2 THE UNIFYING EFFECTS OF THE WARS ON BRITISH COLONIES The colonial governments grew stronger and more independent through the early decades of the 1700s. Benjamin Franklin came up with the Albany Plan of Union. Franklin s plan was defeated resoundingly by the colonies.
3 PRELUDES TO A REVOLUTION Map The French and Indian War,
4 THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR, The war changed the landscape of North America. After the British victory, France ceded Canada and the land east of the Mississippi River to the British.
5 NORTH AMERICA BEFORE AND AFTER THE FRENCH AND INDIAN WAR Map North America before and after the French and Indian War,
6 PONTIAC AND INDIAN RESPONSES 1763 Pontiac s Rebellion Pontiac and his followers attacked British forts across the region. In July 1766 Pontiac signed a treaty of peace.
7 THE PROCLAMATION LINE OF 1763 In October 1763, the king issued a proclamation that there should be no British settlement west of the crest of the Appalachian Mountains and that Indian rights to western lands would be protected forever. The line infuriated the British colonists.
8 THE PAXTON BOYS AND RURAL WHITE RESPONSES The Paxton Boys decided to eliminate Indians. In December 1763, the Paxton Boys attacked a Delaware village, killed six people, and burned the town. Hatred of Indians would haunt the inhabitants of North America for a long time to come.
9 THREATS OF NEW TAXES Victory in the war had virtually drained the kingdom s treasury. In 1764, George Grenville and the majority in Parliament asked Britain s North American colonists to pay what the authorities in London thought was a fair share of the war s cost.
10 THE REVOLUTION WAS IN THE MINDS OF THE PEOPLE According to John Adams, The Revolution was in the minds of the people, and this was effected from 1760 to 1775, 15 fifteen years before a drop of blood was shed at Lexington. The revolutionary change took place for many reasons.
11 TRANSITION FROM THE RIGHTS OF MAN TO REVOLT Throughout the 1770s, Locke s ideas guided some of the Revolution s most articulate advocates such as Thomas Jefferson, John Adams, and Benjamin Franklin. They also believed in the need to overthrow unjust authorities.
12 THE ACCOMPANYING REVOLUTION IN RELIGION Gilbert Tennant challenged the leaders of all Protestant denominations to judge their ministers. It was not a great leap to challenge civil authority as well.
13 SEAPORT RADICALISM FROM THE STAMP ACT TO THE BOSTON MASSACRE AND BOSTON TEA PARTY 1765 The Stamp Act 1770 Boston Massacre 1773 Boston Tea Party
14 REVOLTS IN THE BACK COUNTRY Rural people on the frontier from New York to the Carolinas were also taking matters into their own hands, but for different reasons. Throughout the colonies the most contentious issue for inland communities was relationships with Indian tribes.
15 GROWING UNITY IN THE COLONIES THE FIRST CONTINENTAL CONGRESS 1774 Philadelphia, First Continental Congress All colonies, except Georgia, sent representatives. At the time, few were ready to break with Britain.
16 TALK OF FREEDOM FOR SLAVES The Somerset decision caused a considerable stir in the colonies and in Britain. Whites on both sides of the Atlantic noted the absurdity of colonists protesting their own perceived enslavement by Parliament while those same colonists enslaved Africans.
17 THE WAR FOR INDEPENDENCE Map British Courts and Troops Stationed in the Colonies as the Revolution Began
18 FROM LEXINGTON AND CONCORD TO BUNKER HILL REVOLT BECOMES WAR April 1775 Battles of Lexington and Concord June Battle of Bunker Hill After that battle, however, the American forces became better organized and gained support from all 13 colonies.
19 AFRICAN-AMERICANS IN THE ARMIES OF BOTH SIDES The outbreak of war opened a new avenue to freedom for American slaves. Some heard the rumor that the British intended to come to help the poor negroes. In Winter , Washington finally embraced black volunteers.
20 MOVING TOWARD INDEPENDENCE May 1775 Second Continental Congress meets in Philadelphia Thomas Paine s Common Sense
21 DECLARING INDEPENDENCE, 1776 Thomas Jefferson writes the first draft of The Declaration of Independence On July 4, 1776, Congress adopted it Congress adopts the Articles of Confederation.
22 GEORGE WASHINGTON AND HIS VICTORIOUS PATCHWORK ARMY Washington understood that though his army could fight, they could not withstand a direct battle with British regulars. For much of the war, his goal was not a decisive victory, but avoiding a decisive loss. He knew the British would tire of war.
23 MAJOR BATTLES OF THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION. Map Major Battles of the American Revolution.
24 THE STATE OF THE NATION AT WAR S END For people of all classes, races, and political persuasions in British North America, the Revolution brought extensive change. Great inequality remained, but few people were willing to defend it as they had in the colonial era.
25 FOR THE REVOLUTIONARY ARMY OFFICERS: THE NEWBURGH CONSPIRACY The army that had won the war came close to a military takeover of the government a coup d e tat and a military dictatorship. The so-called Newburgh Conspiracy was defeated.
26 FOR POOR WHITE FARMERS: SHAYS S REBELLION 1786 Farmers in western Massachusetts face economic hardship Daniel Shays leads rebellion Rebellion ends Calls come for a stronger national government
27 FOR WHITE SETTLERS MOVING WEST One of the most significant accomplishments of the Congress that operated under the Articles of Confederation was the creation of the Northwest Territory. Land Ordinance of 1785 The Northwest Ordinance of 1787
28 THE AMERICAN-SPANISH BORDER, MAP The American-Spanish Border,
29 STATE CLAIMS TO WESTERN LANDS MAP State Claims to Western Lands
30 THE NORTHWEST TERRITORY GRID SYSTEM MAP The Northwest Territory Grid System
31 FOR AMERICAN INDIANS For the federal Congress, the greatest threat to the new United States came from American Indians. Treaty of Fort Stanwix - A 1784 treaty between one faction of the Iroquois and the U.S. government that sought to end the violent battles over western land.
32 OHIO IN THE 1780S MAP Ohio in the 1780s
33 TRIBAL LAND CLAIMS,
34 FOR SLAVES, FORMER SLAVES, AND THOSE WHO CLAIMED OWNERSHIP OF THEM By the time George Washington was inaugurated president in 1789, slavery had been abolished in three states and was dying though slowly throughout the north. With the coming of peace, the planter elite in the South was determined to reestablish a way of life that depended on slavery.
35 FOR WOMEN: THE RISE OF REPUBLICAN MOTHERHOOD Women fell into all of the different groups that men did. Republican Motherhood, came to dominate public discussions of women s place in the new United States. Women would have an important role, but a limited one
36 CREATING A GOVERNMENT: WRITING THE U.S. CONSTITUTION The years immediately after the Revolution were not easy ones in the new United States of America. Some of the most famous revolutionary leaders were determined to end the growing chaos and reshape the new nation they had helped to create.
37 THE CRISIS OF THE 1780S: THE FAILURE OF THE ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION Financial problems Problems with navigation rights Diplomatic problems
38 THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION OF in Philadelphia Constitutional Convention 55 white men convened Virginia Plan New Jersey Plan The Great Compromise
39 THE EFFECTS OF SLAVERY ON A UNIFIED GOVERNMENT Framers were equally careful to protect the institution and appease slaveholders. 3/5 Compromise The fugitive slave clause gave slaveholders a new and powerful tool.
40 DEBATING AND ADOPTING THE CONSTITUTION Federalists Antifederalists Delaware first state to ratify Virginia the largest state to ratify Rhode Island last to ratify
41 CONVENING A CONGRESS, INAUGURATING A PRESIDENT, ADOPTING A BILL OF RIGHTS The outgoing Congress set the dates for elections for the House of Representatives, the Senate, and presidential electors to occur in early The Constitution left it to each state legislature to decide how to manage these elections.
42 CONGRESS AND PRESIDENT WASHINGTON: SETTING TO WORK George Washington had been unanimously elected president of the United States George Washington had no precedents to guide him.
43 THE BILL OF RIGHTS James Madison 1 st 10 amendments to the Constitution Added in 1791
44 CREATING AN ECONOMY: ALEXANDER HAMILTON AND THE U.S. ECONOMIC SYSTEM President Washington faced difficult problems, many of them economic. Washington appointed New Yorker Alexander Hamilton secretary of the treasury.
45 THE SECRETARY OF THE TREASURY S KEY ROLE Secured a $50,000 Created a Customs Service Organized U.S. Coast Guard Report on public credit
46 DEBT AND TAXES Federal government assumes all of the state debts from the War for Independence Full repayment of war debt plus interest Establishment of the U.S. Bank Protective tariffs to protect fledgling U.S. industries
47 THE FIRST BANK OF THE UNITED STATES Bank of the United States modeled on the Bank of England A central bank could make loans Washington signed the bank bill in February 1791 A federal mint to create uniform currency
48 HAMILTON S COMMERCIAL NATION VS. JEFFERSON S AGRARIAN VISION Hamilton urban, commercial, industrial, strong central govt., strong chief executive, loose interpretation, favors Great Britain Jefferson - hated cities, strict interpretation, hated strong govt., favored small govt., power in the states, rural, small farmers, favors France
49 SETTING THE PACE: THE WASHINGTON ADMINISTRATION Washington was especially worried that the new nation would lose the land west of the 13 original states. As one of his first moves after taking office, Washington set out on a series of grand tours of the United States.
50 THE PRESIDENT TOURS THE NATION Between 1789 and 1791, he rode by carriage and horseback from New York through much of New England and across the South. The trip allowed him to address important issues such as religious freedom, hear from citizens, and personalize a distant national government.
51 INDIAN WARS: BUILDING THE U.S. ARMY Washington was deeply concerned about how to handle the frontier Indian tribes. In 1791, President Washington ordered an attack on the Miamis. The Treaty of Greenville ended major hostilities between Indians and whites in the future states of Ohio and Indiana.
52 INDIAN REMOVALS AND RESISTANCE, MAP 7-1, Indian Removals and Resistance,
53 WHISKEY TAX, WHISKEY REBELLION Whiskey important on the frontier Hamilton s tax on whiskey, levied 1791 Gave rise to resistance Summer open rebellion in western Pennsylvania
54 THE FRENCH REVOLUTION COMES TO AMERICA Edmond-Charles Genêt - French ambassador to the U.S. Arrives in the U.S. in initially welcomed Tries to get the U.S. involved in the war against the British Jay s Treaty Pinckney s Treaty
55 THE BIRTH OF POLITICAL PARTIES: ADAMS AND JEFFERSON Electoral College Whoever got the most votes from all the electors would be president. The runner up would be vice president.
56 JOHN ADAMS S DIFFICULT PRESIDENCY XYZ Affair Quasi War Alien and Sedition Acts Kentucky & Virginia Resolutions - protest the acts
57 THE ELECTION OF 1800 Jefferson - 73 Burr - 73 Adams - 65 Pinckney - 64 House chooses Jefferson on 36th ballot
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