2 SWBAT Explain the role of compromise in the preservation of the Union
3 Do Now I hold it to be a good and it will continue to prove so if not disturbed by the spirit of abolition John C. Calhoun What does Calhoun support? What did southerners claim about northern industry workers?
4 Compromise California Gold Rush California needs government to bring order to chaos Petition to join union as a free state Concerns over balance of nonslave/slave states in Congress South wants North to enforce Fugitive Slave Law of 1793
5 Missouri Compromise
6 Compromise What did the Missouri Compromise establish? New compromise Compromise 1850: - Henry Clay s Solution: 1. California is admitted as a free state (N) 2. People in New Mexico & Utah would decide for themselves whether or not to have slavery (popular sovereignty) 3. New, harsher, Fugitive Slave Act- all citizens must assist in return of slaves who escaped from their owners (S)
7 Compromise - Popular Sovereignty- people are the source of government & are permitted to decide for themselves to enter the Union as a free or slave state
8 Fugitive Slave Images From viewing and discussing the following images, what can you conclude about the consequences for slaveholders, freed blacks, fugitive slaves after the new Fugitive Slave Act was passed?
16 Compromise How do you think the citizens of the free states viewed the compromise? - The Fugitive Slave Act angered northerners b/c they felt they now had to support slavery - Some fugitive slaves were really free blacks, kidnapped and sold into slavery
17 Compromise Responses: NORTH: Underground Railroad, Uncle Tom s Cabin SOUTH: Wrote own version of southern life, claimed only mentally ill slaves ran away Underground Railroad and Fugitive Slave Act
18 Fugitive Slave Act [W]hen a person held to service or labor in any State or Territory of the United States, (has) heretofore or shall hereafter escape into another State or Territory of the United States, the person or persons to whom such service or labor may be due may pursue and reclaim such fugitive person, either by procuring a warrant from some one of the courts, judges, or commissioners for the apprehension of such fugitive from service or labor, or by seizing and arresting such fugitive QUESTION: Explain two ways the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850 protected slave owners?
19 Compromise Conclusion: Compromise of Not effective: 1. North infuriated with Fugitive Slave Act 2. Did not settle issue of slavery in the Western territories 3. Doesn t solve issue of slavery at all!
20 Compromise New compromise Kansas-Nebraska Act, 1854: A. Overturned Missouri Compromise B. Divided LA Purchase into 2 territories (Kansas & Nebraska) C. Allowed popular sovereignty to decide slavery issue in Kansas & Nebraska - meant to unite nation but caused further division *led to Bleeding Kansas - mini civil war
22 Knowledge Check Before the Civil War, the principle of popular sovereignty was proposed as a means of A. allowing states to secede from the Union B. permitting voters to nullify federal laws C. deciding the legalization of slavery in a new state D. overturning unpopular decisions of the Supreme Court
23 Wrap Up How did the Compromise of 1850 appease both the North and the South at the time?
24 Slavery and the Making of America Slavery and the Making of America: The Challenge of Freedom Slavery and the Making of America: Seeds of Destruction See Handout- 1 Page Response Due Thursday **Take notes on back of handout**
25 1850s Political Parties & the Dred Scott Decision
26 SWBAT Analyze Supreme Court ruling of Dred Scott v. Sandford Do Now: What are the 2 most popular political parties in the US today? Can you name a third?
27 Political Parties of the 1850s Democratic Party (1800-present) - opposed strong central government - divided over slavery in the 1850s Whig Party ( ) - favored economic development - opposed Andrew Jackson - antislavery members left in 1850s
28 Political Parties of the 1850s Know-Nothings ( ) - opposed to immigration - joined by antislavery Whigs - took pro-slavery platform in 1856
29 Political Parties of the 1850s Free-Soil Party ( ) - worked to prevent slavery in the west - formed by antislavery Democrats & antislavery Whigs - absorbed into new Republican Party
30 Political Parties of the 1850s Republican Party (1854- present) - opposed to slavery - opposed to Kansas- Nebraska Act - absorbed the Free-Soil Party
31 Rise of New Republican Party Grew rapidly in the North Called for a repeal of the Kan.-Neb. Act & Fugitive Slave Law OK with slavery continuing as long as it was confined to the old slave states Lincoln runs for President in 1860 as a Republican
32 Dred Scott Decision With sectionalism tensions running high, Dred Scott, a slave, sued for his freedom b/c he was taken to a free state, lived on free soil for 4 years where slavery was banned
33 Dred Scott Decision Read the case: Dred Scott v. Sandford, 1857 Answer the questions that follow with a partner
34 Dred Scott Decision Abolitionists and Northerners believed the Slave Power infiltrated the Supreme Court Strengthening Southern power in government Missouri Compromise nullified Declared slaves were property Strengthened opposition to slavery in the North Many felt it settled the issue of slavery once and for all
35 Wrap Up Did the Dred Scott v. Sandford Case make the Civil War inevitable? Explain your answer. Why might Fredrick Douglass felt that the decision might end slavery sooner? What do you think other reactions to the case might have been?
36 Lincoln-Douglas Debates
37 SWBAT Compare positions of Lincoln & Douglas on issue of slavery Do Now: List 5 things that come to mind when you hear Abraham Lincoln
38 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Lincoln & Douglas held 7 debates while competing for a Senate seat Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln, a Republican, challenged Democrat Stephen Douglas for a seat in Senate 2. Honest Abe was self-taught
39 Lincoln-Douglas Debates 3. Believed slavery was morally, socially, & politically wrong. African Americans should have same rights contained in Declaration of Independence Life, Liberty, Pursuit of Happiness 4. Opposed to slavery in all territories 5. Was not an abolitionist 6. Opposed the Dred Scott decision
40 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Stephen Douglas 1. Wanted to settle the slavery issue with popular sovereignty 2. Supported the Dred Scott Decision This Union was established on the right of each State to do as it pleased on the question of slavery, and every other question Steven Douglas, 1858
42 Lincoln-Douglas Debates Read the summary of the debates & answer the questions that follow
43 John Brown s Raid Harpers Ferry, VA, October 1859
44 John Brown s Raid Believed time had come to liberate slaves Led a group of men to rob a federal armory in Harpers Ferry, VA Hoped to arm slaves with ammunition & encourage a slave rebellion PROBLEM! No slaves show up! Brown is arrested & killed Hailed as a martyr by the North & hated by the South
45 Wrap Up Why do you think abolitionists chose to launch an attack at Harpers Ferry?
46 Lincoln, Secession & War
47 SWBAT Analyze why southern states seceded from the Union Do Now: How did Stephen Douglas feel the issue of slavery should be resolved?
48 Election of 1860 Current Issues: - John Brown s Raid - Dred Scott Decision - Fugitive Slave Law - How did each event effect how those in the North and South felt?
49 Election of 1860 Democratic Party split on issue of slavery - Southern Dems- supported slavery in territories - Northern Dems- supported popular sovereignty
50 Election of 1860 Candidate Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas John Breckenridge John Bell Platform Slavery must not be allowed in territories Popular Sovereignty should decide issue of slavery in territories when they become states Fed Gov. must protect slavery Fed Gov. should support slavery and also defend the Union
51 Election of 1860 Who s who? Explain why?
52 Election of 1860 Lincoln Wins! Why was Lincoln able to win the 1860 Election without a single electoral vote in the South?
53 Election of 1860
54 Union Collapses November 6, 1860: Lincoln Elected President December 20, 1860: South Carolina secedes January 9, 1861: Mississippi secedes January 10, 1861: Florida secedes January 11, 1861: Alabama secedes January 19, 1861: Georgia secedes January 26, 1861: Louisiana secedes February 1, 1861: Texas secedes March 4, 1861: Abraham Lincoln is inaugurated What can you conclude about the 1860 election decision from the information and dates listed?
55 Union Collapses Southerners outraged that a Pres. could gain office without a single electoral vote from the south S. Carolina secedes right after Lincoln is wins the election six other states soon follow The Confederate States of America was established
56 Union Collapses Form a new constitution modeled after US Constitution BUT stressed independence of each state
57 Union Collapses Crittenden Compromise- called for a division of the nation along the Missouri Compromise line all the way to California Would Republicans pass this in Congress? Explain. FAILED COMPROMISE!
58 Civil War Begins Lincoln s Inaugural Address: - No intention of interfering with slavery in states where it already exists - Did intend on preserving the Union - There would be no war unless the South started it
59 Civil War Begins South seized federal forts & arsenals within their border Only 4 remained in Union control - Ft. Sumter- most important
60 Civil War Begins Lincoln had to resupply troops at Ft. Sumter South suspicious he would also send arms April Union refused to surrender the fort to the South Confederates fired Civil War began
61 Civil War Begins
63 Civil War Begins
64 Wrap Up Why was the Crittenden Compromise unacceptable to Lincoln? How did the Union finally collapse into a civil war?
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