1 THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES Presented by Amendment Avenger
2 CONSTITUTIONAL HISTORY The Declaration of Independence Articles of Confederation Critical Period
3 Declaration of Independence Taxation Without Representation? 17 of 27 grievances. Listed 11x: Abuse of Representative Powers 7x: Abuse of Military Powers 4x: Abuse of Judicial Powers 2x: Inciting Domestic Insurrection Recognizes God 4 times and establishes the protection of life, liberty, and property as the FOUNDATION of good government according to contract and consent of the governed.
4 The Articles of Confederation Drafted principally by John Dickinson in Formally ratified in 1781 (had to be ratified by all the States, not nine as in the Constitution).
5 The Articles of Confederation Unicameral legislature No executive or judicial branch A loose confederation of independent States, the stile of which was the United States of America. Article II: State sovereignty declared; expressly delegated powers and the 10 th Amendment. Article III: the general welfare carried over to the Constitution.
6 The Articles of Confederation One State, one vote: 2-7 representatives. The Congress could not tax the people directly or regulate trade. The Congress had to make formal requests to the States to raise troops or fund the treasury. Congress could appropriate and borrow money and handle foreign relations, but those powers were limited.
7 The Articles of Confederation Why? Distrust of a strong executive no American king. States already had republican governments. Another was deemed unnecessary. Local vs. municipal argument and the British model. Provincialism, i.e. States as their country.
8 The Articles of Confederation James Madison Research Project and Report (April 1787) Vices of the Political System of the United States States ignore/fail to meet congressional requisitions States encroach on federal authority (Georgia s Indian treaties, Virginia s compact with Maryland, Pennsylvania s compact with New Jersey, troops raised by Massachusetts Violations of law of nations and of treaties (French treaty, Dutch treaty, Treaty of Paris) States violate each other s rights Inability to cooperate as in creating canals, colleges, copyright laws, etc.
9 Vices of the Federal System (continued) Inability to guarantee states republican forms of government Lack of enforcement power Absence of popular ratification Multiplicity of laws in the several states Frequent changes to, and profusion of, state statutes Injustice of the laws of the states which Madison thinks could be corrected via an enlargement of the sphere
10 The Philadelphia Convention Why not the Constitutional Convention? 14 May September delegates from 12 States Rhode Island did not send a delegation. Some Important members: James Madison, Edmund Randolph, Roger Sherman, John Dickinson, Elbridge Gerry, Robert Yates, Alexander Hamilton, Gouverneur Morris, Robert Morris, James Wilson, and John Rutledge
11 Nationalists vs. Federalists Rats vs. Anti-Rats Federalists: were actually nationalists Anti Federalists: were actually federalists Common misconception about large State vs. small State. Nationalists: Madison, Wilson, G. Morris, Hamilton Federalists: Gerry, Rutledge, Dickinson, Sherman, Mason, Yates George Washington and Benjamin Franklin Virginia Plan written by Madison and proposed by Randolph.
12 The Virginia Plan A nationalist framework. Bi-cameral national legislature. Representations based on population in both the lower and upper chamber. Executive elected by the legislature. Judiciary chosen by the legislature. Complete overhaul of the central government designed to centralize authority. Why?
13 The Connecticut Compromise Not a compromise between large and small States. A compromise between a national and federal plan of government. Roger Sherman urged the equality of the votes, not so much as a security for the small states, as for the state governments, which could not be preserved unless they were represented, and had a negative in the general government.
14 Hamilton Plan. Hamilton: An American king, Senators for life, strong central government, the abolition of the States, etc. Wilson: Supported every proposal to render the States powerless in the general government G. Morris: As with Wilson, generally supported every nationalist proposal and thought States should be compelled to support the general government.
15 Compromises Slavery: Three-fifths compromise and the international slave trade. Term length for president and congress. Taxing power (tied to the apportionment of representatives). A general government for the general purposes of the Union.
16 17 September 1787 The day the Constitution was approved in Philadelphia, but it was nothing more than a scrap of paper at that point. It had not been ratified. Mason would rather cut off his right hand than sign it. No bill of rights. 9 States to ratify, voting by State at the Conventions.
17 What kind of government? A federal constitution, rather than a national constitution. Madison would be forced to defend a document he did not want in May. Federalist Papers: 85 Papers Hamilton, Madison, Jay Anti Federalist Papers pushed for Bill Of Rights What branch had the most power? Power of the States vis-à-vis the general government? Judicial review? Executive powers?
18 Preamble Of the United States of America In order to form a more perfect Union Establish Justice Ensure Domestic Tranquility Provide for the Common Defense Promote the General Welfare Secure the Blessings of Liberty (to ourselves and our posterity) Do Ordain and Establish this Constitution for the United States of America
19 Seven Institutions The People The Militia The States The United States The Legislative Congress (House & Senate) The Executive (President) The Judicial (Supreme Court) The People exist. Only one of these institutions is deemed necessary. The rest are authorized Later in the Bill of Rights, The Press is recognized
20 Main Body (Text): Seven Articles Article I : The Legislative 18 Powers Article II : The Executive 11 Powers Article II : The Judicial 7 Powers Article IV: Relationship between states & federal government Article V: Oath of Office, Amendments / Impeachments Article VI: Supreme Law of the Land Article VII: DONE, Recognizes the Lord & 39 Signatures Signed on September 17, 1787 and Ratified by ¾ of the States in June In 2004 Congress declared Sep. 17 as National Constitution/Citizenship Day, Requiring all federal employees to receive training.
21 Article I The Legislative: Section 1 Congress Bicameral House of Representatives Apportionment of Representatives 3/5 Clause Senate (State Creatures)
22 Article I The Legislative: Section 8 Enumerated Powers Herein (18) Taxes(Direct & Indirect) (Power of the Purse) Coin Money, Regulate, Standards of Weights & Measures Declare War, Letters of Marque & Reprisal Raise Army (Standing Army 2 years)+ Regulations Build & Maintain Navy+ Regulations Borrow Money (Washington & Jefferson) Uniform Rules for Immigration (sole explicit exclusive mandate) Bankruptcy Regulate INTERSTATE Commerce (not compel) Define Felonies & Punish Counterfeiting, and Piracy Make all Laws Necessary and Proper for carrying to Execution the FOREGOING powers and that of the CONSTITUTION!!!!
23 Article I Forbidden to all government Ex post Facto Laws Unapportion tax (must be backed by Census) Taxes on exports No Titles of Nobility or Foreign Offices Suspension of Habeus Corpus (Invasion or Rebellion) Bill of Attainder States engage in war with other states unless invaded Bills of credit or paper money (Only gold and silver) Spending Money without a Law Corruption of Blood
24 Article II Presidential Powers (11) Head of the Executive Branch (EO s) Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces Commission Officers Sign Treaties (With the Advice and consent of the Senate) Sign Bill into Law Veto Fill vacancies in the Senate (Temporary) Nominate Ambassadors, Ministers, Supreme Court Judges Appoint anyone else congress allows by Law. State of the Union Address Grant Reprieves and Pardons for crimes against the US Must be 35 years old, Natural born citizen, living in US 14 years Must take an oath: Preserve, protect, defend the Constitution
25 Article II Executive / Presidency? Provide Jobs Health Care School Lunches Drugs Lifestyle changes Citizenship Spend Money Foreign Aid Make Laws Start Wars Spy on the people Make Enemies List & kill citizens at will Fundamentally Transform America Regulate the Economy Police the World
26 Article III Judicial Branch Supreme Court (7) Set up inferior courts from time to time Try all federal cases involving United States, Ambassadors, Ministers, between the States, the Except Impeachment Good Behavior Judicial Review? Activism: Laws without Amendments. Sec 3 Defines Treason: Treason against the United States shall consist in levying war against them, or adhering to THEIR enemies, giving them aid and comfort NDAA; Sec 1021,1024, 1031, 1032 Old Senate Chambers (1935), bound or Lord & Masters?
27 Article IV Relationships between Federal and State Governments States to give each other full faith and credit in public acts, records and judicial proceedings Citizens of each state shall be entitled to the Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States States must surrender fugitives of other States upon request New States Admitted by Congress Formation of new States cannot come from parts of existing States without permission of both States and Congress
28 Article IV What kind of Government? Sec 4 The United States shall guarantee to every state in the Union a Republican Form of Government, And shall protect each of them against Invasion,.and domestic Violence. 1) Representative Republicanism 2) Invasion 3) Domestic Violence How will this be done? A Republic Ma am. If you can keep it.
29 Article I Section 8 Clause 15: To provide for the calling forth of the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions; 1)Laws of the Union (Republican Govt) 2)Suppress Insurrections (Domestic Violence) 3)Repel Invasion (what sort of arms would an invader have?) Clause 16: To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining the Militia, Even a rabble can organize and discipline themselves eventually. Disarmed people are helpless, hapless, & hopless Disarmed Militia are no Militia at all
30 2 nd Amendment A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed. Preamble: 1) A more perfect Union, Justice 2)Domestic Tranquility 3)Provide for Common Defense 1)Laws of the Union (Republican Govt) 2)Suppress Insurrections (Domestic Violence) 3)Repel Invasion Article II Section 2 Clause 1 makes a clear distinction between the Militia and Military. They exist weather Congress acts or not. No recognized Militia of the US.
32 The Constitution Lists: Only Three Federal Crimes Piracy Counterfeiting Treason Only Treason is defined Congress must do the others Don t be fooled: Beware Rules, Regulations, Codes, Titles & Policies. They are not the rule of law, merely internal government operating procedures.
34 Article V Rules for Constitutional Convention 2/3 States to Propose, ¾ States to ratify. No Presidential Say Article VI Lays Down The LAW: This Constitution, Laws of the United States which shall be made in PURSUANCE Thereof; and Treaties shall be the Supreme Law of the Land Accept No Excuses: Bring the Pain Article VII Acknowledges the Lord. 39 Signatures, 6 from the Declaration. Ben Franklin, James Wilson, Roger Sherman, Rob Morris, George Read, George Clymer
35 27 Amendments Bill of Rights (First Ten Amendments) Non Repeal-able or Revocable (Also have a Preamble) 13 Codified Slavery: Freed Slaves (Not Convicted of Crimes) 14 Rules for Citizenship 15 Black Men Vote 16 Income Tax Reviewed 8 Times by Supreme Court Transformed Senators to glorified representatives 18 Prohibition 19 Women Vote 21 Repeal of Prohibition 22 Term Limits for President 24 No Poll Tax 26 Voting Age to 18
36 Sweeping Clauses General Welfare clause. Commerce clause. Necessary and Proper clause. Supremacy clause. The reduction of the Constitution to a series of clauses.
37 What Kind of Constitution? Three Types of Constitutions As Intended As RATIFIED As Interpreted
We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and secure the Blessings
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