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1 Timeline to Revolution Directions: 1. Cut out the 10 events and paper clip them together for each student group (note: these are currently in the correct order now). 2. Give each student the two timeline pages and have them paste these in their interactive notebooks. 3. Give your students time to sort the events in their groups. 4. Complete the timeline using the events based on these options for differentiation: a. Lower level have students write the event on the line and draw a picture to represent it in the box b. Average level - have students write the event on the line and summarize the event in the box c. Advanced - have students write the event on the line and explain how that event would bring the colonies closer to independence. 5. After students have completed the timeline, have them discuss in their groups which event they think had the biggest impact on America becoming independent and share with the class. Students of History -

2 Salutary neglect Salutary neglect was the British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. Prime Minister Robert Walpole stated that If no restrictions were placed on the colonies, they would flourish. This policy, which began in 1607 after the founding of Jamestown, allowed the colonies to avoid obeying many laws and was lenient on the colonies in enforcing many taxes and laws. Later, the British ended this policy through acts such as the Stamp Act and Sugar Act, causing tensions within the colonies. The Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment is the era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific, and cultural life that took place mostly in Europe in the early 1700 s in which reason was advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values. At its core was the idea of questioning traditional institutions like government and religion, and a strong belief in rationality and science. Enlightenment philosophers like John Locke, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Voltaire had a profound influence on America s founding fathers. Thomas Jefferson, Ben Franklin, and Thomas Paine, for example, all read countless works and were persuaded to push for self-government. The French and Indian War The French and Indian War was fought between Great Britain and France in North America from 1754 to In Canada, it is usually just referred to as the Seven Years' War. The war was fought primarily along the frontiers between the British colonies from Virginia to Nova Scotia, and began with a dispute over the site of present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The outcome was costly for all involved. France's colonial presence was reduced to just a few small islands, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in the eastern half of North America. England, however, had spent so much on the war that it began a period of high taxes on America, that would lead to the Revolution. Proclamation of 1763 The Proclamation of 1763 was issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to help relations with Native Americans by forbidding colonists to move west of the Appalachian Mountains.

3 Sugar Act The Sugar Act was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, The act was meant to defray the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the colonies. The earlier Molasses Act, which had imposed a tax of six pence per gallon of molasses, had never been effectively collected due to colonial evasion. By reducing the rate by half and increasing measures to enforce the tax, the British hoped that the tax would actually be collected. These incidents increased the colonists' concerns about the intent of the British Parliament and helped the growing movement that became the American Revolution. Stamp Act The Stamp Act of 1765 required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, almanacs, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. The act was enacted in order to pay for a portion of the costs of maintaining an army in the territories gained in North America during the French & Indian War. However, colonists protested that a tax laid upon them by a legislature in which they were not represented violated the British constitutional right of no taxation without representation. Colonial resistance to the act led to its repeal on March 18, Boston Massacre The Boston Massacre was an incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops on March 5, A heavy British military presence in Boston led to a tense situation that boiled over into brawls between soldiers and civilians and eventually led to troops discharging their muskets after being attacked by a rioting crowd. Three civilians were killed at the scene of the shooting, eleven were injured, and two died after the incident. The outcry over these deaths helped spark the rebellion in some of the American colonies, which culminated in the American Revolutionary War. Intolerable Acts The Intolerable Acts were a series of five laws passed by the British Parliament in The acts triggered outrage and resistance in the Thirteen Colonies and were important developments in the growth of the American Revolution. The acts were issued in direct response to the Boston Tea Party of December 1773; the British Parliament hoped these measures would make an example of Massachusetts and reduce protests. Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their rights, and in 1774 they organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate a protest. As tensions escalated, the American Revolutionary War broke out the following year. Students of History -

4 Boston Tea Party On December 16, 1773, after officials in Boston refused to return three shiploads of taxed tea to Britain, a group of colonists boarded the ships and destroyed the tea by throwing it into Boston Harbor. The incident remains an iconic event of American history. The Tea Party was the culmination of a resistance movement throughout British America against the Tea Act, which had been passed by the British Parliament in Colonists objected to the Tea Act for a variety of reasons, especially because they believed that it violated their right to be taxed only by their own elected representatives. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4, 1776, which announced that the 13 American colonies then at war with Great Britain were now independent states, and thus no longer a part of the British Empire. Written primarily by Thomas Jefferson, the Declaration is a formal explanation of why Congress had voted on July 2 to declare independence from Great Britain, more than a year after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War. The birthday of the United States of America Independence Day is celebrated on July 4, the day the wording of the Declaration was approved by Congress. Students of History -

5 Timeline Toward The

6 American Revolution

7 Timeline Toward The The Enlightenment Era in Western philosophy and intellectual, scientific, and cultural life that took place mostly in Europe in the early 1700 s in which reason was advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority. This idea of questioning authority and power to the people greatly influenced America s Founding Fathers. The Proclamation of 1763 Forbid colonists to move west of the Appalachian Mountains. This angered many because the land there was open, cheap, and good for farming. _Salutary Neglect_ British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain. This lasted from the early 1600 s up to the French & Indian War and gave the Colonies an early feeling of independence which they would not want to give up. The French & Indian War The War between France & England from 1754 to 1763 would be costly and England would pass on those costs to the Colonies in the form of higher taxes. This greatly angered American Colonists. The Sugar Act The Sugar Act was a revenue-raising act passed by the Parliament of Great Britain on April 5, The act was meant to defray the expenses of defending, protecting, and securing the colonies. However, colonists saw it as yet another example of taxation without representation.

8 American Revolution The Stamp Act The Stamp Act of 1765 required all legal documents, permits, commercial contracts, almanacs, newspapers, wills, pamphlets, and playing cards in the American colonies to carry a tax stamp. Many were upset at this tax because paper goods were so common. _The Boston Tea Party_ December 1773 Colonists angered over another tax pretend to be Native Americans and dump tea into Boston Harbor. The event angered the British and inspired other Americans to join the cause. The Intolerable Acts Passed in 1774, this series of 5 laws caused outrage in the Colonies. Many colonists viewed the acts as an arbitrary violation of their rights, and in 1774 they organized the First Continental Congress to coordinate a protest. The Boston Massacre March incident that led to the deaths of five civilians at the hands of British troops. Caused many Colonists to side with the Patriots and led to great anger at the British. _The Declaration of Independence_ Signed on July 4, 1776 officially declared the Colonies as separated from Great Britain.

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