1 Democratic Republican Era Thomas Jefferson s Administration James Madison s Administration James Monroe s Administration Jefferson Madison Monroe Following the election of 1800, the Democratic Republicans took power for the next 25 years Also known as the Virginia Dynasty
2 Thomas Jefferson Takes Office Jefferson was the first president in the new capital, Washington D.C. We are all Republicans, we are all Federalists, Jefferson outlined in his Inaugural Address on March 4, His goals included a wise and frugal government and the support of state governments in all their rights. He believed in the policy of laissez-faire, little government interference in a nation s economy (business and industry).
3 Jefferson s Cabinet Secretary of State James Madison, from Virginia Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin, from Pennsylvania Madison Gallatin
4 Jefferson s Views Jefferson was a man of contradictions. He stressed the evils of slavery and thought it would disappear if small farms replaced plantations, or large estates. However, Jefferson was a wealthy landowner, with a huge estate at Monticello, Virginia. He also was a slaveholder. In the Declaration of Independence, he proclaimed that all men are created equal. Yet, most states still had property requirements for voting and office holding. As a young man, Jefferson was a political philosopher and an idealist. As president, Jefferson became a political realist (Hamiltonian).
5 Jefferson s Economic Policy Jefferson instructed Secretary of Treasury Albert Gallatin to economize, or cut costs wherever possible. Jefferson and Gallatin advised Congress to cut the navy from 25 to 7 ships and reduce the size of the army by 1/3. They also persuaded Congress to repeal all federal internal taxes, including the tax on whiskey. These measures hurt Jefferson later in his administration, during the Barbary wars in North Africa. Government funds would come from the levy of tariffs and the sale of western lands.
6 Jefferson and the Courts The Judiciary Act of 1801 This act set up regional courts for the United States with 16 judges and many other judicial officials. In his last days of the presidency, John Adams made several midnight appointments to these positions, some of which never took effect because the commissions, or papers, were not delivered on time.
7 Marbury V. Madison William Marbury, a Federalist, tried to force the delivery of his commission. He took his case to the Supreme Court, claiming jurisdiction as a result of the Judiciary Act of Chief Justice John Marshall noted that the Constitution did not give the Court jurisdiction to decide Marbury s case. In Marbury v. Madison, Justice Marshall had for the first time exercised judicial review, which gave the United States Supreme Court the right to review and rule on the acts of the other branches of government.
8 The Louisiana Purchase The Western Territory In 1800, the territory of the United States extended only as far west as the Mississippi River. The land west of the river, the Louisiana Territory, belonged to Spain. France and England were at war in Europe, and Spain ceded her land to the French to protect it from a British seizure. Anticipating the French arrival to the territory, in October 1802, Spanish authorities closed the port of New Orleans to American traffic.
9 A Special Envoy Americans were outraged! The militia from Kentucky threatened to seize the port. To ease the situation, President Jefferson sent a special envoy to Paris, France. He chose an old friend from Virginia, James Monroe, to either buy the port of New Orleans or to persuade Napoleon, the French Emperor, to open the port.
10 The Nation Expands By the time Monroe reached France, the situation in Paris had changed. Napoleon, in need of money, offered to sell not only New Orleans, but also the entire inland empire that was drained by the Mississippi and Missouri Rivers. He summoned Robert Livingston, the American minister to France, and offered $15 million, which included war debts owed to France. The two had been coming to terms when Monroe arrived, and the treaty of the Louisiana Purchase was signed in May 1803.
13 Concerns over the Purchase Jefferson worried over the constitutionality of such a purchase. The Constitution said nothing about acquiring new territory. In Congress, New England Federalists bitterly opposed the purchase. They felt it would weaken the Union. Jefferson s use of executive power and Federalist opposition to the purchase was curious reversal of roles. It shows how ideas can change when people s situations and interests change.
15 Lewis and Clark Expedition In early 1803, Thomas Jefferson asked his friend and neighbor, Meriwether Lewis, to organize an expedition to explore the territory. Lewis asked Virginian William Clark to assist. They assembled forty volunteers. The expedition left St. Louis in May Jefferson instructed the explorers to find a route across the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. They traveled along the Missouri River, and spent the winter of at an Indian village, near present day Bismarck, North Dakota
16 Sacajawea They met Sacajawea (sac-uhjuh-wee-uh), or Bird Women, who had helped Lewis and Clark through the Rocky Mountains. They finished their journey down the Columbia River to the pacific coast.
19 Hamilton and Burr Duel Aaron Burr, a Federalist, opposed the Louisiana Purchase. A group of Federalists in Massachusetts planned to secede, or withdraw, from the Union. They wanted to form a separate Northern Confederacy. The Federalists gave Burr their support in 1804, when he ran for governor of New York. Alexander Hamilton prevented his election. As a result, Burr challenged him to a duel.
22 Hamilton Dies In July 1804, the two men, armed with pistols, met in Weehawken, New Jersey. Hamilton fired first and missed Burr, probably deliberately. Burr, however, aimed to hit. Seriously wounded, Hamilton died the next day. Burr fled to avoid arrest.
23 Trouble on the High Seas By 1800, the United States was second to Great Britain in the number of merchant ships traveling around the world. However, sailing in foreign seas, was not without danger. The Muslim States of North Africa demanded tribute, or protection money, for safe passage through the Mediterranean Sea. In May 1801, the pasha, or ruler of a Muslim state, cut down the flagpole at the American consulate. It was the pasha s way of declaring war.
24 The Barbary Wars Jefferson, determined to uphold American rights, set a 38- gun frigate, the Philadelphia, to patrol the Mediterranean Sea. The squadron met disaster when it ran aground and the crew was captured. In 1803, Jefferson sent a stronger squadron to the Mediterranean commanded by Edward Preble. As commander, he assigned Stephen Decatur, an U.S. Navy captain to re-take the Philadelphia. Decatur, with a small raiding party, sailed into the harbor, boarded the Philadelphia, and burned it. Edward Preble Stephen Decatur
28 Results of the War For the next two years, Preble blockaded the harbor, and by 1805, the pasha agreed to release the Philadelphia crew for a ransom of $60,000. Fighting continued for the next ten years, but Americans took satisfaction that they, alone, did not have to buy their passage through the Mediterranean Sea.
30 Significance It was the first war declared on the United States since its successful bid for independence from Britain. It was the first time the United States waged war not on the American continent. The US Navy had only been formed a few years prior, so it was the first test of the Constitution class of warship in live fire conditions. It was the very first interaction between the United States and the Arab world, and would have long-term repercussions. The American flag was raised as a symbol of conquest over foreign soil for the very first time, in the Tripolitan city of Derne. John Ackinson s Web Site. The Battle of Tripoli. (accessed November 2, 2010).
31 The Election of 1804 Thomas Jefferson carried every state but Connecticut and Delaware. Jefferson received 162 electoral votes to only 14 for his Federalist opponent, Charles Pinckney. George Clinton became Jefferson s Vice President. George Clinton Thomas Jefferson
32 Jefferson s Second Administration Great Britain and France were at war and threatened to interfere with American trade. Napoleon dominated mainland Europe; England controlled the seas. Each country resorted to economic warfare, trying to force the other into submission. The neutral United States was caught in the middle.
33 American Neutrality When England and France were at war in 1803, the United States had been enjoying a period of economic prosperity. By 1805, however, Great Britain and France had lost patience with American neutrality. Great Britain blockaded the French coast and threatened to search all ships trading with France. France announced that it would search and seize all ships trading with Great Britain.
34 British and French Impressment The British, in need of sailors and ships for their naval war, began seizing American ships and began forcing American sailors into service. This practice, known as impressment, was a clear violation of American neutrality.
35 Help! I m being impressed! Your not my father! Don t tell me what to do You are now a swabbie in the British Royal Navy!
36 Chesapeake v. Leopard In June of 1807, a British warship, the Leopard, intercepted the 38-gun frigate, the Chesapeake, and demanded to search the ships for British deserters When the ship s captain refused, the Leopard fired broadside at the Chesapeake, killing three and injuring fifteen. British officers then boarded the ship, caught four British deserters and hanged them. In response to the British seizures, the Republican Congress, in December 1807, passed an embargo, which prohibited the United States from trading with all foreign countries.
37 Chesapeake v. Leopard
38 The Embargo Act of 1807 Jefferson, trying to avoid war, used the embargo to hurt Great Britain. He thought that Great Britain depended upon American agricultural goods. The Embargo Act, however, proved very ineffective. Britain simply traded with South America for agricultural goods. New England Federalists and Republicans in Congress opposed the embargo. On March 3, 1809, in Thomas Jefferson s last day in office, Congress repealed, or cancelled, the act.
HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA BORN APRIL 13, 1743 DIED JULY
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