2 After the Civil War, enormous problems faced the nation, especially the South. Americans had to bring the North and South together again. The government developed a plan for states to return to the Union and created an organization to help people freed from slavery. This process was known as.
3 Terms and People Abraham Lincoln president who wanted to bind up the wounds of the Civil War as quickly as possible amnesty a group pardon freedman a man or woman who was legally freed from slavery after the Civil War John Wilkes Booth a Confederate sympathizer who shot President Lincoln
4 President Lincoln hoped heal the nation and bring North and South together again. In his second inaugural address he said, With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right as God gives us to see the right, let us strive on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, to care for him who shall have borne the battle and for his widow and his orphan, to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among ourselves and with all nations. Because the costs of the war were so great, hard feelings still remained.
5 Reconstruction Begins In 1865, the South faced the challenge of building a new society that was not based on slavery. The process the federal government used to readmit the Confederate states to the Union is known as Reconstruction. After the Civil War, Congress was controlled by a powerful group of congressman called the Radical Republicans. This group favored using federal power to create a new order in the South and promote full citizenship for freed African Americans. Congressman Thaddeus Stevens, the leader of the Radical Republicans, called for the whole fabric of southern society to be changed.
6 President Abraham Lincoln and Congress proposed different plans for Reconstruction. President Lincoln s plan Congress s plan Ten Percent Plan Wade- Davis Bill When 10% of a state s voters swore an oath of loyalty, they could organize a new state government. When 50% of a state s voters swore loyalty, they could organize a new state government.
7 Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan Lincoln s Ten Percent Plan made it easy for southern states to rejoin the Union. If 10% of a state s voters swore loyalty to the U.S. That government declared an end to slavery. Then That state could form a new state government. Former Confederates would receive. The state could take part in national government again.
8 The Wade-Davis Bill The Wade-Davis Bill was much stricter. If 50% of a state s voters swore loyalty to the U.S. Then That state could rejoin the Union. People in that state had voluntarily fought for the Confederacy. They would not have voting rights. Lincoln refused to sign the bill, so it was never passed.
9 The government also had to deal with the needs of. In 1865, Congress established the Freedmen s Bureau. The Bureau s first duty was to provide emergency relief to people displaced by the war.
10 The Freedmen s Bureau Established to assist former slaves, this federal agency set up schools and hospitals for African Americans and distributed clothes, food, and fuel throughout the South. Set up by Congress to help newly freed slaves Provided millions of meals for poor blacks & whites in South Set up more than 100 hospitals Distribution of abandoned land Resettled over 30,000 people displaced by the war Founded more than 4,300 schools.
12 President Lincoln did not live to put his plans into practice. Lincoln was shot by, a Confederate sympathizer, while attending a play. Booth was captured and killed, but Americans remained stunned by Lincoln s death.
13 O Captain my Captain! our fearful trip is done, The ship has weathered every rack, the prize we sought is won, The port is near, the bells I hear, the people all exulting, While follow eyes the steady keel, the vessel grim and daring; But O heart! heart! heart! O the bleeding drops of red, Where on the deck my Captain lies, Fallen cold and dead.
14 Terms and People Andrew Johnson Vice President who became President when Lincoln was assassinated scalawag southern whites who had opposed secession carpetbagger a northern white who went south to start a business or pursue political office impeachment bringing of formal charges against a public official black codes new laws used by southern states to control African Americans
15 One of the great legacies of the war was the freeing of millions of enslaved people. The Emancipation Proclamation had freed slaves in the Confederacy, but many African Americans in the border states were still enslaved. In January of 1865, President Lincoln urged Congress to end the institution of slavery. By year s end Congress passed the Thirteenth Amendment and 27 states, including eight in the South, ratified it. Slavery was banned in the United States.
16 Like Lincoln, President Johnson proposed a less demanding plan for Reconstruction. He gave amnesty to most former Confederates. He allowed southern states to organize new governments and elect Congressmen.
17 Radical Reconstruction Congress rejected Johnson s lenient approach and began to debate a new plan. To sidestep the abolishment of slavery, some Southerners supported black codes, a system of near-slavery. Anger over these developments led Radical Republicans in Congress to adopt a hard line. The struggle over Reconstruction led to direct clashes between the President and Congress.
18 Black Codes As Southern states set up new governments they passed laws, known as black codes, which limited the freedom of former slaves. African Americans were forbidden to meet in unsupervised groups or carry guns. Mississippi required African Americans to have written proof of employment or they could be put to work on a plantation. Radical Republicans in Congress demanded full and equal citizenship for African Americans and refused to seat representatives from the South. Republican Congressmen wanted to destroy the South s old ruling class by remaking Southern politics and society.
19 The Civil Rights Act The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act declared that all persons born in the United States were now citizens, without regard to race, color, or previous condition. As citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, and hold property. Persons who denied these rights to former slaves were guilty of a misdemeanor and faced fines and/or imprisonment.
20 Next, Congress passed the 14 th Amendment. The 14 th Amendment. All people born or naturalized in the United States are citizens. States must allow all males over 21 to vote. The 14 th amendment was not fully enforced until the 1970s.
21 The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 The Reconstruction Acts of 1867 divided the South into five military districts and stated that in order for Southern states to reenter the Union and send representatives to Congress they must: 1. Approve new state constitutions. 2. Ratify the Fourteenth Amendment. 3. Allow African Americans to vote. During Reconstruction, more than 600 African Americans served in Southern state legislatures and 14 were elected to Congress. Two African Americans served as U.S. Senators.
23 Which side pushed for stricter controls of the new states? President Andrew Johnson majority of white men must swear oath of loyalty states must ratify 13 th Amendment former Confederate officials may vote and hold office Radical Republicans state governments must disband states must write new constitutions states must ratify 13 th and 14 th Amendments must allow African American men to vote
24 Radical Republican power peaked in The Radicals tried to remove President Johnson from office by. Republicans claimed he violated the Tenure of Office Act. Johnson received just enough votes to stay in office. Then, General Ulysses S. Grant won the 1868 presidential election. Grant was a moderate, so the Radicals began to lose power.
25 Johnson Is Impeached Impeachment the process of accusing a public official of wrongdoing. The Constitution describes impeachable offences as high crimes and misdemeanors. The Impeachment Process House of Representatives brings formal charges against govt. official (President) Treason, Bribery, or High Crimes & misdemeanors Senate hears evidence against official (President) Senate determine guilt or innocence Senate votes on removal from office Two Presidents have been impeached Andrew Johnson William Jefferson Clinton Both were acquitted (found innocent) & were not removed from office.
26 Events that led to President Johnson s Impeachment Vetoed Civil Rights Act Did not support the Fourteenth Amendment Chose pro- Confederate military commanders Fired Secretary Stanton Johnson is impeached
27 Journal If you were a member of Congress during Reconstruction, would you have voted in favor or against the impeachment of President Andrew Johnson?
29 The Ku Klux Klan Klan Attack, Unknown Artist.
30 President Grant In 1868, the Republican Party gained control of the Executive Branch of government when Ulysses S. Grant won the presidency. Despite attacks by the Ku Klux Klan, about 500,000 African Americans in the South voted giving Grant a majority. Republicans in Congress and President Grant passed the Fifteenth Amendment and a tough anti-klan law. Attacks against African Americans declined and Grant won a second term in 1872.
31 The Ku Klux Klan In 1869, Congress approved the. States had to allow African Americans to vote. Secret societies such as the Ku Klux Klan used terror and violence to keep African Americans from voting.
32 Terms and People poll tax a personal tax to be paid before voting literacy test a test to see if a person can read and write grandfather clause a provision that allowed a voter to avoid a literacy test if his father or grandfather had been eligible to vote on January 1, 1867 Homer Plessy an African American man arrested for sitting in a coach marked for whites only sharecropper a laborer who works the land for the farmer who owns it in exchange for a share of the value of the crop segregation enforced separation of races
33 Scandals Weaken the Republicans President Grant put army friends and his wife s relatives in government positions. Many of these appointees were unqualified and some took bribes. This political corruption caused a split in the Republican Party and they became less willing to impose tough policies on the South. In 1873, several powerful Eastern banks ran out of money after making bad loans. A financial panic swept the country and the stock market collapsed. The Panic of 1873 caused many banks to close and led to an economic depression and high unemployment. This depression lasted for nearly five years.
35 Reconstruction Ends In 1876, two Supreme Court decisions began to undo some of the changes in the South. In U.S. v. Cruikshank the Court ruled that only states had the power to punish individuals who violated the civil rights of African Americans. The Court also stated that the Fifteenth Amendment did not give everyone the right to vote and that states could prevent people from voting in U.S. v. Reese. The final blow to Reconstruction came with the presidential election of The race was very close and votes in some states were disputed. A special commission came up with the Compromise of The compromise forced the government to remove federal troops from the South and Southern Reconstruction governments soon collapsed.
37 Reconstruction Ends Congress appointed a 15-person commission, mostly Republicans, to settle the election results. The commission decided to give Hayes, the Republican, all 20 disputed electoral votes. In return, Hayes agreed to end Reconstruction. Rutherford B. Hayes
38 With Reconstruction over, African Americans began to lose their rights in the South. Southern whites passed laws to keep African Americans from voting. One law required voters to pay a poll tax. This kept many poor freedmen from voting. Another law required voters to pass a literacy test. It included a grandfather clause that allowed illiterate whites to vote.
39 Southern states also created laws requiring segregation, known as Jim Crow laws. White Hospitals Cemeteries Playgrounds Restaurants Schools Streetcars Black Hospitals Cemeteries Playgrounds Restaurants Schools Streetcars
40 African Americans Lose Rights In 1896, the Supreme Court upheld segregation laws. Homer Plessy was arrested for sitting in a coach marked for whites only. The court ruled that a law could require separate but equal facilities for blacks and whites. This rule remained in effect until the 1950s.
41 40 Acres and a Mule As the Civil War ended, General Sherman suggested that abandoned land in coastal South Carolina be split into 40- acre parcels and given to freedmen. Some Republican leaders pushed for land reform arguing that civil rights meant little without economic independence. Other Congressmen believed that new civil and voting rights were enough to give African Americans a better life. Congress did not pass the landreform plan.
42 Cycle of Poverty Many poor African Americans were forced to become sharecroppers, a laborer who works the land for the farmer who owns it in exchange for a share of the value of the crop.
43 Cycle of Poverty
45 Industrial Growth The South s economy began to gradually recover. The cotton, tobacco, and textile industries thrived. Factories developed iron, timber, and oil. Southern leaders spoke of a New South that would no longer depend only on cotton.
47 Journal Which Reconstruction-era amendments do you believe brought about the greatest change in American society? In light of what occurred after Reconstruction, what other amendments do you believe should have been passed?
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