2 1. What is representative government? A. Government that represents the interests of the king. B. Government in which elected officials represent the interest of the voters. C. Government that has three branches. D. Government that is appointed by the king.
3 Americans have developed a tradition of representative government. This means that government is elected by the people, and that the elected officials represent their interest. This system of government had its roots in the colonial era. Colonists wanted to have a say in local governments so that officials would represent their concerns.
4 2. The English Bill of Rights was important because A. It established the idea that government should be divided into three branches B. it introduced the idea of federalism C. It influenced the American idea of no taxation without representation. D. It changed the way Americans thought about trade between the colonies
5 3. Which statement best summarizes the influence of the Magna Carta on American government? A. The government is prohibited from levying taxes without the consent of the people. B. All laws must be passes by representatives of the people C. No laws may be suspended without approval of the legislature D. The government cannot punish people without a trial by jury and due process
6 4. The first elected assembly in America was A. The Mayflower Compact B. The Virginia House of Burgesses C. The Virginia Company D. The House of Representatives
7 Colonists complained to the Virginia Company that they wanted more control over their own affairs; the company agreed and created the House of Burgesses in 1619; the co9lonists would elect members to attend the House of Burgesses, which would meet once a year to make new rules for the colony. It was the first elected government in the colonies.
8 5. The House of Burgesses is an example of which concept? A. representative government B. commercial revolution C. proprietary rule D. mercantilism
9 6. What was the Mayflower Compact? A. The ship in which the Pilgrims traveled to the New World B. The company that governed the colony of Virginia C. An agreement among Pilgrims about the rules they follow in the New World. D. A complaint the colonists made to the governor.
10 On their way to America in 1620, 41 of the Pilgrims on board the Mayflower wrote down the rules that they would live by in the New World. In the Mayflower compact they promised to obey laws agreed upon by the majority of the settlers.
11 7. The Mayflower Compact is an example of which concept? A. intolerance B. mercantilism C. proprietary rule D. direct democracy
12 The Mayflower Compact was important because it helped establish the idea of self-government ordinary people can make their own laws and govern themselves, instead of having a king or other ruler tell them what to do. It also established the idea of majority rule, in which the government pursues goals that most of the people agree on.
13 8. The Declaration of Independence lists wrongs done by the British government. Four such wrongs are listed below. Which action violated the principle of free enterprise? A. "... cutting off our trade with all parts of the world;" B. "... imposing taxes on us without our consent;" C. "... depriving us, in many cases, of the benefit of trial by jury;" D. "... suspending our own legislatures;"
14 9. Why did the colonists write the Declaration of Independence? A.They believed that their rights were being ignored by England B. They were afraid of being attacked by England C. They thought that England was not protecting their trade with other countries D. They wanted to have the right to make an alliance with France.
15 10. According to the Declaration of Independence, why did Americans rebel? A. Americans did not believe in the English idea of unalienable rights anymore. B. They believe they had certain rights that England had trampled upon. C. Americans wanted to prove that they could be as strong as any European power. D. Europe had tried to create new colonies in the New World
16 11. What is an unalienable right? A. Right to do whatever we want to do B. Right that cannot be taken away C. Right to rebel D. Right to disobey the law
17 The Declaration of Independence states that all Americans have certain rights that are unalienable; this means that these rights cannot be taken away, and if any government tries to take these rights away, then the governed are allowed to rebel. American colonies rebelled because of the principal of unalienable rights.
18 12. The U.S. government under the Articles of Confederation had its greatest success in A. foreign affairs B. enforcement of laws C. raising money D. organizing western territories
19 13. The Articles of Confederation called for a weak national government. Most Americans of the early 1780s favored a weak national government because they wanted to protect the rights of the A. national government B. western territories C. states D. military
20 Delegates often disagreed because of differing sectional interests (goals). Delegates from southern states wanted to protect the interests of the South. They wanted laws which would help southern planters and slave owners. Delegates from northern states wanted to protect the interests of the North. They wanted laws which would encourage industry and commerce.
21 14. The authors of the Constitution gave the states the authority to approve this document as the law of the land. The delegates did this because of their belief in the principle A. that powers should be separated B. of checks and balances C. of loyalty to the national government D. that government gets its power from the consent of the governed
22 15. A major issue at the Constitutional Convention was A. the argument between Loyalists and Patriots B. whether women and blacks should be given the right to vote C. how the western territories would become states D. whether the states or the national government would have the most power.
23 A major argument (issue) at the Convention was over the division of power between the national and state governments. Some delegates wanted the national government to have most of the power. They argued that the national government needed much power so it could solve the nation's problems. Other delegates said it would be dangerous to give the national government that much power. This issue was solved by a compromise called federalism.
24 16. The Constitution's system of separation of powers divides power A. between the national and state governments B. between the Democratic and Republican Parties C. between the U.S. Senate and the House of Representatives D. among the three branches of the national government
25 The Constitution's system of separation of powers divides governmental power and gives it to three different branches of the national government. Law-making power is given to the legislative branch, Congress. Law-enforcing power is given to the executive branch headed by the President. The power to conduct trials and interpret (explain) the law is given to the judicial branch headed by the Supreme Court.
26 17. Congress may impeach and remove the President from office if he/she A. vetoes too many laws B. takes long vacations C. has opinions that are different from those of Congress D. breaks the law
27 Article 2, Section 4 of the Constitution says that the President "... shall be removed from office on impeachment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery, or other high crimes and misdemeanors." The Constitution gives both houses of Congress a role in removing the President from office. Article 1, Section 2 gives the House of Representatives the power to impeach (accuse) the President. Article 1, Section 3 gives the Senate the power to try (put on trial) the President after he/she has been impeached (accused).
28 18. How may the President check Congress? A. The President can veto Congress's bills. B. The President may declare laws of Congress unconstitutional. C. The President may impeach members of Congress. D. The President can authorize states to make laws.
29 The Constitution gives the President the power to veto (reject) a bill (proposed law) of Congress. However, Congress can override the President's veto with a two-thirds majority vote.
30 19. Which two parts of the national government have a role in selecting justices of the Supreme Court? A. the judicial branch and the executive branch B. the President and U.S. Senate C. the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives D. the state and federal courts
31 The President and the U.S. Senate both have a role in choosing Supreme Court justices. The President appoints new Supreme Court justices but they must be confirmed (approved) by the Senate. If the Senate rejects the President's choice, he/she must appoint someone else.
32 20. Which is NOT a power of the President? A. the power to execute the law B. the power to make laws C. the power to appoint judges D. the power to negotiate treaties
33 The President does NOT have the power to make laws. That power is given to Congress (the Senate and House of Representatives).
34 21. The delegates at the Convention created a system for changing the Constitution. Such a change is called a(an) A. ex post facto law B. bill C. writ of habeas corpus D. amendment
35 A change to the Constitution is called an amendment. According to the Constitution, an amendment can be proposed (suggested) by a two-thirds vote of the states or by a two-thirds vote of Congress. A proposed amendment takes effect after it has been ratified (approved) by three-fourths of the states.
36 22. People who opposed ratification of the new Constitution were called A. Federalists B. Patriots C. Whigs D. Anti-Federalists
37 People who opposed ratification of the new Constitution were called Anti-Federalists. They thought that the new Constitution gave the national government too much power. Anti-Federalists, like Thomas Jefferson, wanted to keep the Articles of Confederation.
38 23. The "Federalist Papers" were written by all of the following EXCEPT A. Alexander Hamilton B. John Jay C. Thomas Jefferson D. James Madison
39 The "Federalist Papers" were articles which urged people to vote in favor of ratification. Thomas Jefferson would never have written such an article. As leader of the Anti-Federalists, Jefferson was strongly against the new Constitution. He argued that the Constitution gave the national government too much power. He feared that it might try to take away the rights of the states and individual Americans.
40 24. An important Anti-Federalist was A. Alexander Hamilton B. Patrick Henry C. James Madison D. Thomas Jefferson
41 25. Opponents of ratification of the Constitution were called A. Federalists B. Republicans C. Loyalists D. Anti-Federalists
42 26. What was an important reason that the Anti-Federalist did not like the Constitution? A. They wanted more power to go to state governments B. They were afraid individual rights might be trampled on C. It gave too much power to the national government D. All of the above
43 27. Which is the most valid definition of a republican form of government? A. a government made up of members of the Republican Party B. a government which is not democratic C. a government made up of representatives elected by the people D. a direct democracy
44 A republican form of government is one made up of elected representatives. The United States has a republican form of government. The U.S. president and members of Congress are elected by citizens. A monarchy (rule by a king) is NOT an example of a republican form of government because the king is not elected.
45 28. What is meant by judicial review? A. The review of evidence by a grand jury. B. Both prosecuting and defense attorneys may review their case before the jury makes its judgment. C. The Supreme Court reviews all bills before Congress sends them to the President for his signature. D. The power to determine the constitutionality of a law.
46 Judicial review is the power of the Supreme Court to declare the constitutionality of a law if that law is part of a case brought before it. For example, the Missouri Compromise was involved in the case of Dred Scott, a slave. The Missouri Compromise said the northern part of the Louisiana Purchase would be closed to slavery. Scott claimed that since his master took him into this land, he had become a free man. But using its power of judicial review, the Supreme Court declared the Missouri Compromise unconstitutional. The Court ruled that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to halt slavery in any territory.
47 29. The Bill of Rights grants Americans A. the right to vote B. the right of men and women to be treated equally C. the right to a trial by jury D. all of the above
48 The first ten amendments of the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights. The 6th Amendment gives people accused of crimes the right to a speedy trial by jury. Amendments 4, 5, and 8 also deal with the rights of people who are arrested, tried, or found guilty of crimes. The freedoms of religion, speech, and press are guaranteed by the 1st Amendment. The Bill of Rights does not grant all citizens the right to vote. Amendments granting the right to vote were added to the Constitution during the 1800s and 1900s. As of yet, there are no amendments to the Constitution guaranteeing men and women total equality.
49 30. The Constitution delegates some powers to the national government and reserves other powers to the states. This division of power is called A. concurrent powers B. federalism C. separation of powers D. checks and balances
50 The delegation of some powers to the national government and others to the states is called federalism. Since states, under the Articles of Confederation, were totally sovereign, the new Constitution called on them to delegate (give) some of their powers to the national government. Other powers were reserved to the states. This arrangement was specifically stated in the 10th Amendment which says that "Powers not delegated to the federal government or forbidden to the states are reserved to the states and the people." When the framers divided power in this way, they made the U.S. government a federal government.
51 31. What did the idea of states rights say? A. The power of the national government should be increased B. The separation of power between the three branches was not working C. The power of the state governments was decreasing D. More money should be spent on southern agriculture
52 32. What caused the Nullification Crisis? A. Western expansion B. Slavery C. Tariffs D. Missouri Compromise
53 33. The Doctrine of Nullification stated that A. Individual states could decide how much tariffs to charge B. States had the power to create trade laws C. A state had the power to reject any law made by Congress D. The national government should not have the power to pass laws
54 The Nullification Crisis was the fist major conflict over states rights in the 19 th century. Nullification was an extreme form of states; rights. People who supported it said that it was needed because politicians kept giving more power to the national government, which threatened the freedom and power of the state governments. People who did not like nullification said that the Constitution gave the power to make trade laws to Congress, and the attempt to nullify any law of Congress by a state was unconstitutional and undermined the power of the national government.
55 34. In which case did the Supreme Court assert the power of judicial review? A. "Dartmouth v. Woodward" B. "Fletcher v. Peck" C. "Marbury v. Madison" D. "McCulloch v. Maryland"
56 35. What was judicial review? A. A way that states could challenge the power of the federal government B. Principle by which the federal government expanded its power C. Idea that the Supreme Court could review any act of Congress D. Case that involved the Bank of the U.S.
57 36. What effect did the case of Marbury v Madison have on the American government? A. It increased the power of the federal government B. It increased the power of the Supreme Court C. It increased the power of the states D. It increased the power of the voters
58 In "Marbury v. Madison" (1803), the Supreme Court asserted the power of judicial review. In the ruling, the Court, led by Chief Justice Marshall, declared that a portion of the Judiciary Act of 1789 was unconstitutional. The Court said that a clause in that law, which empowered the Supreme Court to issue a writ of mandamus, violated the Constitution. This decision asserted the Supreme Court's power of judicial review -- the power to review a law and determine whether or not it is constitutional.
59 37. What did the Supreme Court decide in the Case of Dred Scott? A. It determined that Scott should be allowed to go free B. It decided that Scott was not a citizen of the U.S. C. It decided that slavery was illegal north of the Missouri Compromise line D. It determined that slavery should not be allowed in the South
60 38. As an illustration of the division of powers, the Dred Scott case (1857) is considered to be a landmark because A. it was the last major decision written by Justice John Marshall B. it declared that freed slaves were citizens C. it was the first time in over 50 years that the Supreme Court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional D. it led to the passage of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution the following year
61 As an illustration of the division of powers, the Dred Scott case (1857) is considered to be a landmark because it was the first time in 50 years that the Supreme Court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional. It was also only the second time in the history of the United States (under the Constitution) that the Supreme Court had declared an act of Congress unconstitutional. Thus, "Dred Scott v. Sandford" (the name of the defendant was John F. A. Sandford) was a landmark case. Not since "Marbury v. Madison" in 1803 had the Supreme Court declared an act of Congress unconstitutional. In the Dred Scott case, the Court ruled that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. The Court declared that the Constitution did not give Congress the power to prevent citizens from taking their property (including slaves) into U.S. territory.
62 39. What event made slavery unconstitutional? A. Emancipation Proclamation B. Civil War C. 13 th Amendment D. Reconstruction
63 40. Which amendment guaranteed freed slaves the right to vote? A. 13 th B. 14 th C. 15 th D. 16 th
64 41. What was a consequence of the 15 th amendment? A. All former slaves were allowed to vote B. White Southerners found ways of preventing former slaves from voting. C. Women finally acquired the same political rights as men D. Slavery finally came to an end
65 42. What was the importance of the 14 th amendment? A. It ended slavery in the South B. It established the idea that the national government should protect the civil rights of all Americans C. It allowed former slaves the right to vote. D. It established Reconstruction in the former Confederate states.
66 43. What impact did the 14 th amendment have on powers of state governments? A. It placed new restrictions on the actions of state governments B. It increased the power of state governments over their citizens C. It prevented congressional interference with the powers of the states D. It reduced the power of the President over the states
67 44. What did the 13 th, 14 th, and 15 th amendments have in common? A. They were all supposed to solve the problems created by Reconstruction B. They all granted more political rights to former slaves C. They all limited the power of the state governments D. They were intended to correct the injustices created by the system of slavery in the South
68 The 13 th Amendment ended slavery which had been an important part of the southern economy and society. The 14 th Amendment protected the civil rights of all Americans. It said that everyone had the right to equal protection of the laws; this meant that the rights that were protected by the Bill of Rights applied to everyone, including former slaves. The 15 th Amendment guaranteed the right to vote to African American men. Congress wanted to make sure that southern states did not try and prevent former slaves from voting.
69 45. Freedom of speech is protected by which amendment? A. 1 st B. 2 nd C. 3 rd D. 4 th
70 46. Why is freedom of speech important in a democratic society? A. To ensure that everyone agrees with the way the government is running things B. To allow criticism of the government without fear of punishment C. To allow the opinions of important and influential Americans to be heard D. To make sure that the government does not interfere with the media
71 Freedom of speech allows people to say whatever they want without fear of being punished. Freedom of speech ensures that people are allowed to hold whatever opinions they want. The government has to listen to all points of view. People are allowed to criticize the government.
72 47. What do Ernestine Rose, Frances Wright, Lucretia Mott, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton have in common? A. They were hung, banned, or shunned as witches. B. They were leaders in the anti-slavery movement. C. They were heroines during the Revolutionary War. D. They were leaders in the women's rights movement.
73 These women each provided leadership in the quest for women's equality. Prior to the early 1800s the role of women was relatively well defined. Women had few legal rights, but were recognized as important and responsible members of their households. But law, custom, and social pressure combined to make them second or third-class citizens. The struggle of women to gain equal treatment under the law started in the 1820s. Most of their goals, however, were not reached until the 20th century.
74 48. Who were the abolitionists? A. Politicians who wanted to give more power to the state governments B. People who wanted to end slavery C. Women who wanted equal rights D. Political party that wanted to allow slavery in the territories
75 49. An important leader of the abolitionist movement was A. Henry Clay B. Thomas Jefferson C. James Monroe D. Frederick Douglass
76 50. What did the Monroe Doctrine say A. Slavery should not be allowed in the Northwest Territory B. Slaves in the South should be freed C. European powers should not try to create new colonies in Latin America D. America was not ready to complete with the European powers
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STAAR Review Student Cards Part 1 Eras of U.S. Timeline Exploration Age of Exploration: Time period in which Europeans explored in search for Gold, Glory, and God Northwest Passage: Reason Gold Explanation
Essential Question Section 1: The Colonial Period Section 2: Uniting for Independence Section 3: The Articles of Confederation Section 4: The Constitutional Convention Chapter Summary Content Vocabulary
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Test Bank to accompany Constitutional Law, Third Edition (Hall/Feldmeier) Chapter 1 Constitutionalism and Rule of Law 1.1 Multiple-Choice Questions 1) Which of the following Chief Justices of the Supreme