1 Section 1: Washington Leads a New Nation Section 2: Hamilton & National Finances Section 3: Challenges for a New Nation Section 4: John Adams s Presidency
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4 In 1789 each of the states that passed the Constitution sent electors to choose the first president ELECTORAL COLLEGE: a group of electors that represent the people s vote for president Washington was elected unanimously, and John Adams became his Vice President
5 Washington was hoping to retire, but was convinced that he was the best fit for president He Was Mr. President He set many Precedents: an action or decision that later serves as an example
6 George Washington taking the 1st Presidential Oath of Office
7 Three Departments in Executive Branch Department Treasury financial matters Department of State foreign affairs Department of Defense national defense Office of the Attorney General was created to handle national legal matters. The CABINET: Group of advisors to the President made up of three department heads (Secretaries) and the Attorney General
8 ALEXANDER HAMILTON ST SECRETARY JACOB LEW PRESENT 76 TH SECRETARY
9 THOMAS JEFFERSON ST SECRETARY JOHN KERRY 2013-PRESENT 68 TH SECRETARY
10 HENRY KNOX ST SECRETARY ASHTON CARTER 2015-PRESENT 25 TH SECRETARY
11 Congress set up the federal court system It established a Supreme Court with 6 judges 13 district courts and 3 courts of appeal State Laws remained but Federal courts have the power to reverse state decisions President nominated judges, then they had to be approved by the senate John Jay 1 st Supreme Court Justice
12 Hamilton schools Jefferson on the National Bank
13 Sec. of Treasury, Hamilton had to deal with a huge debt NATIONAL DEBT: The amount of money owed by the U.S. US National Debt Clock
14 Hamilton wanted to pay down US debt, place tariffs on imports and create a national bank. He proposed that the government take on the entire debt of the federal government and the states His plan was to pay off old debt by borrowing new money at a lower interest rate.
15 The debt fell into 3 categories Foreign Countries: Owed $11.7 million (mostly to France) U. S. Citizens: Owed $40.4 million (Bonds) States: Owed $25 million (food, weapons, etc.)
16 1. DEAL WITH THE DEBT: Pay foreign debt first. Gradually pay off bonds. Pay state debt 2. GAIN REVENUE: Raising protective tariffs would increase prices of foreign products, causing Americans to buy more US goods 3. STABILIZE THE BANKING SYSTEM: create a national bank and a national mint
17 Congress could not agree on how to pay the debt to American citizens Bonds were issued during the war, and promised to be repaid in a given amount of time BONDS: Certificates of debt that carry a promise to buy them back at a higher price Speculators bought the bonds at a cheaper price Hamilton wanted to pay off the bonds at the original price, making speculators rich Jefferson opposed Hamilton, unfair to original bondholders
19 States owed $25 million Hamilton suggests federal govt. pays $21.5 million. Some states upset because they have very little debt. Southern states had little debt and opposed Hamilton s plan
20 Jefferson and Madison urged the Southern States to compromise For acceptance of the plan, the new capitol of the United States would be permanently moved from New York to a site on the Potomac River If left in New York or Philadelphia, political and economic power might be in the North
21 HAMILTON S VIEWS Believed in a strong central government. Wanted a balance of power between the mass of people and wealthier citizens. Wanted to promote manufacturing and business. Wanted higher tariffs on foreign goods to protect American manufacturers. JEFFERSON S VIEWS Wanted to protect the states power. Believed in the right of the people to rule the country. Supported agriculture and farmers. Wanted lower tariffs to keep costs low for goods farmers bought.
22 Hamilton wanted to create a national bank Government has safe place to keep its money Make loans to gvt & businesses National mint to make coin & paper money Washington signed the bill to create the bank for a term of 20 years States were charged with creating state banks
24 Jefferson and Madison believed Hamilton s plan gave too much power to the federal government They thought the bank was unconstitutional Hamilton brought up the elastic clause congress can make all laws which shall be necessary and proper to govern the nation
25 Hamilton believed in Loose Construction Loose Construction: the government can take reasonable actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid Jefferson believed in Strict Construction Strict Construction: the government should do only what the Constitution specifically says it can do
26 President Washington and Congress approved the charter for the bank The bank helped stabilize the US economy
29 French Revolution: Inspired by the American Revolution, the French people overthrew the government & created a republic
30 A few years later France and Great Britain went to war. The French tried to involve the U.S. Proclamation of Neutrality Stated that the U.S. would not take sides with any European countries at war. The British began impressment of sailors & capturing American trade ships Washington sent John Jay to negotiate
31 France had asked for Privateers from President Washington Privateers private ships hired by a country to attack its enemies Washington refused, it violated neutrality Hamilton supported Washington Jefferson thought Hamilton was interfering in foreign policy & resigned from cabinet in 1793
32 British ships are seizing American ships going to the French West Indies. John Jay sent to work out a compromise. British will pay for damages on American ships British will abandon forts in the NW frontier. US will pay debts it owes Britain.
33 Spain disputed US/Florida border. Spain closed port of New Orleans to US trade in Pinckney wants: port reopened right of deposit in New Orleans border decided. Spanish minister, Godoy agrees to all demands. US/Florida border set at 31*N Latitude
34 Americans continued to settle in the Northwest Native Americans protested British provided guns to Natives Natives were Battle of Fallen Timbers. The Battle of Fallen Timbers by R. F. Zogbaum, from Harper's Magazine, 1896.
36 Treaty of Greenville gave U.S. claim to almost all Native lands in the Northwest Territory.
37 Farmers resisted the tax on whiskey Tax collectors were attacked and buildings were burned A receipt for the whiskey tax, A tax collector is tarred and feathered by antitax frontiersmen during the Whiskey Rebellion.
38 Washington led an army to quiet the rebellion This showed people the government was willing to use force to maintain order
39 Lists the benefits of uniting the states under one government. Warned against the dangers of political parties political unity was a key to national success. Warned against dangers of foreign ties. Warned against too much public debt. Points out the need for education.
40 JOHN ADAMS overview
41 By 1796 Americans were beginning to divide into opposing groups and to form political parties (factions) Within Washington s Cabinet Hamilton & Jefferson had opposing views Party differences were based on where and how people lived Businesspeople in the cities supported the Federalists Farmers in isolated areas supported the Democratic-Republicans
42 FEDERALIST Leader: Hamilton Strong federal government. Rule by Wealthy Class British alliance National Bank Protective Tariffs Implied powers of Constitution DEMOCRATIC- REPUBLICAN Leader: Jefferson Strong State government Rule by the People French Alliance State Banks Free Trade Strict interpretation of Constitution
44 Election of 1796; first time more than one candidate ran for president Parties held Caucuses (meetings) to choose their candidate Federalists chose John Adams and Thomas Pinckney as candidates. Republicans chose Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr as candidates. Good Friends Adams and Jefferson became Rivals
45 Election of 1796 Adams 71 electoral votes Jefferson 68 electoral votes Adams defeated Jefferson. Whoever had the second most votes became vice president, so Jefferson joined Adams in office.
46 THE XYZ AFFAIR Video Adams tried to improve American relationship with France. Sent diplomats to negotiate to protect U.S. shipping. They were met by three French agents.
47 The agents said a treaty would be discussed only in exchange for $250,000. The French government also wanted a loan of $10 Mil. The US diplomats refused. When Adams told Congress of the talks, he replaced the agents names with the letters X, Y, Z.
48 Federalists wanted war- Adams did NOT too costly. Treaty was eventually signed
49 Included four laws Aimed at stopping the growth of Democratic- Republican party & to stop opposition to the war! Supposedly to protect the country from foreigners
50 ALIEN ACT Gave President power to deport any foreigner considered dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States. Federalists hoped to silence French refugees who opposed them. SEDITION ACT: Made it a crime to speak or write critically about the government. It s purpose was to silence criticism. Most controversial of the 4
52 Documents that argue that the Alien & Sedition Acts were unconstitutional Stated the Federal govt. could NOT pass these acts because they interfered with state govt. Cited the 10 th Amendment Resolutions did not have the force of national law, but supported the idea that states could challenge the Federal Govt.
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