1 Unit Plan: HIST 201 Unit # 2: The American Revolution 10 Instructional Days Unit Overview Big Idea: The American Revolution occurred because the American colonists, who had long been developing a strong sense of autonomy and self-government, furiously resisted British attempts to impose tighter imperial controls and higher taxes after the end of the French and Indian War in The sustained conflict over political authority and taxation, enhanced by American agitators and British bungling, gradually moved Americans from asserting rights within the British Empire to openly warring with the mother country. When hostilities began in 1775, the colonists were still fighting for their rights as British citizens within the empire, but in 1776 they declared their independence, based on a proclamation of universal, self-evident truths. Inspired by revolutionary idealism, they also fought for an end to monarchy and the establishment of a free republic. Unit Goals: A. Evaluate a historical source for point of view and historical context B. Gather and analyze historical information, including contradictory data, from a variety of primary and secondary sources, including sources located on the Internet, to support or reject hypotheses C. Construct and defend a written historical argument using relevant primary and secondary sources as evidence D. Differentiate between facts and historical interpretations, recognizing that a historian s narrative reflects his or her judgment about the significance of particular facts E. Investigate causes and effects of significant events in United States history. Topics to include but not limited to WWI, Great Depression, Cold War F. Analyze continuity and change in eras over the course of United States history G. Investigate causes and effects of significant events in United States history. Analyze the complexity of events in United States history. H. Examine and evaluate issues of unity and diversity from Reconstruction to present. Enduring Understanding Connections The American War of Independence was a military conflict fought from 1775 to 1783, but the American Revolution was a deeper transformation of thought and loyalty that began when the first settlers arrived in America and finally led the colonies political separation from Britain. One source of long-term conflict was the tension between the considerable freedom and self-government the colonists enjoyed in the American wilderness and their participation in the British Empire s mercantile system. While British mercantilism actually provided economic benefits to the colonies along with certain liabilities, its limits on freedom and patronizing goal of keeping America in a state of perpetual economic adolescence stirred growing resentment. The short-term movement toward the War of Independence began with British attempts to impose higher taxes and tighter imperial controls after the French and Indian War. To the British these were reasonable measure, under which the colonists would simply bear a fair share of the costs of the empire. To the colonists, however, the measures constituted attacks on fundamental rights. Through well-orchestrated agitation and boycotts, the colonists forced repeal of acts, except for the symbolic tax on tea. A temporary lull in conflict between 1770 and 1773 ended with the Boston Tea Party, conducted by a network of Boston agitators reacting to the Massachusetts governor s attempt to enforce the law. In response to the Tea Party, the British
2 imposed a set of harsh acts. This aroused ferocious American resistance throughout the colonies, and led directly to the calling of the First Continental Congress and the clash of arms at Lexington and Concord. Even after Lexington and Concord, the Second Continental Congress did not at first pursue independence. The Congress s most important action was selecting George Washington as military commander. After further armed clashes, George III formally proclaimed the colonists in rebellion and Thomas Paine s Common Sense finally persuaded Americans to fight for independence as well as liberty. Paine and other leaders promoted the Revolution as an opportunity for self-government by the people, though more conservative republicans wanted to retain political hierarchy without monarchy. Jefferson s Declaration of Independence deepened the meaning of the struggle by proclaiming its foundation in self-evident and universal human rights. The committed Patriots, only a minority of the American population, had to fight both Loyalist Americans and the British. Loyalists were strongest among conservatives, city-dwellers, and Anglicans (except in Virginia), while Patriots were strongest in New England and among Presbyterians and Congressionalist. In the first phase of the war, Washington stalemated the British, who botched their plan to quash the rebellion quickly at Saratoga. When the French and others then aided the Americans, the Revolutionary War became a world war. American fortunes fell badly in , but the colonial army in the South held on until Cornwallis stumbled into a French-American trap at Yorktown. Lord North s ministry collapsed in Britain, and American negotiators achieved an extremely generous settlement from the Whigs. Course Enduring Understandings A. The development of the United States has been affected in significant ways by its geography. B. The ideals of freedom, equality, democracy, and economic well-being have been powerful motivators throughout our history. C. Political democracy in the U.S. grew from European and colonial roots and evolved, through conflict and compromise, into the system we have today. D. The tensions between liberty and equality, liberty and order, region and nation, individualism and the common welfare, cultural diversity and civic unity have shaped U.S. history. E. The history of the United States is a story of diverse groups struggling to realize the American ideal. These groups have contributed to the American heritage and contemporary society. F. The development of the United States has been shaped dramatically by economic growth. G. Issues in and between other countries dramatically affect the United States and in turn, U. S. policy dramatically affects other countries. Essential Questions A. In what ways has geography shaped the economic, political, and social development of the United States? B. How has our understanding of the meaning of freedom, democracy, and economic well-being changed over time? How and in what ways have these ideals shaped our history? C. To what extent is our government democratic? D. What factors contributed to the development and retardation of political democracy in the United States? E. How have these tensions shaped U.S. history? Where do you stand with regard to these tensions? F. What factors lead to unity? To division? G. In what ways and to what extent have diverse groups shaped American society, economics, politics, and culture? What does it mean to be an American? H. What is the American Dream? Are all groups in the United States able to achieve the American Dream? I. How has economic growth shaped society, politics, and culture in the U.S.?
3 J. What issues drive our relations with other nations? What is America s role in the world in regard to these issues? Chapter 7 Guided Reading Questions 1. What were the deeply rooted historical factors that moved America toward independence from Britain? 2. What is the theory and practice of mercantilism and why did the Americans resent it? 3. Why did Britain attempt tighter control and taxation of Americans after 1763 and why did the Americans resist these efforts? 4. Describe the major British efforts to impose taxes and tighten control of the colonies. 5. What were the methods of colonial resistance that forced repeal of all taxes except the tax on tea? 6. How did sustained agitation and resistance to the tea tax lead to the Intolerable Acts and the outbreak of war? 7. Assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for war. Chapter 8 Guided Reading Questions 1. How did Americans engage in major military hostilities with Britain after April 1775 while proclaiming their loyalty to the British crown? 2. Why did Paine s Common Sense finally propel Americans to declare their independence in the summer of 1776 and how did it outline the principal ideas of republicanism that Paine and other American revolutionary leaders promoted? 3. What were the specific reasons and general principles used in the Declaration of Independence to justify America s separation. 4. Describe the eventual fate of the Loyalists, knowing the American Revolution was a civil war as well as a war with Britain. 5. How was the British attempt to crush the Revolution quickly foiled, especially by the Battle of Saratoga? 6. What were the military and political obstacles Washington and his generals faced, and how were they able to overcome them? 7. Outline the course and conduct of the Revolutionary War after 1778, and describe the key role played by France in the final victory at Yorktown What were the terms of the Treaty of Paris and why was America able to achieve such a stunning diplomatic victory? Unit Learning Goals (tied to Unit Goals) LG 1 Analyze the actions taken by American colonists and the British government that would lead America toward revolution. This should include discussion of The Roots of Revolution: rights of Englishmen, Mercantilism, Navigation Law 165, enumerated products, bartering and currency problems, royal veto, Learning Goal Guiding Questions Documents Was the American Revolution inevitable? Could America have gradually and peacefully developed independence within the British Commonwealth, as Canada later did, rather than engaging in a violent revolution? At what point in time, if any, was violent revolt inevitable? What was the Revolutionary movement at its core really all about? The amount of taxation? The right of Parliament to tax? The political corruption of Britain and
4 British debt, Liberty or Debt, George Grenville, Sugar Act of 1764, Quartering Act of 1765 The Stamp Act: Stamp Act, Grenville s fiscal aggression, Admiralty Courts, Trial by Jury, innocent until proven guilty, no taxation without representation, distinction between legislation and taxation, virtual representation, Stamp Act Congress of 1765, Nonimportation agreements, Consumer boycotts, Sons of Liberty and Daughters of Liberty, Law nullified, Repeal of the Stamp Act, Declaratory Act Tea and the Boston Massacre: Champagne Charlie Townshend, Townshend Acts, indirect customs duty, salary payments for royal governors and judges, suspension of the legislature of New York in 1767, Bloody backs, Boston Massacre 1770, Crispus Attucks, John Adams, King George III, Samuel Adams trained mob, British East India Company 1773 monopoly, Boston Tea Party 1773, Edmund Burke, Boston Port Act or the Intolerable Acts, Quebec Act, 1774, Dangerous Precedent, Continental Congress 1774, not legislative but consultative body-, The Association the virtue of America? The right of a king to govern America? The colonies growing sense of national identity apart from Britain? Habits of Mind: Historical Empathy Describe past events and issues as people experienced them at the time, in order to develop historical empathy. Documents The Sugar Act The Quartering Act The Stamp Act The Declaratory Act The Paul Revere Boston Massacre Engraving The Intolerable Acts Readings: Bedford St. Martin: Black Americans in the Revolutionary Era Taking Sides: Was the Great Awakening Key to the American Revolution The Beginnings of Revolution: Lexington and Concord April 1775, minute men, Hessians, American Loyalists, smoking volcano, English Whig faction Tory wing, Americans wisely trade space for time, George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, Marquis de Lafayette, American Moral Advantage, Articles of Confederation 1781, Continental paper money inflation of currency, military shortages, American militiamen- training of, Baron von Steuben, African American troops, Lord Dunmoree s Ethiopian Regiment, Black Loyalists, select minority of American colonists, Study the chronology on page 139. LG 2 Analyze the events that took place in the American Revolution. This should include discussion of The Americans Start a War: Second Continental Congress, Appointment of General Washington, Ticonderoga and Crown Point, Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold, Battle of Bunker (Breed s) Hill, Olive Branch Petition, Hessians, Invasion of Canada, General Richard Montgomery, Benedict Arnold, Burning of Norfolk, Evacuation of Boston, American Ideology: Paine s Common Sense, Lee s motion on June 4, 1776, Jefferson s Declaration of Independence, natural rights, king s misdeeds, Loyalists vs. Patriots, Tories vs. Whigs, Patrick Henry, Expulsion of the Loyalists (Tories), Washington vs. Burgoyne: Battle of Long Island, What was radical and new in the Declaration of Independence, and what was old and traditional? What did statements like all men are created equal mean in their historical context, and what did they come to mean later? Was military strategy or politics the key to American victory in the war? How did the two coincide? Habits of Mind: Changes and Consequences Understand how things change and how consequences are shaped Documents: The Olive Branch Petition The Declaration of Independence The Treaty of Paris 1783 Readings: Thomas Paine s Common Sense John Locke s Natural Rights Taking Sides: Were the Founding Fathers
5 General William Howe, Battles of Trenton and Princeton, General Burgoyne, Arnold s defense of Lake Champlain, Howe s capture of Philadelphia, Saratoga Democratic Reformers? Diplomacy and a Wider War: Benjamin Franklin, French alliance of 1778, armed neutrality, Comte de Rochambeau, Arnold s treason, Capture of Charleston, General Nathaniel Green, General Cornwallis, Iroquois Confederacy support, George Rogers Clark s idea, John Paul Jones, Privateering, Admiral de Grasse The War s End: Yorktown, John Jay, Gibraltar, Treaty of Paris, 1783 Study the chronology on page 161. Measuring and Tracking Learning Goals Measuring Progress of Learning Goals Tracking Student Progress Daily checks for understanding Weekly averages of Learning Goal objective Daily demonstrators of learning to be completed for each Lesson objective demonstrations of learning Assessing the progress of the Learning Goals Students complete formative assessments during and after the completion of each learning goal. Formative assessment consists of: A Multiple choice formative assessment at the completion of the learning goal Chapter reading and guided reading questions Formative assignments throughout the learning goal Socratic seminars, formative writing assignments, and class discussions on the primary sources and secondary readings associated with the learning goal Measuring and Tracking of Progress towards Unit Goals Measuring the Unit Goals Tracking Student Progress Students complete Formative writing assessments after the completion of each learning goal. Weekly graphing of student progress on learning goal formative writing assessments Measuring Progress to Unit Goals: Students score proficient or advanced on 80% of learning goal formative assessments Students score proficient or advanced on 80% of learning goal formative writing assignments Students score proficient or advanced on 100% of take home practice Measuring and Tracking Unit Goals Measuring the Unit Goal Tracking Student Progress Document Based Question Assessment Weekly graphing of student progress on learning goal Summative Writing Assessment formative assessments Formative Writing Assessment Historical Interview Summative Assessment Measuring Progress to Unit Goal: Students score proficient or advanced on 80% of learning goal formative assessments Students score proficient or advanced on 80% of formative assignments
6 LG1 LG2 Standard Multiple Choice Formative Assessment Learning Goal Formative Assessments Standard Multiple Choice Formative Assessment DBQ Essay: How Revolutionary Was the American Revolution? Blog Post #1 Blog Post #2 Blog Post Reflection Questions Blog Site: What was the Revolutionary movement at its core really all about? The amount of taxation? The right of Parliament to tax? The political corruption of Britain and the virtue of America? The right of a king to govern America? The colonies growing sense of national identity apart from Britain? What has the Revolution meant to later generations of Americans, including our own? Do we still think of the United States as a revolutionary nation? Why or why not? Unit Learning Goal Lesson Objectives Learning Goal Lesson Objectives LG 1 LO 1A SWBAT explain the deeply rooted historical factors that moved America toward Independence from Britain LO 1B SWBAT describe the theory and practice of mercantilism and explain why Americans resented it LO 1C SWBAT explain why Britain attempted tighter control and taxation of Americans after 1763 and why Americans resisted these efforts LO 1D SWBAT describe the major British efforts to impose taxes and tighten control of the colonies LO 1E SWBAT describe the methods of colonial resistance that forced repeal of all taxes except the tax on tea LO 1F SWBAT explain how sustained agitation and resistance to the tea tax led to the Intolerable Acts and the outbreak of war LO 1G SWBAT assess the balance of forces between the British and the American rebels as the two sides prepared for war LG 2 LO 2A SWBAT describe how Americans engaged in major military hostilities with Britain after April 1775, even while proclaiming their loyalty to the British Crown LO 2B SWBAT explain why Paine s Common Sense finally propelled Americans to declare their independence in the summer of 1776, and outline the principal ideas of republicanism that Paine and other American revolutionary leaders promoted LO 2C SWBAT explain the specific reasons and general principles used in the Declaration of Independence to justify America s separation Lo 2D SWBAT understand the American Revolution as a civil war as well as a war with Britain, and describe the motivations and eventual fate of the loyalists LO 2E SWBAT describe how the British attempt to crush revolution quickly was foiled, especially by the battle of Saratoga Lo 2F SWBAT describe the military and political obstacles Washington and his generals faced, and how they were able to overcome them LO 2G SWBAT outline the course and conduct of the Revolutionary War after 1778, and describe the key role played by France in the final victory of Yorktown LO 2H SWBAT describe the terms of the Treaty of Paris and explain why America was able to achieve such a stunning diplomatic victory
7 Instructional Calendar August 26 Notes September 2 Notes August 27 The Acts September 3 Common Sense and the Declaration of Independence August 28 The Boston Massacre September 4 The Revolutionary War Battles August 29 John Adams September 5 Trenton, Princeton and Yorktown DBQ Essay August 30 John Adams Lexington and Concord September 6 DBQ Essay Assignments Due Dates Chapter 7 Guided Questions August 26 Chapter 8 Guided Questions September 2 Blog Post #1 August 30 Blog Post #2 September 6 Chapter 7 Formative Assessment August 30 Chapter 8 Formative Assessment September 6 DBQ Essay: How Revolutionary September 6 Was the American Revolution?