1 Unit: Early America through the American Revolution Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.A Discovery and Settlement of the New World, A. Europe in the sixteenth century B. Spanish, English, and French exploration C. First English settlements 1. Jamestown 2. Plymouth D. Spanish and French settlements and long-term influence E. American Indians Using historical maps to locate boundaries. Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents or records and data to increase understanding of early European exploration and colonization. Develop perspectives of time and place, and explain the interaction between the Europeans, the indigenous peoples and Africans. What motives prompted nations to explore and settle the New World? What were the consequences of the interactions of different cultures? (European, indigenous American, and African cultures) USI.B America and the British Empire, A. Chesapeake country B. Growth of New England C. Restoration colonies D. Mercantilism; the Dominion of New England E. Origins of slavery H2. Identify multiple ways to express time relationships and dates. Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents or records and data to increase understanding the economic and social differences of the New England, Middle Atlantic and Southern colonies. GES13. Define/ correctly use : mercantilism H8. Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present-day norms and values. How does geographic and regional differences affect the development of new colonies? (British North America) Why do some societies enslave others?
2 USI.C Colonial Society in the Mid-Eighteenth Century A. Social structure 1. Family 2. Farm and town life; the economy B. Culture 1. Great Awakening 2. The American mind 3. Folkways C. New immigrants H2. Identify multiple ways to express time relationships and dates. Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents or records and data to increase understanding of the development of social structures and culture in the American colonies. H8. Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present-day norms and values. Formulate historical questions regarding the development of a colonial culture and defend findings based on inquiry and interpretation. How does colonization influence the development of social structure and culture? How is existing traditional culture modified by new environments?
3 Unit: The Political and Intellectual Origins of the American Nation: the Revolution and the Constitution, Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.1 Explain the political and economic factors that contributed to the American Revolution. A. the impact on the colonies of the French and Indian War, including how the war led to an overhaul of British imperial policy from 1763 to 1775 B. how freedom from European feudalism and aristocracy and the widespread ownership of property fostered individualism and contributed to the Revolution H3. Interpret and construct timelines that show how events are related to one another. (Causes of the American Revolution) H5. Explain how a cause and effect relationship is different from a sequence or correlation of events. H6. Distinguish between long-term and short-term cause and effect relationships. H9. Distinguish intended from unintended consequences. What was the relationship between British imperialist policies and the colonial resistance? Why do citizens revolt against their government? USI.4 Analyze how Americans resisted British policies before 1775 Colonial resistance to British policies Sons of Liberty Boycotts of British goods Stamp Act Congress No taxation without representation committees of correspondence Boston Tea Party First Continental Congress agrees to prepare for defense of the colonies Lexington and Concord Second Continental Congress Paine s Common Sense Declaration of Independence H10. Distinguish historical fact from opinion. GES14. Explain how people or communities examine and weigh the benefits of each alternative when making a choice and that opportunity costs are those benefits that are given up once one alternative is chosen.
4 USI.2 Explain the historical and intellectual influences on the American Revolution and the formation and framework of the American government. Intellectual and historical influence on colonial individualism, growing independence, and democratic ideas legacy of Greece and Rome Enlightenment ideas (Locke, social contract ) Mayflower Compact USI.3 Explain the influence and ideas of the Declaration of Independence and the political philosophy of Thomas Jefferson. The major ideas contained in the Declaration of Independence natural rights grievances right to abolish government independence MTLSE G9-12 Standard 3: Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation. CG12. Define and use correctly the following words and terms: Magna Carta, parliament, habeas corpus, monarchy, and absolutism. Identify, analyze, and interpret primary and secondary source documents or records and data to increase understanding of the philosophy of Thomas Paine and John Locke and their influence on Thomas Jefferson. H7. Show connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and ideas and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. Develop perspectives of time and place, and explain the influence of Thomas Paine and John Locke. Interpret the significance of excerpts from Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence. What historical ideas/ philosophies did Jefferson adapt into the Declaration of Independence? How did the ideas of the ancient Greeks, ancient Romans, and Enlightenment philosophes influence the creation of the American government?
5 USI.4 (Part B) Analyze the reasons for the American victory/ British defeat during the American Revolution. Analyze how America won a war against the larger, professionally trained, well equipped British force guerilla tactics home-field advantage local pool of troops French intervention Patriotism Some luck OPTIONAL: major battles and results and how war changed/ moved over time. USI.5 Explain the role of Massachusetts in the revolution, including important events that took place in Massachusetts and important leaders from Massachusetts. the Boston Massacre the Boston Tea Party Battles of Lexington & Concord / Bunker Hill Sam Adams (Sons of Liberty), John Adams, John Hancock USI.6 Explain the reasons for the adoption of the Articles of Confederation in 1781, including why its drafters created a weak central government; analyze the shortcomings of the national government under the Articles; and describe the crucial events (e.g. Shay s Rebellion) leading to the Constitutional Convention. Reasons for adopting the Articles, weaknesses, positive elements, problems and call for Constitutional Convention H5. Explain how a cause and effect relationship is different from a sequence or correlation of events. Identify, analyze, and interpret the Articles of Confederation. H9. Distinguish intended from unintended consequences. H7. Show connections, causal and otherwise, between particular historical events and ideas and larger social, economic, and political trends and developments. Why are weaker powers sometimes able to defeat the stronger nation? What role did Massachusetts play in the American Revolution? What were the successes and failures of the Articles of Confederation? Why did the Articles of Confederation not create a lasting government? What are benefits of a constitutional government?
6 USI.7 Explain the roles of various founders at the Constitutional Convention. Describe the major debates that occurred at the Convention and the compromises that were made. Major debates: the distribution of political power the rights of individuals the rights of states slavery USI.8 Describe the debate over ratification of the Constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists and explain the key ideas contained in the Federalist Papers on federalism, factions, checks and balances, and the importance of an independent judiciary. USI.9 Explain the reasons for the passage of the Bill of Rights. USI.10 On a map of North America, identify the first 13 states to ratify the Constitution. H8. Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present-day norms and values. H11. Using historical maps How was the concept of political compromise important to the creation of a lasting and effective democratic government in America? What was the original goal of the Philadelphia Convention 1787? What was the philosophical background the Constitution was based on? (Locke, Montesquieu, Rousseau)? What were the major debates and compromises of the Constitutional Convention? How does federalism balance the interests of the individual and common good? What were the arguments over ratification (Federalists vs. Anti-federalists) What concessions were made to the Anti-Federalists? (Bill of Rights) Why was the Bill of Rights added to the Constitution?
7 Unit: The Formation and Framework of American Democracy Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.11 Describe the purpose and functions of government. How does our Constitution enable resolutions to modern issues? Why do groups of people form governments? USI.12 Explain and provide examples of different forms of government, including democracy, monarchy, oligarchy, theocracy, and autocracy. The different forms of government USI.13 Explain why the United States government is classified as a democratic government. Characteristics of a democratic government. USI.14 Explain the characteristics of American democracy, including the concepts of popular sovereignty and constitutional government, which includes representative institutions, federalism, separation of powers, shared powers, checks and balances, and individual rights. Characteristics of American democracy USI.15 Explain the varying roles and responsibilities of federal, state and local governments in the United States. USI.16 Describe the evolution of the role of the federal government, including public services, taxation, economic policy, and common defense. Evolution of the role of the federal government USES25. Explain the basic economic functions of the government in the economy of the United States. USES26. Examine the development of the banking system in the United States, and describe the organization and functions of the Federal Reserve System. USES28. Analyze how federal tax and spending policies affect the national budget and the national debt. How does the rule of law and limited government protect individual rights? What are the major forms of government? Why is the United States considered a republic? How does America s system of democracy work? What are the six principles of a Constitutional government? (Check and Balances, Federalism, Republicanism, Limited Government, Popular Sovereignty, Separation of Powers) Why do we have three different levels of government? How involved should the government be in the economy?
8 USI.17 Explain the major components of Massachusetts state government, including the roles and functions of the governor, state legislature, and other constitutional officers. Structure of Massachusetts state government USI.18 Explain the major components of local government in Massachusetts, including the roles and functions of school committees, town meetings, board of selectmen, mayors, and city councils. Structure of local governments in Massachusetts USI.19 Explain the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and describe how a democracy provides opportunities for citizens to participate in the political process through elections, political parties, and interest groups. Rights/ responsibilities of citizenship and civic participation USI.20 Explain the evolution and function of political parties, including their role in federal, state and local elections (goes with USI.22) Development of political parties USI. Describe how decisions are made in a democracy, including the role of legislatures, courts, executives, and the public. How does the government of Massachusetts function compared to the US government? What rights and responsibilities do you have as a citizen? Why do political parties form? Why do factions develop? How do democratic governments make decisions?
9 Unit: Political Democratization, Westward Expansion, and Diplomatic Developments, Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.22 Summarize the major policies and political developments that took place during the presidencies of George Washington ( ), John Adams ( ), and Thomas Jefferson ( ) Washington precedents Hamilton vs. Jefferson and formation of first two-party system Farewell Address Adams XYZ Affair Alien & Sedition Acts/ Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions Jefferson Louisiana Purchase loose construction Embargo 1807 USI.22A (Additional Topic) Importance of the War of 1812 Causes: British impressment British arming Native Americans War Hawks Events: invasion of Canada Naval Battles Burning of Washington DC Battle of New Orleans Consequences: Treaty of Ghent Post-War Nationalism Self-Reliance Sectionalism MTLSE G9-12 Standard 3: Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation. USES26. Examine the development of the banking system in the United States. Opportunity cost and trade-offs H11. Using historical maps (Locate and label key events of the War of 1812.) What contributions and precedents did Washington, Adams, and Jefferson make during their presidencies? Why is the War of 1812 considered the Second War of American Independence?
10 USI.22B (Additional Topic) A period of nationalism following the War of 1812 which includes USI.25 and USI.27. USI.23 Analyze the rising levels of political participation and the expansion of suffrage in antebellum America. Rise of the common man and the growth of democracy. USI.24 Describe the election of 1828, the importance of Jacksonian democracy, and Jackson s actions as President. Jacksonian democracy the spoils system/kitchen cabinet Jackson s veto of National Bank/pet banks Jackson s support of Indian Removal Tariff issue/nullification Understanding the connection between events and economic & social factors USES27. Identify and describe laws and regulations adopted in the United States to promote economic competition. H4. Interpret and construct graphs that show quantitative information. GES15. Explain how financial markets, such as the stock market, channel funds from savers to investors. GES16. Define and use correctly gross domestic product, economic growth, recession, depression, unemployment, inflation, and deflation. GES. Identify the causes of inflation and explain who benefits from inflation and who suffers from inflation. How did post-war nationalism strengthen the United States? How did the actions of the three branches of government promote nationalism in the 1800s? How does the expansion of voting rights change the nature modern political campaigns? How did the expansion of universal white manhood suffrage change the way American government worked? Why did levels of political participation rise during the Jacksonian era? Why was Jackson considered the president of the common man? Is this an accurate judgment? Why was Jackson opposed to the bank? Why did Jackson remove Native Americans from the south? What was the controversy and result of the election of 1824? Why did levels of political participation rise during the Jacksonian era? Was Jackson a representative of the Common Man? Compare and contrast Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracy.
11 USI.25 Trace the influence and ideas of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court John Marshall and the importance of the doctrine of judicial review. Judicial federalism under John Marshall: Marbury v. Madison McCulloch v. Maryland Gibbons v. Ogden Dartmouth College v. Woodward USI.26 Describe the causes, course, and consequences of America s westward expansion and its growing diplomatic assertiveness. Use a map of North America to trace America s expansion to the Civil War, including the location of the Santa Fe and Oregon Trails. American Expansion to the Pacific the purchase of Florida (1819) the Cherokees Trail of Tears the annexation of Texas (1845) Manifest Destiny Election of or Fight Oregon Territory (1846) Mexican Cession California Gold Rush Gadsden Purchase (1853) USES27. Identify and describe laws and regulations adopted in the United States to promote economic competition. How did the decisions of the Marshall Court empower the Judicial Branch, as well as strengthen federal power? Why is an independent judiciary important? How was America able to establish her current contiguous border by 1853? Was Manifest Destiny an effective policy? Was it the right policy? Does might make right? What is Manifest Destiny? What is American Exceptionalism? Why do people migrate? What were the obstacles to expansion? What were problems caused by expansion? How did America benefit from expansion?
12 Unit: Divergent Economic Growth in the North and South between Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.27 Explain the importance of the Transportation Revolution of the 19 th century, including the stimulus it provided to the growth of the market economy. Improvements in transportation stimulate the domestic economy canals (Erie) roads (national) and turnpikes bridges railroads steamboats (Clermont) USI.28 Explain the emergence and impact of the textile industry in New England and industrial growth generally throughout antebellum America. The technological improvements and inventions that contributed to industrial growth The causes and impact of the wave of immigration from Northern Europe in the 1840s and 1850s The rise of a business class of merchants and manufacturers The roles of women in New England textile factories USI.29 Describe the rapid growth of slavery in the South after 1800 and analyze slave life and resistance on plantations and farms across the South, as well as the impact of the cotton gin on the economics of slavery and Southern agriculture. Explain how economic growth was tied to western expansion across the continent Understanding the development of different economic & social systems through history Understanding the development of different economic & social systems through history Interpret the past within its own historical context rather than in terms of present day norms and values How did internal improvements help develop the growth of trade between the North and West? Why is efficient transportation important to the development of the economy? How did New England s geographic features affect the development of its economy? Why did Southerners become increasingly defensive and protective of slavery in the mid 1800s? USI.35 Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early 19 th century. USI.36A Missouri Compromise Map Identify the various features of the Missouri Compromise How does the debate over Missouri show the growing sectional tension brought about over the issue of slavery? How did the growing difference between the North and South lead to the growing importance of sectional politics?
13 Unit: Social, Political, and Religious Change, Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.32 Describe important religious trends that antebellum Ashaped merica (and the influence they had on social reform and political change) Re-emergence of religion the Second Great Awakening personal salvation increase in Protestant denominations - increasing Protestant nativism in the wake of the increase in Catholic immigration MTLSE G9-12 Standard 2. Demonstrate the responsible use of technology and an understanding of ethics and safety issues in using electronic media at home, in school, and in society. MTLSE G9-12 Standard 3: Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation. How did the Second Great Awakening provide the impetus for social change in America?
14 USI.34 Analyze the emergence of the Transcendentalist movement through the writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau. USI.30 Summarize the growth of the American education system and the role Horace Mann played in the expansion of free compulsory public education in the Northern states. USI.33 Analyze the goals and effect of the antebellum women s suffrage movement. the 1848 Seneca Falls convention Susan B. Anthony Margaret Fuller Lucretia Mott Elizabeth Cady Stanton USI.33A (Additional Topic) Discuss the goals and effects of the antebellum temperance movement. USI.31 Describe the formation of the abolitionist movement, the roles of various abolitionists, and the response of southerners and northerners to abolitionism. The Abolition Movement Frederick Douglass William Lloyd Garrison Sojourner Truth Harriet Tubman Theodore Weld MTLSE G9-12 Standard 3: Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation. What influence (if any) did the Transcendentalist movement have on the era of reform in the 1840s? Why were free tax-supported public schools vital to the nation s future? What significant accomplishments were made by the women s rights movement? What role did the abolitionist movement play in the events leading up to the Civil War?
15 Unit: The Civil War and Reconstruction, Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USI.35 Describe how the different economies and cultures of the North and South contributed to the growing importance of sectional politics in the early 19 th century. Understanding the development of different economic & social systems through history. Could the Civil War have been avoided? Why did civil war break out between North and South? USI.36 Summarize the critical developments leading to the Civil War the Missouri Compromise (see USI.29) the South Carolina Nullification crisis (see USI.24) the Wilmot Proviso the Compromise of 1850 Harriet Beecher Stowe s Uncle Tom s Cabin The Kansas-Nebraska Act (1854) Bleeding Kansas the Dred Scott decision Lincoln-Douglas debates John Brown s raid on Harper s Ferry The election of Abraham Lincoln USI.37 On a map of North America, identify Union and Confederate states at the outbreak of the war. USI.37A (Addition) Analyze the strengths of the North and South as they prepared for war in USI.38 Analyze Abraham Lincoln s presidency, the Emancipation Proclamation, his views on slavery, and the political obstacles he encountered. Lincoln s handling of the Civil War. Understanding cause and effect Correctly label states of the Union and Confederacy on a map MTLSE G9-12 Standard 3: Demonstrate the ability to use technology for research, critical thinking, problem solving, decision making, communication, collaboration, creativity, and innovation. Do differences always lead to conflict? Which side would you expect to win the war based on the pre-war conditions? Did Lincoln effectively handle the different aspects of the Civil War?
16 USI.39 Analyze the roles and policies of various Civil War leaders and describe the important Civil War battles and events. Battles/Events/Leaders Jefferson Davis Ulysses S. Grant Robert E. Lee The Massachusetts 54 th Regiment Antietam Vicksburg March to the Sea Gettysburg USI.40 Provide examples of the various effects of the Civil War. physical and economic destruction the greatest loss of life on a per capita basis of any US war before or since (compare to AR and WWI) the increased role of the federal government USI.41 Explain the policies and consequences of Reconstruction. Presidential vs. Congressional Reconstruction The impeachment of President Johnson The passage of the 13 th, 14 th and 15 th Amendments The opposition of Southern whites to Reconstruction The accomplishments and failures of Radical Reconstruction The presidential election of 1876 and the Compromise of 1877 The rise of Jim Crow laws and Plessy v. Ferguson What were the significant events of the Civil War? How did the Civil War affect America? Was Reconstruction successful in improving the condition of the free blacks and reuniting the North and South? How did the Civil War change America?
17 Unit: Industrial America and Its Emerging Role in International Affairs, Learning Standards / Essential Knowledge Concepts and Skills Essential Questions USII.1 Explain the various causes of the Industrial Revolution. (H, E) A. the economic impetus provided by the Civil War B. important technological and scientific advances C. the role of business leaders, entrepreneurs, and inventors such as Alexander Graham Bell, Andrew Carnegie, Thomas Edison, J.P. Morgan, John D. Rockefeller, and Cornelius Vanderbilt USII.2 Explain the important consequences of the Industrial Revolution. A. the growth of big business B. environmental impact C. the expansion of cities GES18. Explain how competition among sellers lowers costs and prices, and encourages producers to produce more. GES20. Describe how the earnings of workers are affected by the market value of the product produced and worker skills. What ideologies and practices fueled America s expansion into new frontiers? What conditions promote technological advancement? How did America s geography and natural resources affect the growth of frontiers and promote capitalism? (Strand 2 Geography, Learning Standard 8: Places and Regions of the World) How does technology affect people s lives? What are the environmental effects of industrialization? What are the costs and benefits of large corporations? How did industrialization and westward expansion influence America s social character? How did the federal government respond to problems associated with the growing economy and the west? USII.3 Describe the causes of the immigration of Southern and Eastern Europeans, Chinese, Koreans, and Japanese to America in the late 19 th and early 20 th centuries, and describe the major roles of these immigrants in the industrialization of America. (H) Why do people migrate? What are the push and pull factors of immigration? How does immigration impact the job market? How and why does government regulate immigration policy? Should immigrants or other minority groups be forced to assimilate into American society?
18 USII.4 Analyze the causes of the continuing westward expansion of the American people after the Civil War and the impact of this migration on the Indians. (H) Explain how legislation can have intended and unintended consequences.