2 The Founding Fathers wanted to make sure they did things correctly. They even spent 3 weeks deciding what to call the President!!! His Excellency, and His Highness were suggested, but Washington was simply happy with Mr. President.
3 Washington knew the things he did would be watched carefully and would set a PRECEDENT (when others follow your example).
4 To help him complete his duties, the president has a CABINET. The original cabinet had 5 executive departments: 1. State 2. Treasury 3. War 4. Attorney General 5. Postmaster General
5 Agriculture Commerce Defense Education Energy Health/Human Services Homeland Security Housing/Urban Dev. Interior Justice Labor State Transportation Treasury Veterans Affairs
7 The JUDICIARY ACT was passed in 1789 to set up the United States court system. John Jay became the first Supreme Court Chief Justice.
8 To help raise money during the Revolution, the government had sold bonds to people. When you buy a BOND, the government promises to pay back to you the money you spent, plus interest.
9 Many southern states had paid off their bond debts, but many northern states and the federal government had not. Alexander Hamilton, the Secretary of the Treasury, said the government should buy up all the old bonds and issue new ones. When the economy improved, the new bonds could be paid off.
10 Alexander Hamilton (our first Secretary of the Treasury), felt strongly that the debts had to be paid off in order for the young nation to maintain its credibility.
11 Hamilton knew many southerners wanted to move the capital of the United States closer to the South. He told the southerners that if they would support his plan for paying off war debt, he would convince northerners to move the capital toward the South.
12 A compromise was reached, and it was agreed to build the new capital city on land located between the states of Virginia and Maryland. They wanted the city to be done by The capital was then temporarily moved from New York to Philadelphia while the new city was being built.
14 The original District of Columbia was diamond-shaped, and was made up of land from both sides of the Potomac River donated by the states of Maryland and Virginia.
16 Issues over slavery caused Virginia to ask for its portion of the District of Columbia back
18 Alexander Hamilton asked Congress to create the Bank of the United States. Tax money was put here and the U. S. started paying off its debts. Money was also lent out to farmers and businesses to try and stimulate the economy.
20 Another way the government tried to help the economy was to create TARIFFS, which are taxes on foreign goods. Northerners liked the tariffs but southerners did not. Most industries were located in the North. A compromise deal was reached.
21 The government frequently taxes successful money-making products. As part of Hamilton s financial plan, a tax was placed on whiskey, a drink made from wheat, rye, or corn. Farmers were angry, because it decreased their profits, and they also used whiskey like money, to purchase things like salt, sugar, and other things.
22 Farmers in Pennsylvania even went so far as to rebel by harassing and tarring and feathering tax collectors, and even threatening to burn the city of Pittsburgh.
23 The government called out the military to put down the rebellion. This showed that the federal government could, and would use its authority. Here Washington reviews the troops. By the time the troops got to Pittsburgh, the rebellion had settled down.
24 French ships arriving in American ports in 1789 brought startling news. A revolution had begun to overthrow the king and to create a republic like Americans had. This actually leads to potential trouble for the U. S.
25 Many Americans were happy that the French people were trying to obtain liberty, especially since we had just earned our own. They also felt a friendship toward the French, because they had helped us defeat the British.
26 During the mid 1790 s, the Reign of Terror sweeps over France, and thousands of French citizens are executed. Some American leaders felt the violence was too extreme, while other leaders say freedom should be obtained at any cost.
27 Thousands lost their lives when they were beheaded by a new device called the GUILLOTINE.
29 Many countries, especially Great Britain, wanted to squash the rebellion before the same thing happened in their own country. They began to fight France to put down the rebellion.
30 Europe is soon plunged into a war that lasts almost continuously from 1792 until The French want to use our ports to supply their ships to attack nations like Britain. After much discussion and debate, President Washington issued the NEUTRALITY PROCLAMATION. It stated that the U.S. would not support either side in the war.
31 American merchants were mad that they could not trade. France and especially Great Britain violated America s neutrality and seized ships and their cargo. Washington knew we were weak, and not prepared for war, so he sent Chief Justice John Jay to negotiate.
32 Also, during Washington s presidency, the first political parties started to form. Many Americans for a long time had a distrust of political parties. They had seen in Britain how some people used them for personal gain. They also saw the disunity they caused. George Washington was against them.
33 Despite the warnings from George Washington, two parties began to form around two of his advisors: Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. Each man was quite different not only in appearance, but in beliefs as well.
35 Hamilton liked Britain, and felt that the U.S. should be like them, and have manufacturing. He favored the growth of cities. Jefferson liked France, and felt the U.S. economy should be based on farming. He called farmers the backbone of the nation.
36 Hamilton wanted a strong federal government and believed in interpreting the constitution loosely. Jefferson wanted state governments to have more power and thought we should strictly interpret the constitution.
37 Hamilton favored having a national bank, and he also supported protective tariffs. Jefferson opposed the national bank, and didn t like the tariffs.
38 At first, Hamilton and Jefferson argued privately. But when Congress started passing things Hamilton supported, Jefferson, and his friend James Madison decided to organize support for their views.
39 Hamilton s people called themselves Federalists. They wanted a strong federal government. They included merchants, manufacturers, and southern planters. Jefferson s people called themselves Democratic- Republicans. They wanted a smaller federal government. They included small farmers and workers.
40 Newspapers began to play a major role in politics and started to take sides. The number of newspapers increased, as more people demanded information. Even Europeans were amazed at how many Americans could read and stay informed.
41 By 1796, Washington had helped the country through many problems, and decided that after two terms, it was time to retire.
42 Washington warned the American people to stay out of Europe s problems, and to not enter into foreign alliances. We listened for awhile. Washington also warned Americans about the dangers of political parties, and how they can divide people. We did not listen to his advice on this one.
43 In the election, Federalists supported John Adams for president, and Thomas Pinckney for Vice President. The Democratic-Republicans supported Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President.
45 In the election, John Adams received the most electoral votes, and Thomas Jefferson got second place. That meant the president and vice president were in different parties, which led to some contention.
47 Although he was not a popular war hero, Adams was an honest, able leader. As President, he tried to act in the best interests of the nation, even if it hurt him politically.
48 Soon after Adams took office, France began attacking our ships, encouraging many Americans to call for war. DIPLOMATS were sent to Paris to discuss the United States rights as a neutral nation.
49 Despite a lot of pressure, Adams refused to ask Congress to declare war. However, the navy was strengthened, and fast-moving ships with guns called FRIGATES were also made. France backed down somewhat.
50 Many members of the Federalist party were upset with Adams and his policies. They wanted war with France, so the military could become stronger, and the government would have more power. The disagreements led to a branch of the party called High Federalists.
51 The Alien Act made it harder for people to become a citizen. Also, anyone considered dangerous, could be expelled from the country. Under the Sedition Act, citizens could be jailed or fined for criticizing the government or its officials.
53 Many people felt these laws violated our free speech rights. Some states even passed laws where they could NULLIFY, or cancel laws they felt were wrong, or unconstitutional. It ended up being the biggest mistake of John Adams s career.
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