1 Terms and People Reconstruction program implemented by the federal government between 1865 and 1877 to repair damage to the South caused by the Civil War and restore the southern states to the Union Radical Republican a member of Congress who believed Confederates slavery and secession were criminal and should be punished Wade-Davis Bill 1864 congressional proposal to allow Confederate states to rejoin the Union by demanding a guarantee of black equality; vetoed by Lincoln
2 Terms and People (continued) Freedmen s Bureau organization that provided food, clothing, healthcare, and education for black and white refugees in the South Andrew Johnson Lincoln s Vice President; became President after Lincoln s assassination black code law passed in southern states restricting the freedoms of African Americans Civil Rights Act of 1866 passed to overturn black codes; vetoed by President Johnson
3 Terms and People (continued) Fourteenth Amendment guarantees equality under the law for all citizens impeach an action Congress takes by charging the President with wrongdoing and putting him on trial to see whether he should be removed from office Fifteenth Amendment forbids any state to deny the right to vote on the basis of race, color, or previous condition of servitude
4 How did the Radical Republicans plans for Reconstruction differ from Lincoln s and Johnson s? Radical Republicans wanted to punish the South for slavery and the war itself. Both Lincoln and Johnson wanted the southern states to be brought back into the Union quickly, using less punitive measures. The issues and results of Reconstruction had consequences for generations to come.
5 When the war ended, the South was in ruins. homes were burned businesses closed properties abandoned freed African Americans lacked full citizenship and the means to make a living
6 to help the South rejoin the Union A plan of Reconstruction for the South was formed. to rebuild the South s shattered economy to create laws to protect freed African Americans
7 To many Americans, the most important issue was deciding the fate of the Confederate states. There were conflicting opinions. Try Confederate leaders for treason. Pardon Confederate leaders to begin healing immediately. The President should lead the process. Congress should lead Reconstruction. States should satisfy certain stipulations before rejoining. States should be allowed to rejoin with as few conditions as possible.
8 With the South s economy destroyed, land became the most valuable asset; who should control it was hotly debated. Forty acres and a mule Some northerners proposed the federal government should redistribute the land to former slaves. The plan sought to revitalize the South s economy and provide income for African Americans. Southern landowners fought government redistribution of their land. Many northerners felt the confiscation of property violated the Constitution.
9 African Americans were free from slavery but their rights were not guaranteed. did not have full citizenship could not vote did not have access to education
10 Lincoln and the Radical Republicans in Congress were at odds in their proposals to rebuild the South. Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan 10 percent of state s voters needed to take a loyalty oath a state s new constitution must have abolished slavery vetoed by Congress Wade-Davis Bill required a majority of state s prewar voters swear loyalty to the Union required guarantees of African American equality passed by Congress, pocket vetoed by Lincoln
11 Lincoln and the Radical Republicans agreed to establish the Freedmen s Bureau. The newlyformed organization helped feed, clothe, and educate blacks and whites in the South.
12 After Lincoln s death, President Andrew Johnson wanted to restore the status of the southern states. He pardoned those who swore allegiance to the Union and the Constitution. Each Southern state needed to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment.
13 By December 1865, most southern states had met Johnson s requirements for readmission to the Union. During the required state conventions, however, southern states tried to rebuild their prewar world. All southern states instituted black codes. Many states specifically limited the vote to white men. Some states sent Confederate officials to Congress.
14 Political tensions boiled up in Congress. Newly arriving southern state representatives were not seated. A committee was created to investigate how former slaves were being treated.
15 The South s disregard of Reconstruction efforts angered moderates and Radical Republicans. In response, Congress passed new legislation over President Johnson s veto. The legislation included: the Civil Rights Act of the Fourteenth Amendment. the division of the South into five military districts.
16 The Fourteenth Amendment, 1868 Equality under the law for all citizens States that refused to allow black people to vote would risk losing seats in the House of Representatives Confederate officials could not hold federal or state offices
17 President Johnson continued to veto and work against congressional legislation. Eventually the House voted to impeach Johnson. Johnson s opponents failed by one Senate vote to remove him from office.
18 Under a new President, Ulysses S. Grant, Congress passed the Fifteenth Amendment. The Fifteenth Amendment, 1870 No citizen can be denied the right to vote because of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.
19 Terms and People scalawag a negative term for a southern white man who was invited to join the Republican Party after the war carpetbagger a negative term for a northern white or black man who relocated to the South after the war segregation separation of the races integration combination of the races
20 Terms and People (continued) sharecropping a system in which a landowner determined the crop and provided a worker with a place to live, seeds, tools, and a share of the harvest share-tenancy similar to sharecropping, but the worker decided the crop and bought his own supplies tenant farming a system in which a tenant paid cash rent to the landowner and was free to choose and manage his own crop
21 Terms and People (continued) Ku Klux Klan secret organization founded during Reconstruction whose aim was to terrorize African Americans Enforcement Acts 1870 and 1871 laws that made it a federal offense to interfere with a citizen s right to vote
22 What were the immediate effects of Reconstruction? After the war, there was a struggle for political control. African Americans used the power of their vote to elect many representatives from mayors to the U.S. Senate. Newly freed African Americans explored new relationships to social, political and economic life. Groups like the Ku Klux Klan aimed to turn back their progress through violence and intimidation.
23 During Reconstruction, Republicans gained control of southern state governments through the ballot box. Thousands of black men exercised their new right to vote. Many white southern men did not vote because they refused to sign the required loyalty oath to the Union.
24 The Republican Party attracted people who sought change, challenge, and opportunities to make money in the South. scalawags carpetbaggers White southern men who had been locked out of pre-war politics White and black northerners who moved to the South to take advantage of the many post-war opportunities there Critics saw scalawags and carpetbaggers as opportunists making their fortune off of the South s misfortune.
25 Reconstruction state constitutions mandated the creation of the public school system. Public schools grew slowly in the South. The system was expensive as there needed to be two schools in every district due to segregation. Some Republicans proposed integration but the idea was generally unpopular.
26 Reconstruction also offered white and black women opportunities they did not find in the North. Single women carved out new roles for themselves, especially in the school system developed during Reconstruction.
27 The South had many problems that made success challenging. many illiterate southerners poor quality medical care poor quality housing slower economic production than the North limited protection for African Americans racial violence rampant corruption
28 Freed African Americans sought to build new communities. Cities Rural areas Black churches Freedmen s Bureau schools moved to look for jobs as cooks, blacksmiths, or carpenters worked at farming, lumbering, and rebuilding railroads established black churches that became centers of their communities sought education through the Freedmen s Bureau schools The Freedmen s Bureau attracted thousands of students to schools and colleges who realized the value of their education for voting and business.
29 New work arrangements for African American farmers developed. sharecropping share-tenancy most of the South s black and white poor often continued to owe to landowner year after year farmer had more control able to save money tenant farming most independent arrangement farmer needed to have good money management skills
30 In reaction to Republican gains in the South, violent groups, such as the Ku Klux Klan, organized to terrorize African Americans. The Klan burned black schools and churches. Racial violence grew everywhere after the Fifteenth Amendment was passed in 1869.
31 Congressional passing and use of the Enforcement Acts reduced racial violence. The Enforcement Acts, 1870, 1871 The acts made it federal crime to interfere with a citizen s right to vote. Congress used the Enforcement Acts to indict Klansmen throughout the South. Although violence declined, racial hatred persisted.
32 Terms and People Redeemer southern, white Democrat who returned to power after 1870 Rutherford B. Hayes became President through the contested election of 1876 Compromise of 1877 resolved the contested presidential election of 1876 by giving Hayes the presidency in return for withdrawing the remaining federal troops from the South
33 How and why did Reconstruction end? Corruption throughout the North and South became a more pressing issue. A financial collapse and the North s unwillingness to maintain an eternal presence in the South eroded the reach of Reconstruction. In addition, a series of Supreme Court decisions gave the federal government less control over the South and ate away at the few protections African Americans had gained.
34 By 1872, matters other than Reconstruction drew the nation s attention. Immigration increased in the North and West. Corruption and intrigue had become part of local and national governments. In 1873, national banks failed.
35 Two-term President Grant was popular, but his administrations were marred by scandal. National scandals: Grant s Vice President was in a scheme to steal profits from the railroads. Members of Grant s administration were suspected of corruption. Local scandals: The Tweed Ring stole money from New York City s treasury. Many city officials sold contracts to their friends across the country.
36 Economic uncertainty in the 1870s eroded the North s resolve to sustain Reconstruction. In 1873 one of the nation s most influential banks failed. The bank had overextended loans to the railroad industry. A nationwide loss of jobs, more bank failures, and economic depression in the North followed.
37 Radical Republicans failure to convict President Johnson during his impeachment trial signaled the beginning of the end. The end of Reconstruction Radical Republicans lost power. Military operations in the South became too expensive. In 1872, the Freedman s Bureau was dissolved. Starting in 1871, federal troops were withdrawn from the South. Radical Republican leader, Charles Sumner died in 1874.
38 Supreme Court decisions gave more power to the states. Slaughterhouse Cases The Court restricted the scope of the 14 th Amendment. 1873: A citizen has national rights but it was up to the state to choose how to define the rights for those who lived there. 1876: Due process and equal protection clauses only protected citizens from the actions of the state, not other citizens.
39 As the states gained more rights, southern whites worked to reduce the rights of African Americans. The Klan used violence. The courts used legal interpretation. Southern Democrats created a coalition of Redeemers who worked together to redeem or reclaim the South from northerners and blacks.
40 Congress resolved the disputed election of 1876 with the Compromise of Rutherford B. Hayes became President. Remaining federal troops were withdrawn from the South. A southerner was appointed to a powerful cabinet position. Southern states were guaranteed federal subsidies to build railroads and improve their ports. By balancing the needs of the North and the South, Congress compromise marked the end of Reconstruction.
41 The effects of Reconstruction changed life for many in the South and the rest of the nation. For everyone: tax-supported school system modernized railroads increased variety of the South s crops For African Americans: gave African Americans some opportunities reunited black families provided educational opportunities For women: no voting rights more economic opportunities
42 The Civil War had a lasting effect on state and national politics. Republican Party Became known as the party of Lincoln associated with freeing the slaves became the party of big business Democratic Party became the party of industrial workers associated with segregation in the South
43 The Civil War affected the balance of power between the federal government and the states. Over time, Americans chose to let the South tend to its own affairs despite the price paid by newly freed slaves.
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