1 HPISD CURRICULUM (SOCIAL STUDIES, GRADE 8) EST. NUMBER OF DAYS: 25 DAYS (UNIT 2A: 5 DAYS, UNIT 2B: 10 DAYS, UNIT 2C: 10 DAYS) UNIT NAME Unit Overview Generalizations/Enduring Understandings UNIT 2A: STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM: COLONIAL RIVALRIES UNIT 2B: STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM: CAUSES OF THE REVOLUTION UNIT 2C: STRUGGLE FOR FREEDOM: AMERICAN REVOLUTION Unit 2 begins in the 1750s with the French and Indian War and concludes with the Treaty of Paris of 1783 which ends the American Revolution. A: Conflict between the French and British in North America B: The political and economic causes of the American Revolution C: Major events of the American Revolution A: Knowing the sequence of events provides a way to understand and remember things that happened in the past. Geography plays a major role in determining the story of any area. Conflict occurs when groups compete for land and resources. Groups that share similarities form alliances. People fight wars based on their alliances and interests. Critical thinking skills provide the ability to use logic and reasoning in solving problem B: Knowing the sequence of events provides a way to understand and remember things that happened in the past. People have different ideas about how the world should be thus affecting the political, economic, and cultural landscape. Revolutions begin with a desire for independence.
2 Concepts Guiding/Essential Questions Distance hinders control. Civilians rebel when governments fail to recognize their wants and needs. Geography determines the story of an area. Creating and using specific tools of geography like maps and graphs quickly convey specific kinds of information. Critical thinking skills provide the ability to use logic and reasoning in solving problems. C: Knowing the time order of events provides a way to understand and remember things that happened in the past. Exploring the historical forces and significant events and decisions of the past provides guidance for the present and future. Creating and using specific tools of geography like maps and graphs quickly convey necessary information. Critical thinking skills provide the ability to use logic and reasoning in solving problems. Fear of consequences influence actions and decisions. Oppression can lead to rebellion. Advantages do not always determine success. War is not always fought on the battlefield alone. Individuals develop the leadership qualities and skills needed during times of conflict. To the victor belong the spoils. A: Rivalries, conflict, culture, trade, cause and effect B: Trade, cause and effect, beliefs/values, cooperation, conflict C: Conflict, change, cause/effect, cooperation A: In what area of North America did the French and British colonists clash?
3 Learning Targets What were the reasons for the conflict? Who were the allies of each side in the conflict? How was the conflict resolved? What possible results might have occurred if the French had won the war? B: Why did Britain feel the need to tax the colonists after the French and Indian War? What was the main argument the colonists had against British taxation? How did the colonists resist British laws and why was it easy for them to do so? How did the colonies organize themselves against British oppression? What events took place during this period to strengthen the colonists opposition to the British laws? What alternatives to war did the colonists have? Imagine you are a student in Britain today. What might you be taught about the colonists rebellion? C: What factors led colonists to choose one side or the other during the American Revolution? How did the Declaration of Independence justify the break from Britain? How did foreign countries contribute to the war effort? Which of the battles proved to have a lasting impact on the tide of war? What was life like during the war, both on and off the battlefield? How did geography play a role in the outcome of the war? How did the American Revolution influence America and the rest of the world? What were the major terms of the Treaty of Paris of 1783? What are possible outcomes had the colonists not won the war? Learning Progression (***Decision Performance Levels Prerequisite: The student can match significant Point) Identify individuals Decision Point-Gallery Walk
4 individuals of the Revolutionary era and their actions. Learning Target 1: The student examines significant individuals of the Revolutionary era. Prerequisite: The student can explain the causes of the American Revolution. Learning Target 2: The student can analyze significant political and economic issues that caused the American Revolution. Prerequisite: The student will recognize from a list colonial grievances included in the List, chronologically, actions of the British, politically and economically, towards the colonists (acts, taxes, etc.) and describe how the colonists reacted to these actions (protest groups, Boston Tea Party) Decision Point 1 Identify significant individuals of the pre-revolutionary period Decision Point 2 Conclude the reasons for the formation of the First and Second Continental Congresses and justify the actions they took to reconcile with the British government Decision Point 3 List the 7 principles of American beliefs represented in the Declaration of Independence.
5 Formative Assessments Declaration of Independence. Learning Target 3: The student can analyze American principles and beliefs reflected in the Declaration of Independence. Prerequisite: The student can show the importance of individual participation in a democratic society. Learning Target 4: The student measures the importance of individual participation, expression of different points of view and the effective leadership in a constitutional republic. Learning Target 1 Learning Target 2 Examine the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence. Determine which grievances address the British violations of the principles of Americans Decision Point 1 Modern day, real-world comparison Decision Point 2 Define vocabulary relating to constitutional republic Identify examples of how individuals can participate in a republic Decision Point 1 Compare and contrast different points of view of Revolutionary era figures Examine characteristics of the effective leaders during the Revolutionary period Decision Point 2 - Gallery Walk individuals are posted around the room and students have to fill in characteristics of each - Timeline students place
6 Learning Target 3 Learning Target 4 correct event on a timeline (DP 1) - 5 Questions for learning individuals, students have to ask questions of other students to figure out which character they are (DP 2) - Quick write students write for 2-3 minutes on why the Continental Congresses were formed and what actions they took (DP 3) - Odd one out students pick from a list of principles in the Declaration to see which one does not belong (DP 1) - I have, who has students match the grievance listed in the Declaration with the principle grievances and principles are written on index cards and handed to different students (DP 1) - Transfer and apply transfer violation of Colonial rights by British and how they were handled to what might happen in today s world (DP 2) - FRAYER model on a piece of
7 Summative Assessments TEKS (Grade Level) / Specifications TEKS (1) History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through The student is expected to: paper, draw lines to make 4 squares one square is titled Define the Word, Illustration, Examples and Sentence. The student does 4 squares for each vocabulary word (DP 1) - Pair Share share with your neighbor ways that people participate in a republic make a list of what the pairs came up with on board (DP 1) - One minute paper students combine vocab and participation by writing a paragraph about citizen participation and including words from the vocab list (DP 2) - Role playing assign students a person and they have to present their viewpoint of the revolution (DP 2) Specifications
8 RED = Readiness Standards GREEN = Supporting Standards BLUE = Process Standards Italics = Standards Not Tested (A) identify the major eras and events in U.S. history through 1877, including colonization, revolution, drafting of the Declaration of Independence, creation and ratification of the Constitution, religious revivals, including the Second Great Awakening, early republic, the Age of Jackson, westward expansion, reform movements, sectionalism, Civil War, and Reconstruction, and describe their defining characteristics causes and effects; (B) apply absolute and relative chronology through the sequencing of significant individuals, events, and time periods; and (C) explain the significance of the following dates: 1607, founding of Jamestown; 1620, arrival of the Pilgrims and signing of the Mayflower Compact; 1776, adoption of the Declaration of Independence; 1787, writing of the U.S. Constitution; 1803, Louisiana Purchase; and , Civil War. Including: Albany Plan of Union, Olive Branch Petition, Sons and Daughters of Liberty, Patriots, Loyalists, Pontiac s War, Washington s Farewell Address Including: , The French and Indian War; Treaty of Paris of 1763; Treaty of Paris of (4) History. The student understands Including: Navigation Acts, Salutary
9 significant political and economic issues of the revolutionary era. The student is expected to: (A) analyze causes of the American Revolution, including the Proclamation of 1763, the Intolerable Acts, the Stamp Act, mercantilism, lack of representation in Parliament, and British economic policies following the French and Indian War; (B) explain the roles played by significant individuals during the American Revolution, including Abigail Adams, John Adams, Wentworth Cheswell, Samuel Adams, Mercy Otis Warren, James Armistead, Benjamin Franklin, Bernardo de Gálvez, Crispus Attucks, King George III, Haym Salomon, Patrick Henry, Thomas Jefferson, the Marquis de Lafayette, Thomas Paine, and George Washington; (C) explain the issues surrounding important events of the American Revolution, including declaring independence; writing the Articles of Confederation; fighting the neglect, and the Boston Massacre Including: William Pitt, General Edward Braddock, John Hancock, Richard Henry Lee, Paul Revere, William Dawes, George Grenville, John Jay, Benedict Arnold, Nathan Hale, General John Burgoyne, General Charles Cornwallis. Including: Midnight Ride of Paul Revere, Battle of Bunker Hill, Battle of Trenton (Crossing the Delaware), Continental Congress
10 battles of Lexington, Concord, Saratoga, and Yorktown; enduring the winter at Valley Forge; and signing the Treaty of Paris of (10) Geography. The student understands the location and characteristics of places and regions of the United States, past and present. The student is expected to: (A) locate places and regions of importance in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. (11) Geography. The student understands the physical characteristics of North America and how humans adapted to and modified the environment through the mid- 19th century. The student is expected to: (A) analyze how physical characteristics of the environment influenced population distribution, settlement patterns, and economic activities in the United States during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries; (B) describe the positive and negative consequences of human Including: Quebec, Canada; Ohio River Valley; Fort Duquesne; Fort Necessity; Boston, Massachusetts; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; Valley Forge, Pennsylvania; Saratoga, New York; Yorktown, Virginia; Charleston, South Carolina; Trenton, NJ; Appalachian Mountains (Proclamation Line) Including: Appalachian Mountains, Northwest Territory
11 modification of the physical environment of the United States. (12) Economics. The student understands why various sections of the United States developed different patterns of economic activity. The student is expected to: (A) identify economic differences among different regions of the United States; (B) explain reasons for the development of the plantation system, the transatlantic slave trade, and the spread of slavery; and (D) analyze the causes and effects of economic differences among different regions of the United States at selected times in U.S. history. (15) Government. The student understands the American beliefs and principles reflected in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution, and other important historic documents. The student is expected to: (C) identify colonial grievances listed in the Declaration of Including: The Declaration of Independence Including: No taxation without representation!
12 Independence and explain how those grievances were addressed in the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. (20) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of voluntary individual participation in the democratic process. The student is expected to: (B) evaluate the contributions of the Founding Fathers as models of civic virtue; and (C) analyze reasons for and the impact of selected examples of civil disobedience in U.S. history such as the Boston Tea Party and Henry David Thoreau s refusal to pay a tax. (21) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a constitutional republic. The student is expected to: (C) summarize a historical event in which compromise resulted in a peaceful resolution. (22) Citizenship. The student understands the importance of effective leadership in a constitutional Including: George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Thomas Jefferson. Including: The Treaty of Paris of 1763, The Treaty of Paris of 1783 Including: John Paul Jones, Baron Friedrich Von Steuben
13 Processes and Skills republic. The student is expected to: (B) describe the contributions of significant political, social, and military leaders of the United States such as Frederick Douglass, John Paul Jones, James Monroe, Stonewall Jackson, Susan B. Anthony, and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. (23) Culture. The student understands the relationships between and among people from various groups, including racial, ethnic, and religious groups, during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. The student is expected to: (C) identify ways conflicts between people from various racial, ethnic, and religious groups were resolved; (D) analyze the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to our national identity; and (E) identify the political, social, and economic contributions of women to American society. (29) Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information Including: Alliances between the American Indians and the colonists (Iroquois Confederacy) Including: Abigail Adams, Deborah Sampson, Molly Pitcher, Phillis Wheatley
14 acquired through established research methodologies from a variety of valid sources, including electronic technology. The student is expected to: (B) analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions; (E) support a point of view on a social studies issue or event; (F) identify bias in written, oral, and visual material. (30) Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to: (A) use social studies terminology correctly; (C) transfer information from one medium to another, including written to visual and statistical to written or visual, using computer Including: Loyalist, Patriot, Neutral Including: Engraving of Boston Massacre by Paul Revere, writings of Thomas Paine (Common Sense, American Crisis)
15 Topics software as appropriate; and (D) create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies Including: Unit 2 culminating project. information (31) Social studies skills. The student uses problem-solving and decisionmaking skills, working independently and with others, in a variety of settings. The student is expected to: (B) use a decision-making process to identify a situation that requires a decision, gather information, identify options, predict consequences, and take action to implement a decision. A: Role of Native Americans in the French and Indian War Roles of significant individuals Battles of the French and Indian War Native and colonial conflicts Resolution of conflict B: Taxation of the colonies by the British Various colonial and British individuals/groups Events leading to the Revolution C: Major battles of the American Revolution Advantages and disadvantages of the Americans and the British
16 Language of Instruction State Assessment Connections National Assessment Connections Resources Contributions of women Second Continental Congress Declaration of Independence Continental Army A: Speculator Militia Alliance B: Propaganda Boycott Nonimportation Repeal C: Mercenary A: Texts The American Republic, pages Adventure Tales of American History, pages 115 Videos French and Indian War The War That Made America (PBS Video) teaching guide available on pbs.org Last of the Mohicans
17 Websites Pontiac s War French and Indian War French and Indian War tm B: Texts The American Republic, pages Adventure Tales of America, pages Videos April Morning (HPMS Library) School House Rock Shot Heard Round the World Johnny Tremain (Disney, HPMS Library) John Adams (HBO,HPMS Library) The American Revolution Series (History Channel) Founding Fathers Series (History Channel, HPMS Library) Liberty! The American Revolution (PBS, HPMS Library) teaching guide available on pbs.org Websites The History Place (American Revolution)
18 Founding Father s biography page C: Texts The American Republic, pages Adventure Tales of America, pages We the People (supplemental text) Videos 1776 (HPMS Library) Liberty! The American Revolution (PBS, HPMS Library) The Crossing (A&E) John Adams (HBO, HPMS Library) The American Revolution Series (History Channel) Webquest The American Revolution: A Webquest -- Websites - The American Revolution -- National Archives site on historical documents History Place (American Revolution) Declaration of Independence Gilder Lehrman American Revolution Module National Archives Charters of Freedom: A New World at Hand
19 Colonial Hall s Biographies of the signers of the Declaration--