2 Section 1: Washington Takes Office Section 2: Creating a Foreign Policy Section 3: Political Parties Emerge Section 4: The Second President
3 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
4 Cornell notes from Chapter 9, Section 1 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
5 1. Discuss the steps Washington took to make the new government work. 2. Explain Hamilton s plan to reduce the nation's debt and build the economy. 3. List the causes and results of the Whiskey Rebellion.
6 inauguration precedent Cabinet Judiciary Act national debt bond speculator Bank of the United States tariff Whiskey Rebellion
7 What steps did Washington take to make the new government work? What was Hamilton s plan to reduce the nation s debt and build the economy? What were the causes and results of the Whiskey Rebellion?
8 First Inauguration First Cabinet The Judiciary Act Time in Office Washington was inaugurated on April 30, A presidential inauguration is the ceremony in which the President takes the oath of office. The first inaugural was a simple affair. Congress created five departments to help the President. The heads of the departments made up the Cabinet. Members of the Cabinet advised the President and directed their departments. Washington set a precedent, or an example for others to follow, by choosing well-known leaders to serve in the Cabinet. In 1789, Congress passed the Judiciary Act, which set up the federal court system. Washington named John Jay the first Chief Justice of the United States. Washington set another precedent when he decided not to run for a third term. Not until 1940 did any President seek a third term.
10 The problem The United States had a huge national debt the total amount of money that a government owes to others. The national government and state governments had borrowed by issuing bonds certificates that promise to repay the money loaned, plus interest, on a certain date. The debate Hamilton the federal government must repay both federal and state debts by buying up the old bonds and issuing new ones. The United States must repay all debts so it won t lose the trust of investors. Madison Hamilton s plan would reward speculators people who invest in a risky venture in hopes of a large profit. They shouldn t make a big profit on the war. Besides, most southern states have already paid their debts. Other states should do the same. The compromise Hamilton promised to support putting the nation s capital in the South if southerners agreed to his plan for repaying state debts.
11 Bank of the United States Tariff, or tax, on foreign goods to encourage economic growth to make imported goods more expensive than American-made goods The government deposited money from taxes in the Bank. The Bank issued paper money to pay the government s bills and make loans to farmers and businesses. Hamilton and many northerners wanted a high tariff to protect American goods from foreign competition. Southern farmers opposed a high tariff. Congress passed a tariff, but it was lower than the tariff Hamilton wanted.
12 Causes To raise money for the Treasury, Congress approved a tax on all liquor made and sold in the United States. Backcountry farmers grew corn. It was easier to get their product to market if they turned their corn into whiskey first. They hated the tax on whiskey. They rebelled, marching in protest and tarring and feathering tax collectors. Results Washington called up the militia and sent them to put down the rebellion. The rebels fled back to their farms. The national government had shown that it would act firmly in times of crisis. It also showed that violence would not be tolerated.
13 To help President Washington carry out his duties, the first Congress a) passed the Judiciary Act. b) created the Bank of the United States. c) created five departments whose heads made up the Cabinet of advisors. d) agreed to place the nation s capital near his home along the Potomac. Hamilton thought the national government should pay off both national and state war debts because a) it showed the government would act firmly in a time of crisis. b) if it didn t, it would lose the trust of future investors. c) it was not fair for speculators to make a profit on the war. d) it would protect local industry from foreign competition.
14 To help President Washington carry out his duties, the first Congress a) passed the Judiciary Act. b) created the Bank of the United States. c) created five departments whose heads made up the Cabinet of advisors. d) agreed to place the nation s capital near his home along the Potomac. Hamilton thought the national government should pay off both national and state war debts because a) it showed the government would act firmly in a time of crisis. b) if it didn t, it would lose the trust of future investors. c) it was not fair for speculators to make a profit on the war. d) it would protect local industry from foreign competition.
15 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
16 Cornell notes from Chapter 9, Section 2 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
17 1. Describe American opinions of the French Revolution. 2. Explain why Washington wanted the nation to remain neutral in foreign affairs. 3. Describe why it was difficult for the United States to remain neutral.
18 French Revolution foreign policy neutral Neutrality Proclamation Jay s Treaty Farewell Address
19 How was American opinion divided over the French Revolution? Why did Washington want the nation to remain neutral in foreign affairs? Why was it difficult for the United States to remain neutral?
20 The French Revolution In 1789, the French rebelled against their king. The peasants and the middle class paid heavy taxes, while nobles paid none. Reformers wanted a constitution to limit the king s power and protect basic rights. American Views Favoring the French Revolution Americans knew what it meant to struggle for liberty. France had been their first ally. Americans admired the Marquis de Lafayette, who had fought with them in the American Revolution. Jefferson: The French had the right to use violence to win freedom. American Views Against the French Revolution The revolution turned violent. The king, queen, and tens of thousands of others were executed. Hamilton and Adams: Democracy can t be created through widespread violence.
21 Following the French Revolution, wars broke out between France and England. Washington had to decide on a foreign policy the actions that a nation takes in relation to other nations. Washington knew the United States had signed a treaty with France that made the two countries allies. He worried that the United States could not honor the treaty and still remain neutral, or not take sides. After much debate, Washington issued the Neutrality Proclamation, which stated that the United States would not support either side in the war. It forbade Americans from aiding either side.
22 Warring European nations seized American ships. John Jay negotiated a treaty with Great Britain. Jay s Treaty said: Britain had to pay damages for seized American ships. Britain agreed to give up its forts in the West. Americans had to pay debts owed to British merchants. Many Americans protested Jay s Treaty because it did nothing to protect the rights of neutral American ships. When Washington retired, in his Farewell Address he advised Americans to stay out of European affairs.
23 Many Americans turned against the French Revolution when a) John Jay got the British to sign a treaty. b) Thomas Jefferson condemned the revolution. c) the French started seizing American ships. d) the revolution became increasingly violent. President Washington s foreign policy proclamation said that a) in the European conflict, the United States would support France. b) in the European conflict, the United States would remain neutral. c) in the European conflict, the United States would support Britain. d) individual Americans could make up their own minds and aid either side.
24 Many Americans turned against the French Revolution when a) John Jay got the British to sign a treaty. b) Thomas Jefferson condemned the revolution. c) the French started seizing American ships. d) the revolution became increasingly violent. President Washington s foreign policy proclamation said that a) in the European conflict, the United States would support France. b) in the European conflict, the United States would remain neutral. c) in the European conflict, the United States would support Britain. d) individual Americans could make up their own minds and aid either side.
25 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
26 Cornell notes from Chapter 9, Section 3 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
27 1. Explain why many Americans distrusted the idea of political parties. 2. Contrast the views of Hamilton and Jefferson. 3. Discuss why political parties developed. 4. Describe how the election of 1796 increased political tensions.
29 Why did many Americans distrust the idea of political parties? How did the views of Hamilton and Jefferson differ? Why did political parties develop? How did the election of 1796 increase political tensions?
30 Americans had seen how factions, or opposing groups within parties, worked in Britain. Members of factions were often more interested in personal gain than in public good. Political parties could be a threat to national unity. They could lead to jealousies and false alarms.
31 Issue Hamilton s Views Jefferson s Views Manufacturing or farming Thought the government should encourage manufacturing and trade. Favored cities and merchants. Thought farmers were the backbone of the nation. Feared manufacturing would concentrate power in the hands of a few wealthy Americans. Federal or state power Federal government should have greater power than state governments. A strong federal government would increase commerce and keep the peace. A small federal government would protect individual freedom. A strong federal government might take over powers the Constitution gave to the states.
32 Issue Hamilton s Views Jefferson s Views Strict or loose interpretation of the Constitution Preferred a loose interpretation of the Constitution. Believed the Constitution gave Congress the power to make all laws necessary and proper to carry out its duties. The Bank of the United States was necessary. Preferred a strict interpretation. Any power not specifically given to the federal government belonged to the states. The Bank of the United States was unconstitutional, or not permitted by the Constitution. Britain or France Wanted close ties with Britain. Wanted close ties with France.
33 Hamilton and Jefferson clashed in private. Jefferson and James Madison decided to organize the supporters of their views. They met with leading New York politicians. Leaders in other states organized to support either Hamilton or Jefferson. Jefferson s supporters called themselves Democratic Republicans. Hamilton s supporters were called Federalists. Newspapers began to take sides. The two political parties took part in the election of 1796.
34 Federalists vs. Republicans Were led by Alexander Hamilton Believed wealthy and well educated should lead nation Favored strong central government Emphasized manufacturing, shipping, and trade Favored loose interpretation of Constitution Were pro-british Favored national bank Favored protective tariff Were led by Thomas Jefferson Believed people should have political power Favored strong state governments Emphasized agriculture Favored strict interpretation of Constitution Were pro-french Opposed national bank Opposed protective tariff
35 Republican Candidates vs. Federalist Candidates Thomas Jefferson for President Aaron Burr for Vice President John Adams for President Thomas Pinckney for Vice President The Winners John Adams for President Thomas Jefferson for Vice President
36 One issue the first political parties clashed over was a) which should be stronger the central government or the state governments. b) whether the United States should expand beyond its original borders. c) whether George Washington should be permitted to retire. d) whether the Supreme Court should be allowed to declare laws unconstitutional. In 1796, the person with the most votes became President, and the person with the second highest number of votes became Vice President. One problem this caused in the election of 1796 was that a) the votes had to be counted twice. b) candidates for President and Vice President had to run together on the same ticket. c) the views of the opposing candidates were the same. d) the people chosen as President and Vice President were from opposing parties.
37 One issue the first political parties clashed over was a) which should be stronger the central government or the state governments. b) whether the United States should expand beyond its original borders. c) whether George Washington should be permitted to retire. d) whether the Supreme Court should be allowed to declare laws unconstitutional. In 1796, the person with the most votes became President, and the person with the second highest number of votes became Vice President. One problem this caused in the election of 1796 was that a) the votes had to be counted twice. b) candidates for President and Vice President had to run together on the same ticket. c) the views of the opposing candidates were the same. d) the people chosen as President and Vice President were from opposing parties.
38 Grade 7 History Mr. Norton
39 Cornell notes from Chapter 9, Section 4 reading Pen or pencil A willingness to participate in discussion That is all put the textbook away!
40 1. Discuss how John Adams handled the conflict with France. 2. Explain why the Federalist party split. 3. Describe how the Alien and Sedition acts raised the issue of the rights of states. 4. Discuss the role Congress played in the election of 1800.
41 XYZ Affair frigate Alien and Sedition acts sedition nullify Kentucky and Virginia resolutions states rights
42 How did John Adams handle the conflict with France? Why did the Federalist party split? How did the Alien and Sedition acts raise the issue of the rights of states? What role did Congress play in the election of 1800?
43 France objected to Jay s Treaty. The French said it favored Britain. French ships began to seize American ships. Adams sent diplomats to Paris to discuss the rights of neutral nations. The French foreign minister sent three agents to offer the Americans a deal. The agents asked for a $250,000 bribe and a $10 million loan to France before they would talk. Adams told Congress. Because he called the French agents X, Y, and Z, the incident became known as the XYZ Affair. The country would not pay the bribe, but Adams refused to ask Congress to declare war on France. Instead, Adams strengthened the navy by building frigates, fast-sailing ships with many guns.
44 Hamilton and his Federalist supporters wanted a war with France. War with France would weaken the Republican party. War would force the United States to build up its military forces. This would increase federal power. Adams and his Federalist supporters wanted to avoid war with France. Adams wanted to keep the country out of European affairs. He sent American diplomats to France. The new French leader agreed to stop seizing American ships.
45 During the crisis with France, Federalists passed the Alien and Sedition acts. Alien Act The President could expel any alien thought to be dangerous to the country. The number of years immigrants had to wait to become citizens was raised from 5 to 14. Sedition Act Sedition means stirring up rebellion against a government. Under this law, citizens could be fined or jailed for criticizing the government or its officials.
46 Jefferson and the Republicans opposed the Alien and Sedition acts. Jefferson argued that states had the right to nullify, or cancel, a law passed by the federal government. Kentucky and Virginia passed resolutions supporting Jefferson s view. Kentucky and Virginia resolutions These resolutions claimed that each state has an equal right to judge for itself whether a law is constitutional. If a state decides a law is unconstitutional, the state can nullify that law within its borders. These resolutions raised the issue of states rights. Does the federal government have only those powers listed in the Constitution? If so, the states possess all other powers.
47 Republicans backed Thomas Jefferson for President and Aaron Burr for Vice President. Federalists supported John Adams. Republicans won the popular vote. In the electoral college, Jefferson and Burr each received 73 votes. The election went to the House of Representatives to decide. After four days and 36 votes, the House chose Jefferson as President and Burr as Vice President.
48 Federalists angered the Republicans when they passed the Alien and Sedition acts, which said that a) American diplomats could not pay bribes to foreign agents. b) foreigners could never become citizens. c) under certain circumstances, citizens could rebel against the government. d) citizens could be jailed for criticizing the government or its officials. The issue of states rights raises questions about a) whether the federal government should have a strong military force. b) the President s power to expel aliens. c) whether Kentucky and Virginia had the right to pass resolutions. d) which powers belong to the federal government and which belong to the states.
49 Federalists angered the Republicans when they passed the Alien and Sedition acts, which said that a) American diplomats could not pay bribes to foreign agents. b) foreigners could never become citizens. c) under certain circumstances, citizens could rebel against the government. d) citizens could be jailed for criticizing the government or its officials. The issue of states rights raises questions about a) whether the federal government should have a strong military force. b) the President s power to expel aliens. c) whether Kentucky and Virginia had the right to pass resolutions. d) which powers belong to the federal government and which belong to the states.
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