1 1. Washington s Presidency Served 2 terms to 1797/VP: John Adams 2. US Problems = Solutions Government on paper but not in practice Precedents Develops first Cabinet----Hamilton vs Jefferson Supreme Court Debt Excise taxes and tariffs Bank of United States (BUS) in 1792 Confidence in new Constitution Whiskey Rebellion 1. Successfully put down by Washington, 1794 Farmers refuse to pay Whiskey tax to US Govt. Mobocracy notes1
2 The Possibility of War Jay s Treaty Great Britain notes2 Forts for debts Picnkney s Treaty Spain Open up the Mississippi River French Revolution to US US asked to help France in war with England Neutrality Act---Washington warns US to stay neutral and not side with the French. 4. Washington s Farewell Speech: 1796 Two ways the US can stay unified Avoid political parties Military alliances with Europe Neutrality----Isolation Achievements: Sound economic foundation westward expansion Kept us out of war
3 Wash inaugural New Constitution and Government take effect on April 30, Washington begins his presidency in New York City and alternates between there and Philadelphia. Capital city at this time was New York City.
4 Precedents are models, examples or influences other Presidents would follow What to call the President? Mr. President President sets their own personal style Cabinet appointed by President and advises him VP has no official duties President acts independent from Congress Congress relies on the advice of the President Served 2 terms and stepped aside for someone else edents prec
5 cabinet Cabinet advises the President and heads up an agency of the government Department of State Foreign affairs Thomas Jefferson----Secretary of State Department of Treasury Financial affairs Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury Department of War Military affairs Henry Knox----Secretary of War Attorney General Legal affairs Edmund Randolph Department of Justice Postmaster General Postal system Samuel Osgood
6 Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson played a valuable role in the beginning of our nation. Both were visionaries and influenced the direction our country would go economically, politically and socially. President Washington was stuck in the middle of these two men as they argued over our country s beginnings.
7 political Federalist Beliefs Leader Appealed to Ideas of Government Alexander Hamilton John Adams Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated; Favored seaboard cities Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution; Implied powers; Wealthy and educated involved; Limit freedoms of speech & press; Preferred govt. similar to a king Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson James Madison Farmers and Planters common man; Favored the South and West State s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution; Expressed/Enumerated powers; Common man but educated; Bill of Rights is sacred; Lesser government the better Domestic Policy Supported National Bank BUS; Supported excise tax; National debt good for country; National govt. assume state debts; Tariffs should be high Against National Bank BUS; Against excise tax ; Against National debt; States pay their own debts; Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French
8 President Washington appoints 6 justices to the Supreme Court 3 from North and 3 from South Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress created lower courts to assist the Supreme Court. John Jay first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court
9 precedents President Washington faced several Indian problems. British were supplying the tribes with arms and ammunition to attack US settlers. Washington sent General Mad Anthony Wayne to defeat the Indian tribes.
10 War in the Old Northwest Territory Several tribes, led by Little Turtle of the Miamis, scored early victories ( ) The Miamis were defeated at Fallen Timbers by General Mad Anthony Wayne (1794)
11 War in the Old Northwest Territory Treaty of Greenville (1795) gave USA right to settle most of Ohio First formal recognition of Indian sovereignty over land not ceded by treaty
12 Map 13 of 45
13 British forts on U.S. soil. Still haven t removed troops and supplying Indians with weapons Disputed land claims with Spain; Cut off Mississippi River
14 Jay s Treaty with England.. British made neutrality difficult: maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms to Indians; Collaborated with Indians to check US expansion to frontier. Jays
15 Conflicts with Britain British made neutrality difficult: maintained trading posts on US soil, sold firearms to Indians. Collaborated with Indians to check US expansion to frontier.
16 Conflicts with Britain British expected Americans to defend French West Indies, so attacked US merchant ships, seizing about 300 Impressed and imprisoned American sailors. Jeffersonians called for war Federalists resisted (financial system).
17 Jay s Treaty To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay to London (1794). Jeffersonian s concerned about Jay s loyalty. Hamilton feared war with England, secretly supplied British with US bargaining strategy.
18 Jay s Treaty John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British. British remove forts from US soil British agreed but required US to pay old debts on pre-revolution accounts. Allowed US to negotiate separate treaties with Indian tribes Opened westward expansion for US settlers.
19 Jay s Treaty British agree to pay some damages, but required US to pay old debts on pre-revolution accounts. John Jay is burnt in effigy because Americans believed he sold out to the British. Jeffersonian s felt treaty was surrender to Britain, betrayal of South (who had debts). Did not stop impressment.
20 Jay s Treaty Jay s Treaty gave life to new Democratic-Republican party, tarnished Wash. s popularity. Spain, fearing US-British alliance, gives US free use of Mississippi, disputed territory north of FL.
21 Spain cut off our farmers right to use the Mississippi River and deposit their crops in New Orleans. Picnkneys Pinckney s Treaty: Spain gave US the free use of the Mississippi River for 5 yrs. and the boundary was set at 31st parallel between Spanish Florida and US
22 Foreign Debt Congress & Sec. of Treasury Alexander Hamilton solve debt problems: $11,710,000 Federal Domestic Debt $42,414,000 State Debt $21,500,000 Misc. Revenue Excise Tax on Whiskey Custom Duties (Tariffs) Compromise with Thomas Jefferson called the Assumption Act led to the creationdebtof Pay off $80 million debt Excise tax: Taxes placed on manufactured products Tariff: a tax on imports Establish good credit with foreign nations Create a national bank with a national currency Raise money for govt backed by gold silver
23 BUS HAMILTON JEFFERSON Safe place to deposit and transfer money Against the Constitution Provide loans to government and state banks State banks would collapse A national currency---$$$$$ An investment by people to buy stock into US bank Constitution did not forbid a national bank.loose construction of Constitution National debt good for country Only wealthy could invest in bank and would control bank than control the government Hurt the common man Strict construction If it is not mentioned in the Constitution than there can t be a national bank. Against a national debt
24 Whiskey Rebellion Whiskey Rebels refused to pay the excise tax that was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Washington.Believed this tax was unfair because it was taxing their income whiskeymap
25 Farmer s revolt in western Pennsylvania. Refused to pay Hamilton s excise tax Believed it was an unfair tax. Were called the Whiskey Rebels
26 Whiskey Issue at hand was testing the power of the new Constitution Outcome: Demonstrated to the people that this new constitution was powerful enough to put down domestic rebellions, mobocracy Showed the power of the national government President Washington reviews 13,000 troops of the Western Army assembled at Fort Cumberland, Maryland, to crush the Whiskey Rebellion.
27 impressment Impressment: an act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy----the British and French were doing this to us.
28 French Rev Began in 1790 s, unfair taxation and inequality---worldwide crisis Overthrow King Louis 16th and Marie Antoniete; similar to King George Americans believed we should help the French----similar to ours
29 French Rev Executions of King Louis the 16th and Marie Antoniette in Begins Reign of Terror during French Revolution where 40,000 opponents of the new govt. were beheaded. France goes to war against European kings France requested US ships to block West Indies from the British President Washington declared Neutrality and ordered Americans to avoid this war
30 farewell Whereas it appears that a state of war exists between Austria, Prussia, Sardinia, Great Britain and the United Netherlands, of the one part and France on the other; and the duty and interest of the U.S. require, that they should with sincerity and good faith adopt and pursue a conduct friendly and impartial toward the belligerent powers.
31 farewell neutrality I have therefore thought fit by these presents to declare the disposition of the U.S. to observe the conduct aforesaid towards those Powers respectfully; and to exhort and warn the citizens of the U.S. carefully to avoid all acts and proceedings whatsoever, which may in any manner tend to contravene such disposition.april 1793 President Washington s response to the French was to warn Americans to stay out these European conflicts and remain neutral or avoid.
32 Most Americans (Jefferson and Paine) were upset with Washington s Neutrality. Washington s Neutrality decision was based on the long term U.S. self interest. Preserve and protect the infant nation Thomas Paine On Washington s Neutrality And as to you, sir, treacherous in private friendship (for so you have been to me, and that in the day of danger) and a hypocrite in public life, the world will be puzzled to decide, whether you are an apostate or an importer; whether you have abandoned good principles, or whether you ever had any.
33 farewell Washington warned of the dangers of political parties and permanent alliances with other nations. Washington s warning against entangling alliances became a principle of U.S. foreign policy. Europe has a set of primary interests which to us have none or a very remote relation.our detached and distant situation invites and enables us to pursue a different course..it is our true policy to steer clear of permanent alliances with any portion of the foreign world Taking care always to keep ourselves by suitable establishments on a respectable defensive posture, we may safely trust to temporary alliances for extraordinary emergencies..1796
34 Washington is convinced that Americans must stay neutral and avoid foreign affairs associated with all the British and foreign continents--- GOOD HISTORIAN Washington displayed this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and his Farewell Address in No entangling alliances.us should avoid military alliances with Europe.continue to trade with Europe Neutrality = Isolation
36 1. Washington s Presidency Served 2 terms to 1797; VP: John Adams 2. Problems facing US Debt Government on paper but not in practice British, Spain and Indians Confidence in new government 3. Accomplishments Political achievements Precedents Develops first: Cabinet----Hamilton vs Jefferson; Supreme Court---Judiciary Act of 1789; Treaties notes1
37 Domestic Achievements: Secures westward expansion Jay s Treaty Great Britain Picnkney s Treaty Spain Debt solutions Excise taxes and tariffs Bank of United States (BUS) Enforced Constitution Whiskey Rebellion Demonstrated strength of new government Foreign Achievements No war with Great Britain or Spain French Revolution to US response notes2
38 French Revolution to US response Neutrality Act---Washington warns = stay out Cornerstone of US foreign policy = isolationism Washington s Farewell Speech Two ways the US can stay unified and strong Avoid political parties military alliances with European countries notes2
39 Indian land
40 political Federalist Beliefs Leader Appealed to Ideas of Government Alexander Hamilton John Adams Manufacturers, merchants, wealthy and educated; Favored seaboard cities Strong government over states Loose Construction of Constitution; Implied powers; Wealthy and educated involved; Limit freedoms of speech & press; Preferred govt. similar to a king Democratic-Republicans Thomas Jefferson James Madison Farmers and Planters common man; Favored the South and West State s rights over National Govt. Strict construction of Constitution; Expressed/Enumerated powers; Common man but educated; Bill of Rights is sacred; Lesser government the better Domestic Policy Supported National Bank BUS; Supported excise tax; National debt good for country; National govt. assume state debts; Tariffs should be high Against National Bank BUS; Against excise tax ; Against National debt; States pay their own debts; Tariffs should be low Foreign Policy Opposed French Revolution Wanted war with French Favored the British Supported French Revolution Opposed war with French Favored the French
41 Adams 2nd president---jefferson VP Serves 1 term to Possible war with France Why? French: US neutrality US: impressment of our ships Kidnapped our ships 3. Adams tries to avoid war XYZ Affair French bribed the US US wants war with France Undeclared naval war Adams prepares US for war. Alien and Sedition Act 1798 No immigrants and silenced 1. free speech notes3
42 5. VP Jefferson against these laws Violated Bill of Rights the states can refuse to obey it--- nullify 6. Adams vs. French kept US out of war Agreement: Napoleon Bonaparte agreed to abandon US responsibility to the Franco/American Treaty of 1778 notes4
43 Adams Becomes President 1796 campaign Adams was supported by New England and Federalists Defeated Jefferson in Electoral College Jefferson becomes VP France and US close to war. Jay s Treaty US not honoring the Franco-American Treaty of 1778
44 politicalparties FEDERALISTS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Alexander Hamilton/John Adams Led by merchants, bankers and lawyers living primarily in New England. Favored a strong central government. Interpreted the Constitution loosely--- implied powers Believed in a government by the elite, educated and wealthy. Pro-England. Favored Hamilton's financial policies----support BUS Vision for US: Trade center, industry and self-sufficient. DEMOCRATIC-REPUBLICANS 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Thomas Jefferson/James Madison. Led by planters, farmers and wage earners living primarily in the South and West. Favored strong state governments over national government. Interpreted the Constitution strictly-- enumerated powers Rule by the educated masses. Pro-France. Opposed Hamilton's financial policies---against BUS Vision for US: Agricultural society, little trade and industry
45 impressment Impressment An act of kidnapping a ship, its contents, men and forcing them into your navy France began impressing our ships and sailors because of our Neutrality Proclamation. France upset because we violated the Franco American Treaty of 1778.
46 Fighting with France French upset by US violation of France-US treaty of 1778 Upset with Jay s Treaty toward alliance with England French warships impressed over 300 US merchant ships by 1797
47 xyz To avoid war with France, President Adams sent 3 US representatives (John Marshall, Charles Pinckney and John Jay) to negotiate a peace agreement.. US representatives were snubbed by the French government Adams Tallyrand President Adams on the XYX Affair. I will never send another minister to France without assurances that he will be received, respected, and honored as the representative of a great, free, powerful and independent nation. Eventually, 3 French representatives (known as X, Y and Z because they refused to give their names) XYZ demanded a bribe of $250,000 to merely talk with Tallyrand Insulted, we refused the demands and left France US & French begin to fight an undeclared naval war.
48 XYZ Affair French demanded an apology Demanded a $12 million loan.
49 The French government would permit us to remain at Paris and we should be received by Talleyrand one of us could go to American and consult our government on the subject of the loan. We had no reason to believe that a possible benefit could result from it. And we desired him to tell his government that we would not give a shilling unless American property unjustly captured was previously restored and further hostilities suspended Unless this was done, we did not think that we could even consult our government concerning a loan..
50 Fighting with France Americans wanted war and were heard to say millions for defense, but not one cent for tribute US prepares for war, expands navy, creates the US Marine Corps.
51 Fighting with France : In undeclared hostilities, mostly around West Indies US captured over 80 French ships but lost several hundred to France. Needed only slight push for war.
52 Federalist Witch Hunt 1798: Using anti-french hysteria, Federalists in Congress passed the Alien & Sedition Acts Alien Laws: raised residency required for citizenship to 14 years (from 5), resulting in fewer Democratic-Republican voters
53 ISSUE: Does the United States Govt have the right to suspend your rights (Bill of Rights) in time of crisis (such as war) to protect the national security of the country? ALIEN ACT: Congress gave President Adams the power to deport any immigrant who was considered a risk to national security.also, changed naturalization (immigrants who want to become citizens) from 5 years to 14 yrs SEDITION ACT: Congress gave President Adams special powers to arrest anyone who spoke out against the war effort.primarily against Jefferson s Democratic/Republicans and newspaper editors who opposed the war.. Alien/sedition
54 That if any person shall write, print, utter, or publish, or shall cause or procure to be written, printed, uttered or published, or shall knowingly and willingly assist in any false, Scandalous and malicious writing or writings against the government of the United States, or either house of Congress or the President of the United States, Then such person, being thereof convicted before any court of the United States, shall be punished by a fine not exceeding two thousand dollars and by imprisonment not exceeding two years
55 Federalist Witch Hunt Alien Laws also gave President authority to deport (peace) or imprison (wartime) foreigners Sedition Act: prohibited impeding policies of government or falsely defaming officials ~ aimed at Jeffersonian newspapers
56 Federalist Witch Hunt Sedition Act violated Constitution, but Federalist SC would not overturn Law wrote to expire in 1801 in case Federalists lost election Despite violation of freedoms, Acts were very popular
57 Kty/va resolutions Jefferson s and Madison s response to the Sedition Act.. Believed Sedition Act violated freedom of speech and press. They tried to convince the other states not to support the Sedition Act. It failed and the Sedition Act remained the law until DOCTRINE OF NULLIFICATION: Since the States created the National Government, they have the right to nullify, cancel or decide not to obey a law they believed was unconstitutional.
58 That the General Assembly protests against the alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the "Alien and Sedition Acts" passed at the last session of Congress. That this state having by its Convention, expressly declared, that among other essential rights, "the Liberty of Conscience and of the Press cannot be cancelled, abridged, restrained, or modified by any authority of the United States," The General Assembly appeals to the other states, in confidence that they will concur that the acts are unconstitutional and that the necessary and proper measures will be taken by each in maintaining the Authorities, Rights, and Liberties, referred to the States respectively, or to the people.
59 Kty/va resolutions Jefferson s and Madison s response to the Sedition Act..They tried to convince the other states not to support the Sedition Act.It failed and the Sedition Act remained the law until DOCTRINE OF NULLIFICATION: Since the States created the National Government, they have the right to nullify, cancel or decide not to obey a law they believed was unconstitutional. COMPACT THEORY: Belief Jefferson and Madison held that since the states created the National Govt. and the states entered into this compact voluntarily, they have the right to refuse to obey any law they believe is unconstitutional
60 VA & KY Resolutions As a result, states could nullify federal laws ~ specifically the Alien & Sedition Acts Federalist response: it s people, not states, that formed union
61 Patriotism Above Party New French leader, Napoleon and Talleyrand did not want war, or to push the US to Britain French send back-channel message that new US minister would be received properly 1799: Adams submits to Senate new minister to France
62 Adams Napoleon To prevent a war with France, in 1800, President Adams sent representatives to France to meet with Napoleon and Tallyrand to negotiate a peace agreement.. Tallyrand guarantees France would accept our representatives and treat them with respect. The agreement was as follows: France dropped our responsibility to the treaty of 1778 U.S. would drop the claims (lawsuits brought against the French Govt. for the recovery of private ships and cargo) for the impressment of our merchant ships. President Adams sacrificed his re-election and lost to Thomas Jefferson in Adams/napoleon
63 Adams Napoleon Convention of 1800 signed: ended Franco-American alliance Adams deserves credit: Avoided war Unknowingly laid foundation for LA Purchase Adams sacrificed his re-election in 1800 to keep US out of war Patriotism above self-interest Adams/napoleon
64 Patriotism Above Party Hamilton and the war-hawk Federalists enraged, but most Americans agreeable to try for peace 1800: new US envoys come to find Napoleon as new dictator Wants to resolve US conflict
65 Democratic 1. Federalist Election of 1796 Republican Rise of Political parties Adams 2nd president---jefferson VP Serves 1 term to Foreign relations----possible war with France Why? US neutrality, treaty of 1778 and Jay s Treaty US upset---- impressment of our ships Adams negotiates with France to keep US out of war Congress creates the XYZ Affair Dept. of the Navy and US apologize US Marines Loan France money $250,0000 bribe Americans demand war with France Undeclared naval war---us vs France notes3
66 4. VP Jefferson & Madison against these laws.. Responses Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions if US law violates the Constitution, the states can refuse to obey it. nullification Why? Compact theory: States created national government and have the right to nullify any law they believe is unconstitutional State s rights vs national govt. conflict 5. Adams vs. Napoleon Bonaparte to keep US out of war Treaty agreement Abandon treaty of 1778 US drop the claims against France Adam s accomplishment: Kept US neutral and out of war notes4
67 1. Election of 1796 Rise of Political parties Adams 2nd president---jefferson VP Serves 1 term to 1801 Federalist Democratic Republican 2. Foreign relations----possible war with France Why? US neutrality, treaty of 1778 and Jay s Treaty US upset---- impressment of our ships Adams negotiates with France to keep US out of war XYZ Affair US apologize Loan France money $250,000 bribe Americans demand war with France notes3
68 4. VP Jefferson & Madison against these laws.. Responses Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions if US law violates the Constitution, the states can refuse to obey it. nullification 5. Adams vs. French keep us out of war Treaty agreement Abandon treaty of 1778 US drop the claims against France Adam s accomplishment: Kept US neutral and out of war Sacrifices his presidency and not be re-elected Why? Went against people and Federalists notes4
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Chapter 7 Politics and Society in the New Republic, 1787-1820 The Political Crisis of the 1790s Thomas Jefferson vs. Alexander Hamilton The Federalist Implement the Constitution Swept the election of 1788
George Washington s Presidency http://www.youtube.com/wat ch?v=obupqgv8ybm Foreign Policy The French Revolution Americans, in general, support the French people wanting a Republic Most are horrified by
Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe, Jackson, and Polk Presidencies 1. George Washington (1789-1797) - Created a cabinet of advisors 1. Secretary of War - Henry Knox 2. Secretary of the Treasury - Alexander
Prompt:Analyze the reasons for the Anti-Federalists opposition to ratifying the Constitution. Re-written as a Question: What were the reasons for the Anti-Federalist opposition to ratifying the constitution?
1783: Treaty of Paris ended the American Revolution Despite the treaty, Britain: Continued to maintain frontier forts along the Great Lakes Continued their alliances with Native American tribes 1787: The
What was the Treaty of Greenville? Why did the call Anthony Wayne Mad? What did the Democratic-Republicans believe in? 1. Elastic Clause- 2. Revolution- 3. Privateer- 4. Strict Construction- 5. Loose Construction-
Forming a New Government Why Independent in the First Place? Citizens wanted to limit the power of government Lack of representation No taxation without representation Protect personal freedoms Desired
John Adams 1 The first political parties emerged During the debate over ratification of the Constitution, two organized groups emerged, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. Washington opposed political
HERE WAS BURIED THOMAS JEFFERSON AUTHOR OF THE DECLARATION OF AMERICAN INDEPENDENCE OF THE STATUTE OF VIRGINIA FOR RELIGIOUS FREEDOM AND FATHER OF THE UNIVERSITY OF VIRGINIA BORN APRIL 13, 1743 DIED JULY
George Washington Information to be included: 2 Facts (ONLY) BEFORE Washington was President, including place of Election facts events of and surrounding his nomination and election to the office of President,