analyze how the Bill of Rights serves as a protector of individual and states rights. SSUSH6 The student will analyze the nature of territorial and population growth and the impact of this growth in the early decades of the new nation. a. Explain the Northwest Ordinance s importance in the westward migration of Americans, and on slavery, public education, and the addition of new states.
3 Introductory Video
4 The Articles of Confederation After independence, states chose how they were to carry out a their own republican form of government 1777 Continental Congress adopted the Articles of Confederation (Ratified 1781) Some powers granted to central government but MOST were left up to individual states
5 Problems with the Articles Federal gov t could declare war and other foreign affairs Federal gov t has no power to collect taxes, relying only on contributions from states Resolving MAJOR issues required 2/3 of the states to approve (9 total) Any amendments to the Articles took the approval of all 13 states
6 Governing Western Lands The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Outlined the steps for a territory to apply for statehood. OH, IN, IL, MI, WI and parts of MN BANNED SLAVERY in these territories Led to increased interaction with Natives; broke the promise of the Proclamation of 1763 Called for establishment of free public schools
8 Shays s Rebellion (MA, ) Farmers in western MA (many veterans) were angered at state for calling in all debts owed and seizing land. Many farmers imprisoned for failure to pay Daniel Shays led charge to violently protest these taxes, foreclosures and imprisonments.
9 Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation Massachusetts was unsuccessful in quelling the rebellion. Private militia raised to stop protests. Event highlighted a weakness in the Articles; the inability of states to effectively respond to crisis situations.
10 Failure of a state to respond to a crisis situation.(2005) Hurricane Katrina, New Orleans, LA Inability of LA to respond
11 Call for a stronger central government Shays rebellion forced Americans to reevaluate the effectiveness of the Articles of Confederation in responding to the needs of its citizens. Led to a call for a stronger central government.
12 Constitutional Convention, 1787
13 Meeting of demi-gods in Philadelphia, 1787 Spring/Summer 1787, leaders from 12 states (except RI) met in Philadelphia at Independence Hall to REVISE the Articles of Confederation Elected George Washington as president of the convention
14 Federalists vs. Anti- Federalists Two different factions emerged from the debate over whether to revise the Articles or create a brand new Constitution Federalists (Washington, Madison, Hamilton); favored a strong central government Antifederalists- (Samuel Adams, Patrick Henry); favored states and individual rights, feared a strong central government would lead to tyranny
15 James Madison Rival to Hamilton at the Convention Father of the Constitution Believed a large republic with diverse interests would preserve the common good
16 Alexander Hamilton Rival to Madison at Convention Favored government ruled by aristocracy and monarchy Looked out for the interests of businessmen and the wealthy
17 Rival Plans of Government Delegates debated how best to distribute representatives to the new Congress for each state Virginia Plan proposed by Madison; bicameral (two house) legislature with larger populated states having more members New Jersey Plan would retain unicameral (one house) legislature and all states have EQUAL number of members
18 The Great Compromise Proposed bicameral legislature to appease both sides Senate EQUAL representation; 2 per state House of Representatives based on population Also divided power between federal and state governments (system known as Federalism)
19 Slavery and the Three- Fifths Compromise Debate sparked between Northern and Southern delegates South feared domination by North, which had far more free peoples South feared that the institution of slavery would be in jeopardy All knew that the issue of slavery could tear apart the newly formed country
20 Slavery and the Three- Fifths Compromise 1 st Constitution forbade Congress from blocking the importation of slaves for 20 years. 2 nd Slaves counted as 3/5 of a person in allocating state representation 3 rd All states required to return fugitive slaves to their owners
21 Separation of Powers In order to avoid potential tyranny from a King, the Founding Fathers agreed to separate the new government into three distinct branches. This idea came from the Enlightenment thinker baron de Montesquieu. (at right) Legislative Branch = make laws Executive Branch = enforce laws Judicial Branch = interpret laws
22 Checks and Balances each branch has the power to limit actions of the other two
23 Ratifying the Constitution Founding Fathers decided that ratification by only 9 states would be enough to put into law the new Constitution The Federalist Papers series of essays written by Hamilton, Madison and John Jay (left) The Federalist Papers promoted the views of the Federalist faction, supporting a strong central government. Still many states were Anti- Federalist and refused to ratify
24 Bill of Rights Only after Anti-Federalists were promised an individual Bill of Rights did they support ratification of the Constitution. Bill of Rights first 10 Amendments; composed by James Madison Intended to protect individuals and states from a strong central government and give them certain specified rights Included freedom of religion, petition, assembly, the press, legal rights, right to bear arms, etc. Anti-Federalists also stressed the idea of a limited government meaning that the federal government was giving ONLY the powers specifically granted to it in the Constitution.
25 Washington as President George Washington unanimously elected President by the Electoral College in 1789 and Set many precedents that future Presidents would follow. Created the Presidential cabinet, a group of advisors: Thomas Jefferson served as Secretary of State Alexander Hamilton served as Secretary of the Treasury. Washington also favored nonintervention in Europe and avoided siding with France against Great Britain in their continued fighting.
26 How has the power of the President changed? Use the census results from 1790 and 2000 to compare and contrast: million people ; million people
27 The Whiskey Rebellion In order to pay back Revolutionary War debt, Washington passed a series of taxes. One tax in particular hit farmers in Western Pennsylvania hard. These farmers used excess crop to produce whiskey which they also used as currency. To protest the new taxes, the farmers led a revolt against tax collectors in the area.
28 Washington Responds In order to crush the revolting farmers in Western Pennsylvania, Washington orders in the federal troops. They quickly force the farmers to disband. Washington s quick, firm handling of the Whiskey Rebellion proved that this new Constitution could in fact work.
30 The Formation of Political Parties 2004 Electoral Map: Kerry(blue) v. Bush (red) How has the two party system divided our country?
31 Washington Warns of Political Parties "It serves to distract the Public Councils, and enfeeble the Public Administration...agitates the Community with ill-founded jealousies and false alarms; kindles the animosity of one...against another...it opens the door to foreign influence and corruption...thus the policy and the will of one country are subjected to the policy and will of another."
32 Formation of Political Parties Political parties had their origin in the difference of opinion between Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton. Both men felt differently about how the new nation should be run and operated. Hamilton s group (known as the Federalists) wanted to further expand the power of the government and create a national bank. Jefferson s group (known as the Democratic-Republicans) believed the federal government should limit itself to powers delegated in the Constitution.
33 Difference Between Parties Wealthy Urban Federalists Loose interpretation of the Constitution Federal rights Business England supporters Democratic-Republicans Poor Rural Strict interpretation of the Constitution States rights Agriculture French supporters
34 Washington Steps Down After his 2 nd term, Washington announced that he would not seek another four years as President. Seen as one of the most important things he ever did. When the announcement was made Jefferson and Hamilton s respective parties began fighting to replace him. In Washington s Farewell Address he warned the infant nation about the danger of political parties.
36 The Presidency of John Adams 2 nd President of the US Defeated Jefferson in 1796 election. Federalist Hamilton could not run for President as the Federalist Party nominee; he was not born in the United States. His administration was plagued by the continuing conflict between England and France.
37 Adams Continues Non- Intervention Policy Adams found himself at odds with the French in a series of slights (insults) aimed at the United States. These insults led many Federalists to call for a formal declaration of war on France. Adams refused to follow his party s wishes choosing a path of nonintervention. His refusal to engage in open conflict with the French is seen as one of the most important political decisions of the early nation. XYZ AFFAIR: The relationship with France became strained under Washington s presidency as the US remained neutral when France and the rest of Europe broke out into war. This led to an undeclared war called the Quasi-War. The XYZ Affair was a diplomatic episode under John Adams that continued the policy of non-intervention in Europe.
38 Alien and Sedition Acts Early political fighting between the D-R s and the Federalists led to the enactment of the Alien and Sedition Acts in the late 1790s. These laws were passed by a Federalist controlled Congress in an attempt to limit political support for Thomas Jefferson and his party. Alien Act: increased citizenship requirements and simplified the deportation process to prevent Jefferson from receiving support from immigrants. Sedition Act: An attempt to limit freedom of speech by punishing or imprisoning anyone who spoke out against Federalist s policies or President Adams himself.
39 Origin of States Rights Ideology Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: political statements drafted in 1798 and 1799 respectively The state legislatures of KY and VA claimed that the federal Alien and Sedition Acts were unconstitutional. The resolutions argued that states had the right to declare unconstitutional any federal act that was not specifically authorized in the Constitution. This refusal to follow federal laws is seen to be the beginning of states rights ideology that will play a large role in the forthcoming Civil War.
40 3-2-1 Identify and explain three concessions (or compromises) that the Founding Fathers reached concerning the new Constitution. Identify the two different groups that the Bill of Rights were intended to protect against the federal government. Explain the one major effects of Daniel Shays rebellion on the Articles of Confederation.
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