2 SECTION 1 The Six Basic Principles SECTION 2 Formal Amendment SECTION 3 Informal Amendment
3 What are the important elements of the Constitution? What are the six basic principles of the Constitution?
4 A constitution- is a list of rules and powers of a government; It is like an operating manual- tells who can do what and how The US Constitution sets out the basic principles upon which government in the United States was built. The US Constitution is a fairly brief document.
6 There are THREE parts to the US Constitution 1. The Preamble (introduction) 2. The Articles (seven sections that describe how each part of government works) 3. The Amendments (written changes to our Constitution over time)
7 Skim your copy of the US Constitution (10 minutes). As you read Write down FIVE observations (these should be important aspects of the US Constitution you noticed) in your INB after your review. Write these in your INB on the LEFT side of today s EQ Notes
8 1. Go to Article 1, Section 3. How long is a Senator s term? 2. Which branch is written about in Article 3? List ONE power granted in this Article. 3. Go to Article 1, Section 8. List THREE powers of Congress. Which is MOST important from this list? Why? 4. What is ONE power forbidden Congress? 5. List ONE power of the President given in Article 2, Section What is Article 5 about? 7. Which Article is longest? Why?
9 The U.S. didn t always operate under the current Constitution. It was written in 1787 After the Revolutionary War, the U.S. was a Confederacy and the governing document was known as the Articles of Confederation. It created a very WEAK central government. Each state was its own nation with its own authority.
10 The Preamble Is the Introduction of our Constitution Purpose- To define the broad purposes of the republican government and to set out specific goals for the nation Example- The words to form a more perfect Union establishes a goal of cooperation among the states and between the states and the national government
11 How is the Constitution organized? The Articles (7) The ARTICLES are the heart of the Constitution. Purpose- of the SEVEN Articles Articles 1-3- To establish and define the powers of the three main branches of government. Article 4-To define relations among the states and the supremacy of national laws Article 5- To describe the amendment process- how the Constitution can be changed.
13 The Amendments (27)- Last section There have been 27 Amendments (official changes) since the Constitution was first ratified Purpose- To list formal changes to the Constitution and to ensure the protection of individual civil liberties Example- 1 st Amendment- protects freedoms of speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition
14 The US Constitution is based on SIX broad principles without many details. Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Separation of Powers Checks & Balances Judicial Review Federalism
15 Means that the people are the source of any and all government power, and government can exist only with the consent of the governed. Describes DEMOCRACY This principle lies at the heart of democratic rule. The principle of popular sovereignty is expressed in the opening phrase of the Preamble: We the people.
16 The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States. Article I, Section 2, Clause 1 Under this provision, the more representative body of Congress, the House, is made up of members elected by the people. The United States shall guarantee to every State in this Union a Republican Form of Government. Article IV, Section 4 By guaranteeing republican government in the states, the Constitution extends the principle of popular sovereignty to the states.
17 The principle of limited government states that- Government is restricted in what it may do (by laws and the Constitution) and Each individual has rights that government cannot take away. Rule of Law - government & officials are subject & never above the law The framers main goal in crafting the Constitution was to create a system of limited government. Absolute power often leads to the abuse of rights Lack of governmental power could result in chaos and instability.
18 *Amendments guarantee freedoms speech, the right to petition government that governments can NOT take away. *The articles of the Constitution list powers of Congress and the President and tell how the Courts should be organized.
19 Separation of powers is the principle in which the powers of our government are divided into executive, legislative, and judicial branches. Each branch of government is independent and coequal. No ONE branch will become too powerful. James Madison stated in Federalist Paper 47, The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.
21 Checks and balances is the system that allows the legislative, executive, and judicial branches to limit, or restrain, the actions of one another. Describes how the branches interact. Ex- president s veto power Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to the House in which it shall have originated. Article I, Section 7, Clause 2
24 The principle of judicial review is the power of the courts to determine the constitutionality of a governmental action. An independent judiciary, was considered essential by the framers to support the rule of law and preserve limited government. Was first used by the Supreme Court in the case Marbury v. Madison, 1803
25 The judicial Power of the United States, shall be vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the Congress may from time to time ordain and establish. The Judges, both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices during good Behaviour, and shall, at stated Times, receive for their Services a Compensation, which shall not be diminished during their Continuance in Office. Article III, Section 1 during good Behaviour, means for life, unless there is just cause to remove them. EXAMPLES- Abortion is legal in all states; As of 2015, same sex marriage is legal in all states. Federal judges are somewhat free from political pressure and influence. How? What are the benefits of this?
26 Federalism is a system of government in which the powers of government are divided between a central government & several local governments.
27 1. Delegated powers are those powers granted to the national government directly by the Constitution. Regulating immigration, making treaties, and declaring war.
28 2. Reserved powers are those powers kept by the states. *They are unstated and include anything not given to the Nat l gov t. *They come from the 10 th Amendment. Marriage and divorce laws Driver s licenses & public schools. The important day-to-day powers that affect citizens most directly.
29 3. Concurrent powers are those that are shared by the federal and state governments. All states and the federal government BOTH tax citizens and enforce laws.
31 1. Article II of the Constitution establishes the powers of the (a) executive branch. (b) legislative branch. (c) States. (d) judicial branch. 2. The principle of popular sovereignty asserts that the (a) government should be divided into three branches. (b) monarch is the supreme ruler. (c) means of production should be owned by the proletariat. (d) people are the source of any and all government power. Want to connect to the Magruder s link for this section? Click Here!
32 Complete your Graphic Organizer after reading the handout and reviewing your notes DEFINITION- Use your own words to describe this principle. Be thorough in your description EXAMPLES- Provide specific examples of the concept in action in US Government today PICTURE- draw a graphic / picture that illustrates the concept so that when others see the picture, they can gain an understanding of the concept.
33 What is a formal and informal amendment?
34 What are the different ways to formally amend, or change the wording of, the Constitution? How many times has the Constitution been amended? What is the Bill of Rights?
35 Constitutions should consist only of general provisions: The reason is, that they cannot calculate for the possible changes of things ~Alexander Hamilton
36 Article V of the Constitution tells how to make an amendment A Formal Amendment is a change to the written words of the US Constitution. It is NOT easy to get the votes needed to pass a formal amendment.
37 Formal Amendment- Are WRITTEN changes to the Constitution. There have been 27 Amendments (formal written changes) to the US Constitution since 1787
38 The first 10 Amendments to the Constitution They were added before the Constitution was even formally accepted (ratified). The BOR lists the MOST important protections for citizens have from our government. (Freedom of Speech, religion, press, many more) Read the article about the Bill of Rightshttp://
39 Why were the Bill of Rights written? When were they added? List FIVE different protections that the BOR provides citizens.
40 There are TWO steps to Formal Amendment 1.Proposal- By 2/3 of House and Senate in Congress 2. Ratification- By the ¾ (38) of the states There are FOUR possible methods but only TWO have ever been used.
41 The four different ways by which amendments may be added to the Constitution are shown here:
42 26 of the 27 Amendments have used the top method shown below The exception was the 21 st A. to repeal the 18 th A (Prohibition)
43 More than 11,000 amendments have been introduced. Only 33 have made it to the states for ratification (proposed) Of those, only 27 have been ratified (accepted) Power to amend the Constitution lies exclusively with Congress & the states; This demonstrates the principle of federalism
44 Collectively, the first ten amendments are known as the Bill of Rights. They set out many of our basic freedoms.
46 Bill of Rights- 1 st Ten Amendments 2 Early Amendments Strengthen Fed Gov t- 11 th & 12 th 3 Civil War Amendments- 13 th, 14 th, & 15 th 4 Progressive Era Amendments (Political & Social Reform)- 16 th, 17 th, 18 th, and 19 th 4 21 st Century Amendments about Governance- 20 th, 22 nd, 25 th, & 27 th 3 Civil Rights Amendments- 23 rd, 24 th, & 26 th
47 Read / Scan the amendments on the pages of this section 1.In your INB on the LEFT side, record FIVE observations about these passed amendments. What patterns do you notice? Now check out the list of proposed amendments (pp ). 2. What is the length of time a proposed amendment has to be ratified by the states? 3. Are there any amendments on the list that you think should have passed? Explain. 4. Are there any amendments you would add? Explain.
48 1. What is a formal amendment? 2. In what ways is the FORMAL Amendment process difficult? Explain TWO.
49 1. A formal amendment (a) changes the Constitution by passing laws. (b) changes the written language of the Constitution itself. (c) allows States to secede from the United States. (d) none of the above. 2. Many of the basic rights of citizens are constitutionally guaranteed in (a) English common law. (b) the Declaration of Independence. (c) the Magna Carta. (d) the Bill of Rights. Want to connect to the Magruder s link for this section? Click Here!
50 How has basic legislation changed the Constitution over time? What powers do the executive branch and the courts have to change the meaning of the Constitution? What role do party politics and custom have in shaping the Federal Government?
51 The US Constitution s meaning has changed in important ways throughout history Many of these changes have occurred WITHOUT a formal amendment Why do you think there is a need for informal changes to the US Constitution? What are the risks/benefits of these?
52 Informal amendments are changes to the meaning of the Constitution without changing the written words. The informal amendment process can take place by: (1) the passage of basic legislation by Congress; (2) Executive actions taken by the President; (3) key decisions of the Supreme Court; (4) the activities of political parties; and (5) custom. *They are usually practices of government (especially the President) and court rulings
53 1. Basic Legislation Passing Laws Congress has added laws to define what the constitution means Examples: Laws to limit Pollution Created federal courts Created many departments and agencies of Executive Branch (ex: IRS, NASA, Department of Defense, Department of Agriculture)
54 2. Executive Action During times of crisis and in response to national problems, presidents act. P Obama used an executive order to change immigration enforcement when Congress didn t pass a law to address it As commander-in-chief, President Bush engaged in war with Iraq
55 3. Court Decisions - The courts interpret the Constitution and say what it means when they rule on controversial issues. Roe v. Wade, 1971 Court affirms a woman s right to an abortion as an extension of her right to privacy (none of this is directly in the Constitution) They determine the changing definition of equality 4. Party Practices No mention of political parties in the constitution, so anything we do because of them today is an informal change to the Constitution - Examples: presidential appointments made on the basis of party affiliation; changed the nature of elector s vote in the Electoral College; nomination of candidates (for president through a national convention )
56 5. Custom/Tradition Many government practices aren t listed in the Constitution but have been done out of custom or tradition. Examples- The President appoints a Cabinet of advisors- 15 leaders of the Executive Departments advise the president. NOT in the Constitution! Vice President taking over for President when there is a vacancy -In 1967, the 25 th amendment made this informal amendment formal a formal amendment
57 1. An informal amendment can be established by (a) actions taken by the President. (b) custom. (c) key decisions of the Supreme Court. (d) all of the above. 2. An executive agreement is (a) a promise from the President to the legislature. (b) a pact made by the President directly with the head of a foreign state. (c) a decision made by the President and his cabinet members. (d) the contract the President signs when he accepts the office. Want to connect to the Magruder s link for this section? Click Here!
58 Compare and contrast the TWO ways that changes to the US Constitution occur through FORMAL and INFORMAL amendment. Use the handout!
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