1 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton Signing of the Constitution: Constitution:
2 Section 1: Goals and Principles of the Constitution Section 2: How the Federal Government Works Section 3: Changing the Constitution Section 4: State and Local Governments Section 5: Rights and Responsibilities of Citizens
3 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
4 Cornell notes from Chapter 8, Section 1 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
5 1. Explain how the Preamble defines the basic goals of the Constitution. 2. Identify the framework of government established by the Constitution. 3. Name the seven basic principles of American government.
6 Preamble civilian liberty popular sovereignty checks and balances domestic tranquility general warfare Articles limited government federalism
7 How does the Preamble define the basic goals of the Constitution? What framework of government is established by the articles of the Constitution? What are the seven basic principles of American government?
8 The Constitution describes how the Untied States government works. We the People of the United States. These first words of the Constitution have special meaning, they tell us our country is a democracy Democracy a government in which the people have the power to make political decisions Citizens take part in making laws and choosing leaders. We usually make our decisions through representatives elected by the people
9 The United States Constitution is the plan for our democracy The Preamble lists goals for the country Seeking to create a place where people: Are safe Can live together Can have good lives
10 To form a more perfect union To establish justice To ensure domestic tranquility To provide for the common defense To promote the general welfare To secure the blessing of liberty The states work together as one unified nation, not as separate nations. The justice system requires that the law be applied fairly to every American. The government can ensure domestic tranquility, or peace and order at home. To protect citizens against foreign attack, the national government can raise armies and navies. However, the military is under civilian, or nonmilitary, control. The national government promotes the general welfare, or the well-being of all its citizens. A major goal of the Constitution is to protect the liberty, or freedom, of Americans. Preamble opening statement
11 Article I Article II Article III Article IV Article V Article VI Describes the legislative branch. Establishes powers and limits on Congress. Describes the executive branch. Establishes powers and limits of the President. Describes the judicial branch. Establishes powers and limits of the courts. Explains relations between the states. Requires states to honor one another s laws. Sets out a system for admitting new states. Provides a process for amending the Constitution. Says the Constitution is the supreme law of the land. No state law may violate the Constitution.
13 Popular Sovereignty Limited Government Separation of Powers Checks and Balances Federalism Republicanism Individual Rights The principle that government gets its authority from the people, therefore people have a right to change or abolish their government. The principle that government has only the powers that the Constitution gives it. Everyone, no matter how important, must obey the law. The idea of limiting government power by dividing it among different branches of government. Each branch of government has power to check, or limit, actions of the other branches. The principle of dividing power between the federal government and the states. A form of government in which citizens elect representatives to carry out their will. Individual rights include freedom of speech, freedom of religion, and the right to trial by jury.
16 One goal of the Constitution is to protect domestic tranquillity, which means a) freedom. b) well-being of all citizens. c) peace and order at home. d) nonmilitary control. Under a system of checks and balances, a) each branch of government can check the actions of the other two. b) power is divided among three branches of government. c) power is divided between the federal government and the states. d) the national government has only the powers the Constitution gives it.
17 One goal of the Constitution is to protect domestic tranquility, which means a) freedom. b) well-being of all citizens. c) peace and order at home. d) nonmilitary control. Under a system of checks and balances, a) each branch of government can check the actions of the other two. b) power is divided among three branches of government. c) power is divided between the federal government and the states. d) the national government has only the powers the Constitution gives it.
18 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
19 Cornell notes from Chapter 8, Section 2 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
20 1. List the powers of the legislative branch. 2. Identify the roles the President fills as head of the executive branch. 3. Describe how the judicial branch is organized. 4. Explain how each branch of government can check the powers of the others.
21 House of Representatives bill Supreme Court unconstitutional override Senate electoral college appeal veto impeach
22 What are the powers of the legislative branch? What roles does the President fill as head of the executive branch? How is the judicial branch organized? How can each branch of the government check the powers of the other two?
23 The Constitution created a federal system In the federal system, the national government and state government each have powers Federal government has power over issues that affect the whole country Defending the country, printing money, running the Post Office, regulating trade State governments have power over local issues Public education and elections The federal and state governments also share certain powers Both can collect taxes and set up court systems
24 The federal government s power is limited in the Constitution The Constitution makes federal laws stronger than state laws When a state and federal law does not agree, the federal law must be obeyed
25 The Constitution divides the government in to three branches: Legislative branch Executive branch Judicial branch Each branch has a different job to do
26 We know it as Congress it makes laws for the country Divided into two parts: Senate each state elects 2 Senators House of Representatives each state elects a number based upon their population Congress has the power to raise money through taxes or borrowing to pay for goods, services, military, etc.
27 It can suggest laws for the country It carries out the laws made by Congress The head of this branch is the President United States citizens elect a President every 4 years The President is the commander of the United States military
28 Decides the meaning of laws and whether laws have been followed The many courts across the country make up the judicial branch The highest court is the Supreme Court
29 The Articles of Confederation had created a weak federal government The Constitution gives the federal government more power, but it does not give its leaders unlimited power The Constitution is a plan for limited government Everyone must follow the law, including those running the government
30 House of Representatives 435 members Number of representatives for a state is based on that state s population 2-year terms Leader of the House is the Speaker. Senate 100 members Two senators per state 6-year terms Leader of the Senate is the Vice President of the United States. When the Vice President is away, the president pro tempore takes over.
31 Listed Powers and Duties of Congress To make laws To levy taxes To borrow money To coin money To establish post offices To fix standard weights and measures To declare war Elastic Clause Congress can make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying out its duties.
32 Bill a proposal for a law
33 To carry out the nation s laws To direct foreign policy To make treaties To appoint ambassadors To act as Commander in Chief of the armed forces To suggest new laws and work for their passage Can grant pardons Can call special sessions of Congress To stand as a symbol of the nation
34 The President is elected for a 4-year term. The President may be elected to no more than two complete terms. The President is elected by a complex system known as the electoral college. When Americans vote for President, they are really voting for a group of electors pledged to the candidate. A few weeks after Election Day, the electors meet in each state to vote. The candidate who receives a majority of the electoral votes nationwide becomes President.
37 James Madison and the authors of the Constitution limited the government s power with the three branches No single person or branch has the power to run the government alone A system of checks and balances were set up to keep this from happening Checks and balances a system that lets each branch limit the power of the other two
38 One branch checks another branch by doing the following President Congress vetoing, or rejecting, bills Congress has passed Congress President overriding, or overruling, the President s veto Congress President approving or disapproving Presidential appointments Congress President ratify or not ratify treaties the President has negotiated Congress President The House can impeach, or bring charges of wrongdoing against, the President. The Senate then conducts a trial. Supreme Court President and Congress declaring laws unconstitutional
39 Veto a rejection of a law Unconstitutional do not follow the rules laid out in the Constitution 5/20/2014
40 Only Congress has the power to a) make foreign policy. b) declare war. c) decide cases involving federal laws. d) select electors. Only the President has the power to a) make foreign policy. b) declare war. c) decide cases involving federal laws. d) select electors.
41 Only Congress has the power to a) make foreign policy. b) declare war. c) decide cases involving federal laws. d) select electors. Only the President has the power to a) make foreign policy. b) declare war. c) decide cases involving federal laws. d) select electors.
42 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
43 Cornell notes from Chapter 8, Section 3 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
44 1. Describe how to amend the Constitution. 2. Name the rights that the Bill of Rights protects. 3. Explain how later amendments expanded democratic rights.
45 First Amendment Second Amendment civil incriminate Civil War Amendments Nineteenth Amendment Twenty-sixth Amendment
46 How can the Constitution be amended? What rights does the Bill of Rights protect? How did later amendments expand democratic rights?
47 The Constitution is designed so that it can be changed. The Constitution includes ways to change it through amendments Amendment a change Amendments are usually proposed by 2/3 of the members of the House of Representatives and the Senate After that, ¾ of the states must ratify, or officially accept, the amendment for it to become part of the Constitution
49 When the Constitution came about, state constitutions had listed the rights of citizens. People wanted the US Constitution to do so also. Thomas Jefferson wanted a Bill of Rights to guard the people against the federal government James Madison agreed and he wrote 10 amendments listing rights that were to be protected In 1791 the amendments were ratified
50 Some amendments are famous: First Amendment protects many important rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion Tenth Amendment says the federal government only has the power given to it by the Constitution. All other powers belong to the states or to the people.
51 First Amendment Safeguards individual rights freedom of religion, speech, the press, the right to assemble peacefully, the right to petition the government to change its policies. Second Amendment Third Amendment Fourth Amendment Fifth Amendment A well-regulated militia being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms shall not be infringed. Congress may not force citizens to put up troops in their homes. Citizens are protected from unlawful searches of their homes and property. People cannot be forced to incriminate, or give evidence against, themselves.
52 Sixth Amendment Seventh Amendment Eighth Amendment Ninth Amendment Tenth Amendment People are guaranteed the right to a speedy and public trial by a fair jury. The accused have a right to know the charges against them and who is making the charges. Provides for juries in civil, or non criminal, trials. Forbids excessive bail or fines and cruel and unusual punishments. Citizens rights are not limited to those listed in the Constitution. All powers not given to the national government or denied to the states are reserved for the states or for the people.
53 Voting Rights Amendments Civil War Amendments Thirteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Fifteenth Amendment Nineteenth Amendment Twenty-sixth Amendment Abolished slavery. Guaranteed citizenship to former slaves. Declared that states may not deny the vote to any citizen on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. Gave women the right to vote. Lowered the minimum voting age from 21 to 18.
54 Basic individual liberties protected by the Constitution include the right to a) knowingly publish lies about someone. b) establish an official church in your state. c) assemble peacefully. d) make someone give evidence against themselves. The Nineteenth Amendment expanded voting rights by a) giving women the right to vote. b) giving former slaves the right to vote. c) changing the way electoral college is chosen. d) lowering the voting age to 18.
55 Basic individual liberties protected by the Constitution include the right to a) knowingly publish lies about someone. b) establish an official church in your state. c) assemble peacefully. d) make someone give evidence against themselves. The Nineteenth Amendment expanded voting rights by a) giving women the right to vote. b) giving former slaves the right to vote. c) changing the way electoral college is chosen. d) lowering the voting age to 18.
56 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
57 Cornell notes from Chapter 8, Section 4 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
58 1. Compare state constitutions to the national constitution. 2. Summarize the service that state governments provide. 3. Describe how local governments affect our daily lives.
59 constitutional initiative infrastructure local government
60 How are state constitutions similar to and different from the national Constitution? What services do state governments provide? How do local governments affect our daily lives?
61 Similarities Most state constitutions begin with a preamble. Most state constitutions include a bill of rights. State constitutions set up a government with three branches legislative, executive, and judicial. State constitutions can be amended. Differences Most state constitutions are longer and more detailed. In many states, citizens can amend the constitution. In a process known as the constitutional initiative, people can gather signatures on a petition to amend the state constitution. If enough signatures are gathered, the petition goes to the legislature or to the voters.
62 Maintain law and order Enforce criminal law Protect property Regulate business Supervise public education Provide public health and welfare programs Build and maintain the state s infrastructure, or system of roads, bridges, and tunnels Operate state parks and forests Regulate use of state-owned land License professionals, such as doctors, lawyers, and teachers
63 Local Government government on the county, parish, city, town, village, and district level; get their powers from the state Build and run local schools Hire and support firefighters, police, and garbage collectors Provide sewers and water Maintain local roads Maintain local hospitals Conduct safety inspections of buildings and restaurants May own and run water and sewage treatment plants Provide libraries, parks, and other cultural and recreational facilities May support airports, sports arenas, and civic centers
64 Most state constitutions are similar to the national Constitution in that they a) give the states the ability to deal with national issues. b) are fairly short. c) can only be amended by Congress. d) set up three branches of government. One service that county and city governments do NOT provide is a) granting drivers licenses. b) building and running schools. c) supporting firefighters. d) conducting safety inspections of restaurants.
65 Most state constitutions are similar to the national Constitution in that they a) give the states the ability to deal with national issues. b) are fairly short. c) can only be amended by Congress. d) set up three branches of government. One service that county and city governments do NOT provide is a) granting drivers licenses. b) building and running schools. c) supporting firefighters. d) conducting safety inspections of restaurants.
66 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
67 Cornell notes from Chapter 8, Section 5 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
68 1. Explain what makes a person a citizen of the United States. 2. Identify how Americans can develop democratic values. 3. Describe the responsibilities of citizenship.
70 What makes a person a citizen of the United States? How can Americans develop democratic values? What are the responsibilities of citizenship?
71 A citizen is a person who owes loyalty to a particular nation and is entitled to all its rights and protections. To be a United States citizen: You were born in the United States or at least one parent is a citizen. You were naturalized, that is, you have completed the official legal process for becoming a citizen. Many immigrants people who enter another country to settle there become naturalized citizens. First, immigrants may have permission to stay in the country as resident aliens, or noncitizens living in the country. You were 18 or younger when your parents were naturalized.
72 Basic Values Patriotism Respect Responsibility Responsibility Such as honesty and compassion A feeling of love and devotion toward one s country; inspires Americans to serve their nation For ourselves, our families, our neighbors, and other members of our community Both personal and public responsibility; responsibility for ourselves and the consequences of our actions Physical and moral courage; doing the right thing even when it is unpopular, difficult, or dangerous Civic Virtue a willingness to work for the good of the nation or community even at great sacrifice.
73 Voting Obeying the laws Defending the nation Serving on a jury Serving the community Being informed Citizens must study the candidates and issues in order to make responsible choices. We give the government the power to make laws for us, so we have a duty to obey the laws. Citizens must help defend the nation against threats to its peace or security, such as by serving in the military. Citizens must take time out from their work and personal lives for jury duty, serving on a jury when called. Many citizens offer their time and talents to improve their communities and help others. Citizens cannot protect their rights unless they know what they are and stay informed.
74 One democratic value is moral courage, which means a) doing the right thing even when it is unpopular. b) showing a feeling of love and devotion toward one s country. c) respecting the property of others. d) serving the nation even at great risk to oneself. Because the Bill of Rights guarantees a right to trial by jury, responsible citizens will a) register for jury duty at age 18. b) enlist in the military without being called. c) take jury duty seriously and serve when called. d) study the candidates before voting for a jury. Want to connect to the American Nation link for this section? Click here.
75 One democratic value is moral courage, which means a) doing the right thing even when it is unpopular. b) showing a feeling of love and devotion toward one s country. c) respecting the property of others. d) serving the nation even at great risk to oneself. Because the Bill of Rights guarantees a right to trial by jury, responsible citizens will a) register for jury duty at age 18. b) enlist in the military without being called. c) take jury duty seriously and serve when called. d) study the candidates before voting for a jury.
77 What is in the Preamble to the Constitution? It lists the goals for the country which included creating a country where people could feel safe, live in peace with each other, and have good lives. What are the three branches of government? Legislative branch, executive branch, and judicial branch. What is the highest court in the nation? The Supreme Court.
78 How does the division of powers help control the government? It prevents any one person or branch from having allt he powers needed to run the government. What happens when the Supreme Court decides that a law is unconstitutional? The law is no longer in effect. What can Congress do to pass a law that the President has vetoed? If two-thirds of the Senate and House agree, Congress can pass the law.
79 Who has the power to collect taxes? Federal and state governments. When a state law and a federal law do not agree, which law must be obeyed? Federal law.
80 How can an amendment be added to the Constitution? Usually, an amendment is proposed by two-thirds of both houses of Congress. Three-fourths of the states must ratify it. Why did people want a Bill of Rights? To make sure the federal government would recognize the rights of individuals. What are some of the rights that are protected in the first amendment? Freedom of speech and freedom of religion.
81 Which powers do the states have that the federal government does not have? Setting up schools and running elections. What must happen for a an amendment to become part of the Constitution? Two-thirds of Congress must propose it and three-fourths of the states must agree to it. Why did the authors of the Constitution want a limited government? To be sure no person or branch has the power to run the government alone.
82 Why did the authors of the Constitution want a limited government? To be sure no person or branch has the power to run the government alone. How do the judicial and executive branches limit the power of the legislative branch? The judicial branch can decide a law is unconstitutional; the President can approve or veto laws Congress has passed.
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The Constitution: A More Perfect Union How has the Constitution created a more perfect Union? P R E V I E W Read the quotation and answer the questions that follow. If men were angels, no government would
EOC STAAR Review Founding Fathers and Westward Expansion Describe with words how each of Alexis de Tocqueville s five values are important to U.S. Democracy 2. Individualism Individuals can rise in society
The Five Freedoms: 1. Religion 2. Assembly 3. Press 4. Petition 5. Speech RAPPS A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms,
AP Government CONSTITUTION SCAVENGER HUNT 1. Mr. Smith would like to run for a Senate seat in Massachusetts. He is 49 years old and has been a citizen of the United States all of his life. He live in New