1 Caning of Senator Sumner Election of 1856 Dred Scott Lincoln Douglas debate John Brown s raid
2 In reaction to the violence in Kansas, Senator Charles Sumner of Massachusetts delivered a speech denouncing the authors of the Kansas Nebraska Act. Two days later he was attacked by Congressman Preston Brooks from South Carolina, cousin of one of the authors. Sumner was beaten until Brooks cane broke, long after he was unconscious. This event angered northerners, was celebrated in southern newspapers, and indicated the widening rift in the nation.
3 Election of 1856 candidates Charles Fremont Republican Party James Buchanan Democratic Party Millard Fillmore American (Know Nothing) Party
4 The Republican Party The Republicans opposed the extension of slavery and the Mormon practice of bigamy (having more than one wife). The slogan of the Republican party was "Free Speech, Free Press, Free soil, Free Men, Fremont and Victory!" Campaign poster from the 1856 election was designed to remind voters of Fremont's famous expeditions to the Rocky Mountains in 1842 and 1843.
5 The Democratic platform supported the Compromise of 1850, opposed federal interference in slavery, and supported the building of the transcontinental railroad. Buchanan, depicted as a poor bachelor, sewed a patch marked Cuba on his jacket, a reference to his authorship of the Ostend Manifesto of 1854.
6 A third party entered the election, the American or Know Nothing Party The party grew out of an 1843 New York anti-immigrant (nativist) sentiment. It spread to other states and became a national party in The origin of "Know Nothing" came about because the organization was semisecret. When a member was asked about its activities, he was supposed to reply "I know nothing. A portrait of a young man representing the nativist ideal of the Know Nothing party. Millard Fillmore
7 Platform of the American (Know Nothing) Party Limits on immigration, especially from Catholic countries Government officials at all levels must only be native born citizens Naturalization should only be allowed after a continued residence of 21 years, and never an option for the poor or criminals Restricting public school teachers to Protestants Opposition to any union between Church and State; no interference with religious faith or worship, and no test oaths for office Anti-Catholic and anti-irish political cartoons
8 Nativist publication depicted anti-immigrant sentiment in words and images
9 1856 Election results. Notice which states voted for the anti-slavery Republican Party.
10 Important events during Buchanan s presidency Dred Scott Decision: 1857 Lincoln-Douglas Debate: 1858 John Brown s Raid on Harper s Ferry: 1859 Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln elected president: 1860 Southern states began seceding from the union to form the Confederate States of America: 1860
11 Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford, March 6, 1857 Dred Scott, born a slave, was taken by his master, an army surgeon, into the free portion of the Louisiana territory. Upon his master's death, Scott sued in Missouri for his freedom on the grounds that since slavery was outlawed in the free territory, he had become a free man there, and "once free always free." The argument was rejected by a Missouri court. Scott and his white supporters got the case to the Supreme Court where the issue was whether a slave had standing, meaning the legal right to sue in a federal court. If Scott had standing, then the Court had jurisdiction to hear the case, and the justices could decide the merits of his claim. But if, as a slave, Scott did not have standing, then the Court could dismiss the suit for lack of jurisdiction. The Court ruled Scott, as a slave, could not exercise the right of a free citizen to sue in federal court and that should have been the end of the case. Chief Justice Taney and other southern sympathizers on the Court wanted a definitive ruling to settle the issue of slavery in the territories. They ruled the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was unconstitutional since Congress could not forbid citizens from taking their property, i.e. slaves, into any territory owned by the U.S. A slave, Taney ruled, was property, nothing more, and could never be a citizen.
12 Dred Scott Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Upon these considerations it is the opinion of the Court that the act of Congress which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning property of this kind in the territory of the United States north of the line therein mentioned is not warranted by the Constitution and is therefore void; and that neither Dred Scott himself, nor any of his family, were made free by being carried into this territory; even if they had been carried there by the owner with the intention of becoming a permanent resident.
13 Although two justices disagreed and wrote dissenting opinions, the decision was made by the majority. Anti-slavery advocates used the text of the dissenting opinions to argue their stance in newspapers and leaflets across the nation. The decision of Scott v. Sandford was considered by legal scholars to be the worst ever rendered by the Supreme Court. Judgment in the U.S. Supreme Court Case Dred Scott v. John F. A. Sandford, March 6, 1857
14 Lincoln-Douglas debates, Illinois 1858 Series of formal political debates between Abraham Lincoln and Stephen A. Douglas in a campaign for one of Illinois' two U.S. Senate seats. The debates were held in seven Illinois cities. Although Lincoln lost the election, these debates launched him into national prominence which eventually led to his election as president.
15 Lincoln and Douglas debated the expansion of slavery, the authority of states to control slavery within their own borders, and whether the Dred Scott decision had been correct. Lincoln opposed slavery expansion, while Douglas believed in popular sovereignty, or the ability of each state government to determine its own laws and policies.
16 John Brown organized a raid in 1859 in Harper s Ferry to gather weapons to lead a slave uprising I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away, but with blood.
17 On the night of October 16, 1859, Brown led a band of followers in an attack on the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry in what is now the state of West Virginia. Brown's goal was to use the weapons seized to lead a slave uprising. After two days of fighting, Brown and his surviving men were taken prisoner by a force of U.S. marines commanded by Colonel Robert E. Lee. Brown was tried for conspiracy, treason and murder, and on December 2, 1859, he was hanged. Southerners who had been undecided on secession joined the pro secession side in fear their lives and property were no longer safe from northern intrusion.
18 1859 drawings of John Brown s the attack on Harper s Ferry
19 John Brown and four other survivors were taken to Charlestown, Virginia for trial. His statements during the trial were published and widely read. The hanging made Brown an abolitionist martyr. It [the Bible] teaches me further to "remember them that are in bonds, as bound with them." I endeavored to act up to that instruction. I say, I am too young to understand that God is any respecter of persons. I believe that to have interfered as I have done -- as I have always freely admitted I have done -- in behalf of His despised poor, was not wrong, but right. Now if it is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my blood further with the blood of my children and with the blood of millions in this slave country whose rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel, and unjust enactments. -- I submit; so let it be done!
20 Two views of John Brown leaving the courthouse after being condemned to death
21 The 1860 election was a direct cause of the secession of the southern states and the outbreak of the Civil War. Election Summary In the presidential election of 1860 the Republican Party nominated Abraham Lincoln as its candidate. The party platform declared that slavery could spread no farther but would not be threatened where it already existed. The party also promised a tariff for the protection of industry, transcontinental railroad and pledged the enactment of a law granting free homesteads to settlers who would help in the opening of the West. The Democrats were not united. Southerners split from the party and nominated Vice President John C. Breckenridge of Kentucky for president. Stephen A. Douglas was the nominee of northern Democrats. Diehard Whigs from the border states, formed into the Constitutional Union Party, nominated John C. Bell of Tennessee. Lincoln and Douglas competed in the North, and Breckenridge and Bell in the South. Lincoln won only 39 percent of the popular vote, but had a clear majority of 180 electoral votes, carrying all 18 free states. Bell won Tennessee, Kentucky and Virginia; Breckenridge took the other slave states except for Missouri, which was won by 21 Douglas.
22 Four parties ran candidates in the 1860 election Republicans Northern Democrats Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas Southern Democrats Constitutional Union John Breckinridge 22 John Bell
23 Lincoln would not assume the presidency until March of By then seven southern states had seceded and a lame duck President Buchanan and Congress could do little to stop the dissolution of the Union. 23
24 Electoral Vote Popular Vote Lincoln Douglas Breckinridge Bell Lincoln Douglas Breckinridge Bell Lincoln scored a decisive victory in electoral votes BUT he received less than 40% of the popular vote 24
25 Lincoln s inauguration In your hands, my dissatisfied fellow-countrymen, and not in mine, is the momentous issue of civil war. The Government will not assail you. You can have no conflict without being yourselves the aggressors. You have no oath registered in heaven to destroy the Government, while I shall have the most solemn one to "preserve, protect, and defend it." I am loath to close. We 25 are not enemies, but friends. We must not be enemies.
26 Secession map
27 The election of Abraham Lincoln was the trigger that set off the first wave of secession in the southern slave states. 27
28 South Carolina seceded, December 1860 South Carolina was the first state to leave the Union. Immediately following Lincoln's election, the fireeaters called a convention, and six weeks later the convention unanimously passed an ordinance of secession. An ordinance to dissolve the union between the State of South Carolina and other States united with her under the compact entitled "The Constitution of the United States of America." We, the people of the State of South Carolina, in convention assembled, do declare and ordain that the union now subsisting between South Carolina and other States, under the name of the "United States of America," is hereby dissolved. Done at Charleston the twentieth day of December, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty. 28
29 Formation of the Confederate States of America Southern state delegates met in Montgomery, Alabama Wrote constitution that protected rights of slave owners Elected Jefferson Davis first CSA president 29
30 Confederate States of America (CSA) 30
31 Union states The shaded states were the loyal border slave states 31
32 Significance of the border states Border states allowed slavery but were kept in the Union. Missouri Kentucky Delaware Maryland They were necessary for Union to hold at all costs because the North needed: To keep their economic resources To keep their manpower for the Union war effort 32
33 Strengths of the North and South Union Twice as many people More manpower for fighting More industry and railroads Better economy and food production Recognition as an independent nation Better political leaders Confederacy Better military leaders and military tradition The Cause Importance of cotton to the world economy Fighting on home territory Fighting a defensive rather than offensive war 33
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