1 The American Revolution is over but now the colonists have to decide how they want to frame their government. Take the first 5 minutes of class and imagine that you were a colonist that just fought against the British. Take out a sheet of paper and write a letter (using full sentences!) to George Washington telling him what you want him to remember when the delegates are making our Constitution. Hints: taxes, voting, your region, religion, etc. (I will be choosing people to share their answers!)
2 The Road to the Constitution
4 Strengthening the National Government 1787 Problems with the Articles of Confederation States sent delegates to Philadelphia to fix the A.O.C. Rhode Island did not go they did not want a stronger central government
5 May 25, 1787 The Constitutional Convention Independence Hall, Philadelphia An extraordinary group of men 55 men Well-educated Lawyers, merchants, college presidents, doctors, generals, governors, and planters with considerable political experience
6 Who was there? Who missed it? Benjamin Franklin 81, oldest delegate George Washington & James Madison Both would become president Thomas Jefferson & John Adams Both were in Europe Patrick Henry Prominent Virginian He was invited but did not attend; he was against the convention
7 The Boss Who was chosen to preside over the convention? George Washington Respected for his leadership during the Rev. War
8 Procedures of the Convention Each state was only allowed one vote Majority votes from all states made decisions All discussions were a secret! Why? This way, delegates could speak freely, without worry about how the public would react
9 Importance of the Constitutional Convention I would bury my bones in this city rather than leave the Convention without anything being done. -George Mason (Virginia) at the Constitutional Convention *Everyone knew that failure could mean disaster*
10 What happened to the Articles of Confederation??? They throw it away, decided to write a new constitution
11 Two Opposing Plans VS. Virginia vs. New Jersey
12 Two Opposing Plans The Virginia Plan James Madison 3 branches of government Bicameral legislature (2 houses), determined by population Favored big states
13 Two Opposing Plans The New Jersey Plan William Patterson 3 branches of government Unicameral legislature (1 house) with equal representation Favored smaller states
14 Two Opposing Plans What was the big issue? How representation in Congress would be decided Larger states wanted more power, smaller states wanted equal power
15 The Great Compromise Roger Sherman of Connecticut comes up with the answer a compromise Lower House House of Representatives Determined by population 2 year terms Favored larger states Upper House Senate Equal representation 6 year terms Favored smaller states What is a compromise??? A way of resolving disagreements in which each side gives up something but gains something else Also known as The Connecticut Compromise
17 More arguing? What now? Controversy over counting slaves as a part of the population At this time, there were 550,000 enslaved African Americans, mostly in the South
18 More arguing? What now? Southern states said part of the population = more representatives for southern states Northern states said slaves cannot vote or participate in government, they should not give the south more representatives
19 The Three-Fifths Compromise The conflict was finally resolved Three-Fifths Compromise Every 5 enslaved persons would count as 3 free people Used for representation in Congress & figuring taxes
20 Another compromise How to elect a president? Some say Let Congress pick! Others say Let the people choose! The compromise
21 Electoral College A group of people would be chosen by each state to choose the President Each state given a certain number of votes, determined by their representation in Congress
22 One last compromise Conflicts over commerce & the slave trade Congress could regulate (control) trade between states & other countries However, they could NOT tax exports or interfere with the slave trade for 20 years
24 Finished finally! September 17, 1787, finished up the Constitution Delegates signed it, said the Constitution would become the law of the land when 9 out of 13 states ratified (approved) it
25 So everyone in the entire United States of America loved the Constitution and every state ratified it immediately and we all had a big party and we all lived happily ever after, right?
27 A Divided Public Some people liked the Constitution, others did not Federalists = supporters of the new constitution & a strong federal government Federalism = A form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states
28 A Divided Public Some Federalists wrote papers to rally support for the Constitution They were called the Federalist Papers (duh) Who wrote em? Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, & John Jay
29 A Divided Public What about those who didn t like the Constitution? Anti-Federalists = People opposed to the constitution & a strong federal government Don t forget individual rights!
30 Reaching an Agreement Anti-Federalists wanted to add The Bill of Rights The Federalists promised to do so, and did New Hampshire, 9th state to ratify June 21, 1788 The Constitution went into effect The last state to ratify? Rhode Island, 1790
31 Federalist Number 51 If men were angels, no government would be necessary. -James Madison
32 Federalist Number 51 continued In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. -James Madison
33 Who: Issue Federalist Hamilton, Madison, Jay Antifederalist Patrick Henry Central Government Strong:provide protection Weak : focus on states Interpretation Loose Strict Bill of Rights Eventually Without a doubt!!!! Supporters Wealth/industrial common/farmers Power of President Lots Little - no Kings! 40
34 Lesson questions What does interpretation mean? What does strict interpretation of the constitution mean? What does loose interpretation of the constitution mean? 42
35 Founding Fathers The Framers of the Constitution wrote a very generalized document. Purpose? To allow future Americans flexibility. Look at Article I, Section 8, Clause 18 To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.. The nick name of this passage is the Elastic Clause. Can you tell why? 43
36 Competing interpretations Who interprets? The Supreme Court! How? Strict or literalist Which Means? The Constitution means exactly what it says! Framers had an exact plan 44
37 Competing interpretations The counterpart of strict interpretation is? Loose interpretation Which means? Meaning of certain portions of the Constitution can stretched to the user s needs 45
38 1. What is a form of government in which power is divided between the federal (national) government and the states?
39 2. What did the Anti-Federalists want to add to the Constitution?
40 3. Who was the father of the Constitution?
41 4. The Anti-Federalists thought that the supremacy gives too much power to who?
42 5. Were the Anti-Federalists or the Federalists mostly made up of older, Southern men?
43 6. Who wrote the Federalist Papers?
44 7. What was one argument against the Constitution by the Anti-Federalists?
45 8. What was one argument for the Constitution by the Federalists?
Chapter 5, Section 3 Creating the Constitution Pages 163-168 It didn t take long for people to realize that the Articles of Confederation had many weaknesses. By the mid-1780s most political leaders agreed
May, 1787 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania ~Independence Hall~ Leader: George Washington -May 1787 Philadelphia Met in Independence Hall in Philadelphia George Washington leader -12 of 13 states Rhode Island
The Constitutional Convention Chapter 2 Section 4 Constitutional Convention May 1787 Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 74 delegates allowed, 55 attended, 39 signed final Delegates to the Convention Had lots of
WARM UP 1 Using the information from yesterday or new information collected using your ipad create a bubble map on the Constitutional Convention 2 Include people, dates, locations, facts and other information
Warm Up 1 Explain how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to Shays Rebellion: 2 What was the primary concern of soldier/farmers who supported Daniel Shays? 3 Explain how Shays Rebellion
Constitutional Convention May 1787 Annapolis Convention September 11 to September 14, 1786 Annapolis, Maryland Purpose - How to fix the articles of confederation Alexander Hamilton (New York) MUST resolve
Key Players Key Players Key Players George Washington unanimously chosen to preside over the meetings. Benjamin Franklin now 81 years old. Gouverneur Morris wrote the final draft. James Madison often called
The Constitutional Convention Problems like Shay s Rebellion revealed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation This event convinced many U.S. citizens that our 1 st written plan of government needed
2014 Delegates Remember a delegate is someone who is chosen to speak for others, or to represent them. The delegates represented each of the states and consisted of: Wealthy and educated landowners, business
Section 4 at a Glance The Constitutional Convention At the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia, delegates debated competing plans the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan for how the new government
The United States Constitution The Supreme Law of the Land The Articles Prove Unstable Federal gov t could declare war and other foreign affairs Federal gov t have no power to collect taxes, relying only
Constitutional Convention Members Principles Agreements and compromises The Constitutional Convention, 1787 u 55 delegates attended but on a typical day 35 were present u 29 held college degrees u 34 were
Chapter 2:4 Constitutional Convention Psa_119:165 Great peace have they which love thy law: and nothing shall offend them. Objectives: 2:4 Our Political Beginnings o Students will examine the process that
Four reasons we need government 1. Need for Law and Order - Government makes laws to protect citizens, and punishes those who break the law. Laws provide order in a society. This allows citizens to live
Chapter 25 Terms and People republic a government in which the people elect their representatives unicameral legislature a lawmaking body with a single house whose representatives are elected by the people
The Constitutional Convention Problems like Shay s Rebellion revealed the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation This event convinced many U.S. citizens that our 1 st written plan of government needed
The Constitution Major Problem Could not tax, regulate trade or enforce its laws because the states held more power than the National Government. Why? Feared a government like King George The Constitutional
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Objectives Why did the Constitutional Convention draft a new plan for government? How did the rival plans for the new government differ? What other conflicts required the Framers
Everybody hated this thing. While observing that it was too weak is an oversimplification. The variety of reasons why people were so miserable in the 1780s have everything to do with this document (until
Creating the Constitution 2.2, 2.3, 2.4 Struggle for Government The creation and signing of the Declaration of Independence did not create a government The founding fathers had many problems Declaration
Establishing A New Government: Creating a Government Chapter 4 Concept 2 4.2 Creating a Government How did the decisions made at the Constitutional Convention affect the balance of power in the new nation?
Creating the Constitution Constitutional Convention Philadelphia 1787 Met in Secret Goal: Alter or abolish fix the old system or create a new one Needed to tweak the articles Focus of Convention Meeting
2.3 Articles of Confederation What were the Articles of Confederation? Why were the 1780s a critical period in United States history? What did America do to create a stronger government in the 1780s? Section:
CHAPTER 2 Origins of American Government SECTION 1 OUR POLITICAL BEGINNINGS The colonists brought with them to North America knowledge of the English political system, including three key ideas about government.
1 st United States Constitution A. loose alliance of states B. Congress lawmaking body C. 9 states had to vote to pass laws D. each state had 1 vote in Congress Northwest Ordinance / Land Ordinance division
THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Compromises Federalists v. Anti-Federalists QUICK REVIEW: FIND SOMEONE WHO Second Continental Congress Drafting of the Articles of Confederation Weaknesses International Relations
Presentation Pro Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government SECTION 1 Our Political Beginnings
Constitutional Convention How did the United States overcome the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation and provide for the organization of the new government? What role did compromise play in the
Let us not be afraid to view with a steady eye the dangers with which we are surrounded. Are we not on the eve of a war, which is only to be prevented by the hopes from this convention? CREATING A GOVERNMENT
1. The Origins of the Constitution 2. The Government That Failed: 1776 1787 3. Making a Constitution: The Philadelphia Convention 4. Critical Issues at the Convention 5. The Madisonian System 6. Ratifying
Ordered Government Gov t was needed to maintain peace Limited Government*********** Gov t is not all powerful Power is limited to what the people give to it Representative Government Gov t should serve
Articles of Confederation September 18, 2007 Powers Given to Congress under the Articles Weaknesses under the Articles Results of the Articles during the Critical Period Use Page 44-46 to analyze the effects
US Government - Ried Chapter 2 TEST Origins of American Government 1)The Magna Carta was originally intended to protect the rights of which group? A. religious leaders B. kings and queens C. common people
Articles of Confederation Do Now How is power divided in our country today? SWBAT Analyze government problems under the Articles of Confederation Activity Review the Articles of Confederation chart and
2. Divided Convention notes7 9/13 states needed to ratify (to approve) Political parties begin Federalists: supported the Constitution The Federalist ---essays support Constitution Anti-Federalists: against
Articles of Confederation What was the nation facing after the Revolutionary War? -An agrarian or agricultural nation (Farmland) -A Confederate Nation-joined by an agreement or treaty -Debt -Major economic
Shays Daniel Shay 1784 to 1785, unfair taxes, debt and foreclosure Farmer s rebellion to overthrow Mass. Govt. 1. Constitutional Convention: May to Sept. 1787 2. Divided Convention 9/13 states needed to
Lesson 2 Creating Our Constitution Key Terms delegates equal representation executive federal system framers House of Representatives judicial What You Will Learn to Do Explain how the Philadelphia Convention
Civics Honors Chapter Two: Origins of American Government Section One: Our Political Beginnings Limited Government Representative government Magna Carta Petition of Right English Bill of Rights Charter
Grade 7 History Mr. Norton Section 1: A Loose Confederation Section 2: The Constitutional Convention Section 3: Ideas Behind the Constitution Section 4: Ratification and the Bill of Rights Grade 7 History
Read the Federalist #47,48,& 51 How to read the Constitution In the Woll Book Pages 40-50 The Origins of a New Nation Colonists from New World Escape from religious persecution Economic opportunity Independent
SS.7.C.1.5. Identify how the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation led to the writing of the Constitution SS.7.C.1.8 Explain the viewpoints of the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists regarding the
Unit 7 Our Current Government Name Date Period Learning Targets (What I need to know): I can describe the Constitutional Convention and two compromises that took place there. I can describe the structure
Unit 4 Writing the Constitution Concepts to Review CAUSE AND EFFECTS OF MAJOR ERAS AND EVENTS IN U.S. HISTORY THROUGH 1877 Writing the Constitution Shays Rebellion Philadelphia Convention 1787 Great Compromise
American Government Unit 2 Study Guide Events leading up the Declaration of Independence: 1) Stamp Act- a tax placed on all printed material a. An attempt to earn money lost in the French and Indian War
CHAPTER 7 CREATING A GOVERNMENT The Constitution set out our rules for government. It explains what our government can and cannot do. It reflects are experience as a colony as well as ideas from Europe
Chapter 6 APUSH Mr. Muller Aim: How is the New Republic tested? Do Now: Thus I consent, sir, to this Constitution, because I expect no better, and because I am not sure that it is not the best. The opinions
The Critical Period 1781-1789 The early years of the American Republic America after the War New Political Ideas: - Greater power for the people Republic: Represent the Public America after the War State
Chapter 3 Constitution Read the article Federalist 47,48,51 & how to read the Constitution on www.pknock.com Read Chapter 3 in the Textbook The Origins of a New Nation Colonists from New World Escape from
HIST 1301 Part Two 6: The Republican Experiment The States and the Confederation 1776-1788 During the Revolution, state Governments formed first. 2 min. 40 sec. Each state had a written constitution. Each
Chapter 2: The Beginnings of American Government United States Government Fall, 2017 Origins of American Political Ideals Colonial Period Where did ideas for government in the colonies come from? Largely,
Constitutional Convention Unit Notes Civics Textbook: Government and Society - Text p. 5 Cue four reasons why society needs a government Notes 1. Law and Order Government makes laws to protect citizens
The United States Constitution The Supreme Law of the Land Standards SSUSH5 The student will explain specific events and key ideas that brought about the adoption and implementation of the United States
Ch. 6 Creating the Constitution /EQ: 6.1 Introduction Like Washington, most Americans did not want to be ruled by a monarch. What they did want, though, was an effective government. Articles of Confederation,
The Constitution I. Considerations that influenced the formulation and adoption of the Constitution A. Roots 1. Religious Freedom a) Puritan Theocracy (1) 9 of 13 had state church b) Rhode Island (1) Roger
American History 11R Setting of the Philadelphia Convention Early decision to re-write, rather than tinker with the Articles of Confederation Open agreement secretly arrived at--washington's plea Intent
AIM: How did the Articles of Confederation impact the U.S.? Do Now: How do you think Hale Charter Academy would function if we got rid of the assistant principal, and the dean, and we allowed the individual
Creating the Constitution 1776-1791 US Timeline 1777-1791 1777 Patriots win Battles of Saratoga. Continental Congress passes the Articles of Confederation. 1781 Articles of Confederation go into effect.
Vocabulary for Evolution of Government Directions Students will make a flash card for each word The flash card must include all the information on the screen (cards will be stamped for completeness) The
ü A al Convention Is Called - during the summer of 1787, 12 states sent delegates to Philadelphia to discuss amending the Articles of Confederation - the example set by Shays Rebellion proved our young
The period between the Treaty of Paris and the writing of the Constitution, the states were united only by a rope of sand. George Washington Beginnings of a New Nation Officers were disgusted with Congress
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government SECTION 1 Our Political Beginnings SECTION 2 The Coming of Independence
Who attended the Philadelphia Convention? How was it organized? We the People, Unit 3 Lesson 12 A convention has been called to rewrite Redwood school constitution. We need some delegates (representatives).
Ch. 2.1 Our Political Beginnings The US government has its roots in English history Limited Government The concept that government is limited in what it can and cannot do Representative Government Government
AKS M 49 C 30 a-d D 32 a-c D 33 a-c D 34 a-b BUILDING A NEW NATION The official end of the Revolutionary War was the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783. The newly independent US and GA now faced the
Name: Date: Chapter 8 Study Guide Section 8-1: The Articles of Confederation 1. A constitution is a set of basic principles and laws, usually in written form, that state the powers and duties of a government.
Test Day October 3-4 Sit Wherever Turn in your Study Guide to me When done with test, Turn in to the correct area up front (follow sticky notes) Pick up outline for Unit 3 Pick up a survey for Unit 3 Pick
C H A P T E R 2 Origins of American Government 1 SECTION 1 SECTION 2 SECTION 3 SECTION 4 SECTION 5 Our Political Beginnings The Coming of Independence The Critical Period Creating the Constitution Ratifying
NAME: Date: U.S. History CHAPTER 7 PACKET ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS: 1. What is a constitution? 2. What is a republic? 3. What was the Articles of Confederation? 4. How was state and national power divided under
Articles of Confederation Essential Question: Why was the central government s power too weak under the Articles of Confederation? Objectives Discuss the ideas that guided the new state governments. Describe
Name Date Period Workbook Activity Vocabulary Match-Up Chapter 2, Lesson 1 7 Part A Directions Match the vocabulary word in Column 1 with its definition in Column 2. Write the correct letter on each line.
The End of the Confederation Era By 1786 it became clear that the Articles were not working The Philadelphia Convention of 1787 brought leaders from the 12 states (Rhode Island did not attend) to address
The U.S. Constitution: Who, What, Where, When, Why & How 'a ^Va&o/z Fighting between the American colonists and British forces under King George III was in its second year when the Declaration of Independence
Constitutional Convention I INTRODUCTION Constitutional Convention, meeting during the summer of 1787 at which delegates from 12 states wrote the Constitution of the United States. At the convention in
Chapter 8 Confederation to Constitution pg. 218 241 8 1 The Confederation Era pg. 221 225 Moving West and New State Governments Into which areas did American settlement expand in the late 1700s? What types
1 Section 1 Guided Reading and Review Government and the State As you read Section 1, fill in the answers to the following questions. 1. What are the four characteristics of a state? a. b. c. d. 2. What
SOUTHWESTERN CHRISTIAN SCHOOL UNITED STATES HISTORY STUDY GUIDE # 7 : CREATING A NEW NATION LEARNING OBJECTIVES STUDENTS WILL BE ABLE TO IDENTIFY AND EXPLAIN THE WEAKNESSES OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION
Unit I Notes Purposes of Government - Maintain social order - Provide public services - Provide security and defense - Provide for the economy - Governments get authority from: o Their legitimacy o Ability
Chapter 2 Government The way the United States government is organized, its powers, and its limitations, are based on ideas about government that were brought to these shores by the English colonist. Three
[ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals [ 2.1 ] Origins of American Political Ideals Key Terms limited government representative government due process bicameral unicameral [ 2.1 ] Origins of American
Lesson 13 Writing and Ratifying the Constitution Doct r. FRANKLIN looking towards the Presidents Chair, at the back of which a rising sun happened to be painted, observed to a few members near him, that
PSCI 1040 Purposes of a Constitution Organize and empower the government Limit the powers of government. Many consider limited government to be the essence of constitutional government. 2 Articles of Confederation
4 th Grade U.S. Government Study Guide Big Ideas: Imagine trying to make a new country from scratch. You ve just had a war with the only leaders you ve ever known, and now you have to step up and lead.
The Constitution The Beginnings of a New American Government Dissatisfaction grew with the Articles of Confederation as disagreements over control of waterways and trade developed. In 1785 the first meeting
Foundations of American Government Formation of the first governments of the 13 colonies Highly Influenced by: - Contracts, Juries, stare decisis English Tradition Natural rights: Consent of the governed: