1 Who s Who and Vocabulary in TEKS 1. Magna Carta The cornerstone of English justice, signed in 1215 declaring the same law bound the king and government as other citizens of England Jamestown, Virginia, first permanent English settlement established by Virginia Company. John Smith helped them through the starving time by enacting military rule. John Rolfe introduced tobacco, which also helped them succeed. 3. Representative government A government in which power is held by the people and exercised through the efforts of representatives elected by the people. 4. Virginia House of Burgesses Jamestown, Virginia. First representative government in the colonies and used as a model by other colonies 5. Mayflower Compact Drafted by the Pilgrims in 1620, it declared that the 4l males who signed it would abide by majority rule and follow the voluntary government set up for Plymouth, Massachusetts. 6. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut First written constitution in the American colonies that set a precedent for written constitutions in the colonies. 7. William Penn Established Pennsylvania as a refuge for Quakers, believed in religious freedom and opposed warfare, wanted fair treatment for Native Americans. Attracted different ethnic groups because of their tolerant attitudes. 8. Plantation System System of large-scale agriculture in the Southern colonies. Production is a cash crop such as rice, tobacco, cotton, and indigo and depends on slave labor. 9. Triangular Trade A system of trading steps in colonial times in which each step exchanged one item for a more valuable one. One trade route might begin in New England with rum and iron sent to Africa, in exchange for slaves (middle passage) sent to the West Indies, where they were exchanged for sugar and molasses, which would go back to New England to make rum. 10. English Bill of Rights Passed in 1689 to limit the power of the monarchy and to establish a system of government in which the people and the parliament share power with the monarchy. 11. First Great Awakening Movement in the 1730 s and 1740 s in response to the strict teachings of the Puritans. The Great Awakening preached personal salvation by good works and encouraged men and women to take an active role in their own personal salvation. 12. Mercantilism The economic system of Europe in the 1500 s and 1600 s, which favored a balance of exports over imports and included the belief that colonies should benefit the home country by supplying raw materials and providing markets for finished goods.
2 13. French and Indian War A war between England and France for control of the Ohio Valley that began in the colonies in In 1763 the Treaty of Paris gave the British all lands east of the Mississippi River and eliminated France as a rival in North America. 14. Benjamin Franklin Known for his many inventions, writing Poor Richard s Almanac, the Albany Plan, his famous Join or Die cartoon, the Declaration of Independence. He also served as an envoy to France during the American Revolution. He helped draft the Treaty of Paris at the end of The Revolutionary War, and was the oldest member at the Constitutional Convention. 15. King George III Crowned King during the French and Indian War. He took an aggressive policy with the colonists during the American Revolution. He struggled with mental illness and was not considered an effective leader. 16. George Washington First saw military duty during the French and Indian War and later became Commander of the Continental Army in the American Revolution. His leadership and success as the American General made him a natural choice as the nation s first President. 17. Sam Adams One of the most important rebels in the events leading to the American Revolution. He strongly opposed the taxation policies of England and helped organize the Sons of Liberty, the Committees of Correspondence and later supported the addition of the Bill of Rights to the Constitution. 18. Patrick Henry His famous Give me Liberty or Give me Death speech to the Virginia House of Burgesses clearly marked him as a man opposed to the tyrannical policies of England. Later refused to attend Constitutional Convention because he feared a strong central government. 19. Thomas Paine His pamphlet, Common Sense, inspired the colonists towards the idea of complete freedom from England and its monarchy. It encouraged people to want to break the ties and fight for independence. During a dark time in the war his pamphlet The American Crisis inspired the soldiers and encouraged enlistments in the Continental Army July 4, 1776, the Second Continental Congress formally approved the Declaration of Independence. 21. Declaration of Independence Document adopted by the Second Continental Congress calling for the thirteen colonies to be free and independent. The document was written to explain to the world why the colonies were breaking away from Great Britain and to emphasize the power of the people to control their own government. Thomas Jefferson is given credit for most of the writing of the document.
3 22. Unalienable Rights Those rights listed in the Declaration of Independence that cannot be taken away: life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. 23. Thomas Jefferson writer of the Declaration of Independence. 24. Marquis de Lafayette French aristocrat who between 1776 and 1779 played an important role in the American Revolution. He became one of George Washington s most trusted advisors and helped win the battle at Yorktown to end the Revolutionary War. 25. John Paul Jones Considered the founder of the U.S. Navy. His famous quote, I have not yet begun to fight, occurred when he commanded the Bonhomme Richard and defeated the British Serapis in battle. 26. Articles of Confederation The nation s first written plan of government was weak because the Congress lacked the power to tax, to regulate trade, or to control coining money. The states held most of the power. Instead of revising this plan a new constitution was written in Northwest Ordinance This law established a system for governing the western territories so they could join the Union as equals to the original 13 states. When there are 60,000 inhabitants they could write a state constitution, which had to provide for a representative government and it prohibited slavery in the states applying for statehood Delegates met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles, but instead they drafted, debated, compromised and wrote a new constitution. 29. Philadelphia Convention of 1787 At this meeting to revise the Articles of Confederation the discussions were kept secret. Arguments over representation in Congress were solved by the Great Compromise, which provided for a bicameral legislature. There was a concern that the new government was too powerful and had no bill of rights to protect the citizens. These debates led to the development of Federalists and Anti-Federalists. Delaware was the first to ratify the Constitution, New Hampshire was the 9 th to make it official, eventually all 13 approved once the Bill of Rights was approved. 30. Founding Fathers This term applies to individuals who played a major role in declaring U.S. independence, fighting the Revolutionary War, or writing and adopting the U.S. Constitution. Founding fathers include Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, and James Madison. 31. Federalism Federalism is the distribution of power between a federal government and the states within a union. 32. Civic Virtue Citizens are obligated to be active, loyal, supportive members of the community. Those with civic virtue take a more active role in improving the community and the experiences of others.
4 33. George Mason As a delegate from Virginia to the Constitutional Convention he delivered many speeches but then refused to sign the Constitution because it did not include a Bill of Rights. 34. James Madison Father of the Constitution and author of the Bill of Rights. He supported a strong central government that became the platform for the Federalist Party. Elected President in, 1808, he presided through the War of 1812 and escaped Washington D.C. in August 1814, when the British invaded and set the public buildings afire. 35. Federalists Papers These are a series of 85 essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay to explain the new government under the Constitution and to convince states to ratify it. 36. Federalists and Anti-Federalists Those favoring ratification of the Constitution and adoption of a strong federal government were called Federalists. Those opposed, feared the power of the national government and were called Anti-Federalists. They wanted more protections for the rights of the states and the individual. 37. United States Constitution - One of the foundations of the American system of government is the use of a written constitution defining the values and principles of government and establishing limits of power. In over 200 years there have only been 27 amendments to our Constitution, but it also adapted to the needs of generations of Americans through customs, traditions, and interpretations. 38. Limited Government Everyone, including all authorities, must obey the laws. Constitutions and other laws, this defines the limits of those in power so they cannot take advantage of their elected or appointed positions. 39. Republicanism- This is a philosophy of limited government with elected representatives serving at the will of the people. Republicanism says that the only legitimate government is one based on the consent of the governed. 40. Separation of Powers The U.S. Constitution outlines the powers of the three branches. The legislative branch is the congress, which makes the laws. The executive branch is the president, who carries out the laws with the help of the cabinet and agencies. The judicial branch consists of the courts, which interpret and apply the laws. 41. Checks and Balances The U.S. Constitution authorizes each branch of government to share its powers with the other branches and thereby check their activities and power. The President can veto legislation passed by Congress, but Congress can override the veto. The Senate confirms major appointments made by the President and the courts may declare acts passed by Congress as unconstitutional. 42. Individual Rights - Many opposed the Constitution in 1787 because they believed it did not offer adequate protection of individual rights. The Bill of Rights was created to correct this. As public opinion changes, more amendments have been added to free the slaves and protect their rights and to extend voting rights to women.
5 43. Bill of Rights The first ten amendments to the Constitution were ratified in The first amendment contains the five basic freedoms of: speech, religion, press, assembly, and petition. The next amendments guarantee other freedoms including the right to a fair trial, right to reasonable bail, the right to bear arms, protection from unreasonable searches or cruel and unusual punishment. 44. Naturalized Citizen A naturalized citizen is a person of foreign birth who is granted full citizenship. 45. Alexander Hamilton Wrote the Federalist Papers endorsing the Constitution. He was appointed Washington s First Secretary of the Treasury, supported strong national government, and establishment of the National Bank. 46. Tariff Policies Governments raise money by levying tariffs or taxes on imported goods. Generally northerners favored the tariff because it helped protect them from foreign competition but southerners opposed tariffs because they were more dependent on foreign trade. 47. Washington s Farewell Address - After serving two terms George Washington decided not to run for a third term. In his last speech as President he warned against three important issues: 1. The rise of political parties. 2. Fear of sectionalism or political divisions based on geographic loyalties. 3. Long term involvement in European problems. 48. John Marshall Served as Supreme Court justice for 34 years. He reviewed many early cases and in his opinions gave more power to the judicial branch and to the national government over the state government. He established the power of judicial review. 49. Judicial Review The power of the Supreme Court to determine that a law can be declared unconstitutional. In our federal system of government the judicial branch is responsible for interpreting and applying laws and ensuring they are constitutional. 50. Marbury v. Madison The first judgment by the Supreme Court, which supported the federal system of government. In 1803 John Marshall upheld and strengthened the power of the judiciary in this case. 51. Thomas Jefferson He was our nation s first Secretary of State and one of the early supporters of the Democrat/Republican party that supported state s rights over the strong central government supported by the Federalists. As third president, he purchased the Louisiana Territory from France, and also imposed the unpopular Embargo Act that paralyzed trade for over one year. He and John Adams died on July 4, 1826, the fiftieth anniversary of the Declaration of Independence The United States bought the Louisiana Territory from Napoleon Bonaparte, ruler of France, for $15 million dollars, or less than 3 cents per acre. This purchase more than doubled the area of the United States. 53. War of 1812 Often called the Second War for Independence, this war was the United States attempt to make European powers respect U.S. policies. At this time
6 both the warring nations of Great Britain and France were not respecting American rights to trade and remain neutral in the war. President Madison asked Congress to declare this war to stop impressments and violations of U.S. rights at sea and British encouragement of Indian rebellion in the Western territories. The United States strategy included conquering Canada in order to reduce the dominance of Great Britain in North America. The burning of Washington D.C., the writing of the Star Spangled Banner, the Treaty of Ghent, and Andrew Jackson s famous battle of New Orleans, two weeks after the peace treaty was signed are all historical events from this war. 54. McCulloch v. Maryland in 1819, Maryland was opposed to the establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of the federal government to establish one. The Supreme Court ruled that the power of the federal government was supreme over that of the states and that the states could not interfere. 55. Gibbons v. Ogden in 1824, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution gave control of interstate commerce to the U.S. Congress, not the individual states.this judgment, once again, strengthened the power of the national government over the states. 56. James Monroe During two relatively peaceful terms as President of the U.S., , the Missouri Compromise was signed, which temporarily solved the issue of slavery in the West. In the Monroe Doctrine the United States declared that European powers should not colonize or interfere in the affairs of nations in the Western Hemisphere. 57. Monroe Doctrine In 1823,this statement of foreign policy proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere, and the United States would not interfere in European affairs. 58. Henry Clay He was known as the Great Compromiser for his ability to smooth sectional conflict through balanced legislation. Both a senator and representative from Kentucky and Speaker of the House, he favored internal improvements and westward expansion. In 1820 he sponsored the Missouri Compromise, which temporarily solved the slavery issue in the West. His compromise on the tariff settled the Nullification Crisis in 1832, another a major sectional issue before the Civil War. 59. Industrial Revolution Steam power was more reliable than waterpower. Handmade goods were replaced by machine-made, which were produced faster and cheaper. This increased the supply of products and made them affordable to more people. 60. Frederick Douglass A leading African-American abolitionist, he was an escaped slave, known as a fine orator who wrote and lectured about the horrors of slavery. 61. Protective Tariff - This is a high customs duty (tax) on imports, which is designed to encourage people to buy American made products; this promotes the development of new American industries.
7 62. Free Enterprise After American independence, mercantilism was replaced with free enterprise as the economic system. Free enterprise is the freedom of individuals and businesses to operate and compete with a minimum of government interference or regulation. In America we can set up our own business, own our resources, and make a profit. 63. Daniel Webster As a Congressman from the northeast, he was known for his speaking ability and commitment to preserving the union of states. He participated in the Webster-Hayne debate over the doctrine of nullification. 64. Points of View/Political Parties - The growth of political parties started because of different interpretations of the Constitution, from the Federalist/Anti-Federalists, Democrats under Andrew Jackson, Republicans with Abraham Lincoln. 65. Andrew Jackson First famous as a hero in the War of 1812, at the battle of New Orleans. Because of increased voting and campaigning, he s known as a symbol of expanding democracy and the common man s rise to power. As president, he increased the power of the executive branch, using vetoes, the spoils system, and kitchen cabinet. His harsh treatment of Native Americans led to their removal to the West. 66. Removal / Settlement of Native Americans Most Indian tribes were removed from lands east of the Mississippi River. Many Cherokees died along the Trail of Tears, as they were forced to move to the area of Oklahoma. 67. Nullification Crisis The high protective tariff of 1828 hated by the South, they called it an abomination. South Carolina declared it unconstitutional and null and void. They refused to enforce it and threatened to secede. A compromise lowered the tariff gradually. John Calhoun, Southern and Daniel Webster, Northern, had opposite viewpoints. 68. John C. Calhoun As a strong supporter of states rights from South Carolina, he led opposition to the Tariff of 1828.They declared the tariff null and void in the state and threatened to secede, this angered President Andrew Jackson. Years later in 1860 South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union which began the Civil War over the state s rights issue. 69. Manifest Destiny A popular expression from the 1840s that the U.S. would expand across the continent, from Atlantic to Pacific. This is associated with the presidential campaign of James K. Polk, when he favored getting Oregon and Texas. The Mexican War, Mexican Cession, also helped the US achieve their goal. 70. Second Great Awakening This movement reinvigorated church membership in the 1800s, emphasizing a personal approach to faith as opposed to more rational beliefs. This led to the humanitarian efforts to reform society. 71. Reform Movements Efforts to change society for the better increased in the early 1800s. These included reforms for Education, Prisons, Slavery, Women s Rights, and Temperance (limiting alcohol).
8 72. Elizabeth Cady Stanton She spent her life seeking equal rights for women and helped organize the convention at Seneca Falls, where the Declaration of Rights of Women was written in With Susan B. Anthony, she promoted women s suffrage. 73. Henry David Thoreau He was a leading American writer and philosopher who lived at Walden Pond, where he wrote an essay Civil Disobedience. He also lectured and wrote against slavery. 74. Civil Disobedience Passive resistance that urges people to challenge laws they consider unjust by refusing to obey them. 75. Abolitionists Movement Quakers in Pennsylvania established the first anti-slavery groups. Later William Lloyd Garrison formed the American Anti-Slavery Society and published the newspaper, The Liberator. 76. Free Blacks Many moved to the North, where they were free, but still lived in an atmosphere of racial prejudice and discrimination. Life was more difficult in the South, where they had very few rights. 77. Dred Scott v. Sandford In 1857, this landmark Supreme Court case defined the status of slaves as property and not citizens. Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote that Dred Scott was not free and had no right to sue in federal court. 78. Popular Sovereignty This is the concept that political power rests with the people, who express themselves through voting and participating in government. In the 1850s people in the territories would vote to decide if their state would be free or slave The Unites States Civil War began on April 12, 1861, with the firing on Fort Sumter and ended with the Confederate surrender at Appomattox Court House in April Bull Run, Antietam, the turning point at Gettysburg, the fall of Vicksburg, and Sherman s march through the South are famous battles. 80. Ulysses S. Grant Famous as the commander of the Union army during the Civil War he led the North to victory. His popularity resulted in his election as the 18 th president, but he was unprepared for that job. 81. Robert E. Lee He gained recognition for his outstanding military leadership during the Civil War. When the South seceded, Lincoln offered him the command of Union forces but Lee refused, he resigned from the U.S. Army and returned to Virginia to serve with Confederate forces. After his surrender to Grant at Appomattox, he urged southerners to pledge allegiance to the north and to rebuild the nation. 82. Jefferson Davis As president of the Confederate States he tried to lead the southern states during the Civil War, despite the lack of consensus among southerners. He continued to support the confederate cause after the war. 83. Abraham Lincoln President during the Civil War. He helped build the Republican Party and debated Stephen Douglas for the Illinois Senate seat in 1858.He lost that election, but became a rising political star and won the Republican nomination and
9 Presidency in 1860, reelected in 1864 and assassinated in He managed to preserve the unity of the U.S. and took steps to abolish slavery, but was assassinated before he could implement post war plans. 84. Emancipation Proclamation - Issued in 1862 by Abraham Lincoln declaring that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate States would be free. This was a gradual freeing, as it did not apply to slaves living in border areas or states occupied by Federal troops. All slaves were not free until the ratification of the 13 th amendment in Gettysburg Address Abraham Lincoln gave this address at the dedication of the national cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania where the Battle of Gettysburg was fought. 86. Reconstruction The period from when the U.S. confronted the process for readmitting the southern states to the Union and integrating the freed slaves into society. 87. Radical Reconstruction Congress A group of Radical Republicans wished to punish the South for the Civil War and allow all freemen, including blacks, full citizenship and voting rights. They also wanted to seize land from the plantation owners to redistribute to freedmen and fund schools for African Americans. The Reconstruction Act of 1867 marked the beginning of Reconstruction. The 14 th amendment or the Civil Rights Bill of 1866 was part of the process th Amendment Passed in1865 as part of Reconstruction, it legally forbade slavery in the U.S. without compensation to slave owners th Amendment Passed in 1866 as part of Reconstruction and known as the Civil Rights Bill it protected the rights and involvement of citizens in government. It declared all persons born or naturalized in the U.S. (except Indians) were citizens, and were entitled to equal rights and due process of law regardless of their race. It wasn t until the Civil Rights movement in the 1960 s that unequal treatment of blacks and women was truly addressed, but this was a start th Amendment Ratified in 1870, during Reconstruction, it granted black men the right to vote. Women suffragettes were opposed because it defined the right to vote as a male right. Thus, gender remained an issue until 1920 when the 20 th amendment allowed women the right to vote.