1 Notes: LG: Analyze how the 1960s changed America.
7 USSR Nikita Khrushchev
11 1. Cold War Abroad in the 1960s a. 1961, Bay of Pigs Invasion (Cuba) i. President Eisenhower and CIA train Cuban exiles in FLA to invade Cuba. ii. JFK continues w/ plan, but is VERY hesitant. iii. Bay of Pigs Invasion FAILS! - JFK pulls US support of invasion at last second. - Huge embarrassment for JFK.
20 What can you do in 3 Minutes? 15 Minutes? Open to pg. 675 Not a Test
23 b. Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 i. 1962, US spy planes discover Cubans building Soviet nuke bases. ii. Kennedy issues a blockade of Cuba and threatens to invade. - World comes to brink of nuclear war. iii. Solution: - US agrees to remove nukes from Turkey (in secret). - Russia removes nukes from Cuba (in public). - Direct telephone line between D.C. and Moscow.
24 c. Space Race of the 1960s i. US and Soviet Union compete to launch rockets and satellites faster and farther into space. ii. US lands on the moon in 1969.
25 d. Berlin Wall is put up overnight, 1961 i. Escalated and highlighted the division between Communism and Democracy in the Cold War; 100 miles long. Berlin Wall
26 e. Vietnam War i. Early 60s, US starts getting more involved in Vietnam. ii. By 1969, 500,000 US soldiers are in Vietnam fighting.
27 Vietnam War Memorial
33 Year is 1945 and the Japanese have been pushed out of Vietnam. What should we do with Vietnam? Choose one and explain why you think that Give them Independence and end French colonialism/ dominance? Support and pay for French war against Communist Vietnamese?
34 2. The Vietnam War in the 1960s *** From , the French try to regain their Indochina colony. i. Vietnam resistance leader, Ho Chi Minh, leads the fight against the French; French surrender in 1954 at Battle of Dien Bien Phu. *** Geneva Accords, 1954: N. & S. Vietnam, plus free elections! *** Does US support Vietnamese independence? Nope lol, Ho Chi Minh looked Communist lolzzzzzzzzzzzzz.
35 2. The Vietnam War in the 1960s a. What led to US fighting the Vietnam War? i. We paid for most of the French fighting in Vietnam from 45 to 54. ii. Domino Theory: One falls to Communism, they all fall. Stop it now! iii. Belief in Democracy and example to allies. iv. Completely underestimated the enemy.
37 b. Vietnam War from 1963 to 1969 i. Vietcong (South Vietnamese Communist guerilla forces allied with N. Vietnamese army) in 1963, revolt against S. Vietnamese President and start a guerilla war in the south against US and S. Vietnam. - S. Vietnamese President is assassinated; US steps in more. ii. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution: US ships attacked in international waters. - Congress gives President unlimited power to stop NV aggression. - President LBJ rapidly escalates Vietnam into full scale total war. iii. Escalation saw 180,000 troops sent 500,000 in Tried bombing Vietnamese into submission; 3x as much as WWII. - NV and Vietcong only grew stronger!
39 iv. Nature of the war - Vietcong Guerillas gave US soldiers MANY PROBLEMS. - Many SV came to support the Vietcong as the war waged.
40 Booby Traps
44 Where is the Enemy?
47 iv. Nature of the war - The environment of Vietnam was tough for US soldiers.
49 How do you defeat an enemy you can t see? Napalm
50 Agent Orange
51 Search and Destroy Missions
52 iv. Nature of the war - Search and Destroy missions did not wear the enemy down, only wore us down.
53 iv. Nature of the war - Americans at home and soldiers are told that our commanders see the light is at the end of the tunnel, but
54 iv. Nature of the war - Americans at home and soldiers are told that our commanders see the light is at the end of the tunnel, but television is telling a different story.
58 v. Tet Offensive, US thought they had broken the will of the Vietcong; WRONG. - On January 30 th, 1968 (Tet), the Vietcong launched a surprise attack on dozens of US bases in the South and took control of many SV cities.
59 Tet Offensive, 1968 continued - Militarily the US & SV beat back the attack and won but it was the beginning of the end of the Vietnam war thanks television - Communists were far from being beaten. - American political and social support for the war dramatically falls.
61 s at Home a. Election of 1960 ushers in the importance of TV in politics; JFK beats Nixon.
62 b. JFK s New Frontier programs tried fix problems at home and overseas. i. Flexible Response, Win the Space Race, the Peace Corps, and Rights for Women & Disabled. ii. JFK is assassinated Nov. 22 nd, 1963; VP LBJ comes to power.
63 c. President Lyndon B. Johnson i. At Home: Declares war on poverty and starts Great Society programs. - Medicare/Medicaid, Federal Aid to Education, Aid to Cities, Appalachian Regional Development Act, Immigration Act of 1965, created PBS, and raised Minimum Wage. ii. Abroad: Rapidly escalated the war in Vietnam. - Sent 500,000 men by 1969, spent $25 Billion a Year. - Hey, hey LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?
64 d. Warren Court of the 1960s (Chief Justice Earl Warren of the Supreme Court) was greatly involved in social change. i. Baker v. Carr gave better govt. representation to urban areas, Gideon v. Wainwright said anyone who needed lawyer and couldn t afford would be given one, and Miranda v. Arizona said police must issue Miranda Rights when arresting someone.
65 e. Hawks, Doves, the Silent Majority and the Anti-War Movement i. The credibility gap emerges: people start distrusting govt. reports. - LBJ says few NV civilians injured during bombings lol nope. - LBJ says we are winning, Tet Offensive & TV show otherwise. ii. The draft becomes extremely unpopular; poor are heavily drafted. - In college? You don t have to go to war - Can t afford college? Here s a vacation in Vietnam.
66 Rich man s war, poor man s fight. CCR Fortunate Son
67 iii. Hawks and the Silent Majority - Hawks believed Communism MUST BE STOPPED in Vietnam. - Silent Majority: those okay/indifferent of the war, but were not noisy about it like those dirty hippies. iv. Doves and the Anti-War Protesters - Obviously against the war, open to questioning things, against conformity, many were students in college, anti-materialism. - A.k.a. Hippies.
68 v. As the years go on in Vietnam, anti-war movement heats-up.
69 4. Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s a. The movement hits its stride and the protests begins to pay off, to some extent at least.
70 Little Rock 9
71 Montgomery Bus Boycott
72 Freedom Riders
73 March on Birmingham
74 March on Washington
75 March on Selma
76 4. Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s a. The movement hits its stride and the protests begins to pay off, to some extent at least. b. Gains in the 60s of the Civil Rights Movement i. Civil Rights Act of 1964: Segregation illegal in most public places and national govt. more power to enforce civil rights. Cut off federal $ to schools with segregated schools. ii. 24 th Amendment: Poll tax can t stop someone from voting. iii. Voting Rights Act of 1965: Poll taxes and literacy tests are illegal. Also, federal inspectors would enforce this. iv. Affirmative Action: Federal law that made businesses hire more female and minority workers.
77 c. Massive gains for Women s Rights too! i. The Feminine Mystique was published, N.O.W. was started, Sexual Revolution opened minds, Birth Control, Title IX, Roe v. Wade, and feminism fought to change popular attitudes towards womens roles.
78 5. The End of the 60s a. The US walks out of the 60s as a very different country than it walked in as in the beginning. i. Civil and Womens Rights movements change perception on race and gender. ii. Vietnam War tears country apart and people lose trust in the govt. - Hippies bring in a new perspective on living in the US. iii. Assasinations: JFK, Bobby Kennedy, Kent. State University shooting, MLK, and Malcolm X. - Civil Rights movement loses unity and vision moving forward.
Chapter 20 The Vietnam War Era 1954-1975 Ho Chi Minh The most important voice who demanded independence for Vietnam. Communist leader of the Vietminh. Vietminh The term initially used to describe all Vietnamese
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