MIAMI-DADE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Curriculum and Instruction Division of Language Arts/Reading English Language Arts (ELA) Exemplar Lesson

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1 MIAMI-DADE COUNTY PUBLIC SCHOOLS Curriculum and Instruction Division of Language Arts/Reading English Language Arts (ELA) Exemplar Lesson GRADE 11 ELA EXEMPLAR LESSON Teacher Copy Quarter 1, Week 6: 09/24/12 09/28/12 Learning Objectives The goal of this exemplar lesson is to provide students an opportunity to explore targeted passages of complex texts. Students will utilize rich discussions based on text-dependent questions to unravel complex, logical arguments found in skillfully crafted historical documents. Vocabulary is learned from context and written responses foster deeper understanding of text. The lesson culminates in an evidentiary writing activity. Teachers may need to further scaffold activities to address individual students needs depending on the intent of the lesson and specific learners needs. Rationale: This lesson explores a significant public legal document, the Declaration of Independence, written by Thomas Jefferson. By looking at this historical document, both through the writer s position and his ideological influences, students will conduct a close, analytic reading to expose the themes behind the 1775 spirit of rebellion against British rule. Text Title(s): The Declaration of Independence (Thomas Jefferson); excerpt from Second Treatise of Government (John Locke) McDougal Littell Literature, pp Genre/Text Structure: Public documents Primary Source Informational Nonfiction Targeted Text Selection The Declaration of Independence and excerpt from Second Treatise of Government Common Core State Standards (CCSS) RI.11-12; RH.11-12; W.11-12; WHST Lesson Sequence PERFORMANCE TASK /CULMINATING INDEPENDENT WRITING ASSESSMENT: Analyze Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence, identifying its purpose and evaluating rhetorical features such as the listing of grievances. Compare and contrast the themes and argument found there to those of other U.S. documents of historical and literary significance. Analyze Locke s Second Treatise of Government for common themes that inspired Jefferson s writing of the Declaration of Independence. Activity 1: GUIDING QUESTION(S): What argument does Jefferson advance in the Declaration of Independence? What persuasive techniques and rhetorical devices empower Jefferson s argument? What are Jefferson s purposes for listing the despotic acts of the king? 1. The teacher/students will read the opening paragraphs of the Declaration of Independence on pages The targeted section may be read independently, read aloud or played on audio at in its entirety. Rereading is embedded in the text-dependent questions and discussion activities. 2. Students paraphrase lines 1-15 as they engage in thoughtful exchange of ideas. Write a summation about the initial meaning they have made from reading the opening paragraphs. 3. Students will independently read pages as they write their own questions in response journals in preparation for higher order discussions. Activities 2, 3 and 4: GUIDING QUESTION(S): Identify categories of grievances related to the concepts of legislative, judicial, military, and trade and provide textual evidence for each. What objections does Jefferson appear to be anticipating and refuting in the Declaration? What great thinkers and documents of the 1700s influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration? In what way did John Locke s Second Treatise and Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence produce similar results? 1. Returning to the text, the teacher asks students a small set of guiding questions about lines 1 15, lines 59 76, and lines The targeted text should be in front of the students as they engage in their discussions. 2. Graphic organizers (Paraphrasing, Classification Chart, 2-column notes) and written responses (objective summation) serve as a means to organize thoughts for prewriting activities. 3. Students will independently read pages to locate and analyze persuasive techniques (logical, emotional, ethic appeals) and rhetorical devices (rhetorical question, antithesis, repetition, parallelism) used in the Declaration. 4. Use Communication, Information and Media connections at or other online resources to analyze film clips that provide a historical background for Jefferson s public legal document OR use the public domain documents identified in week 7. Activity 5: GUIDING QUESTION(S): Analyze Locke s Second Treatise of Government for common themes that inspired Jefferson s writing of the Declaration of Independence

2 Targeted Text Selection lines 1 15, p. 236 lines 1 15, p. 236 In Congress, July 4, When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature s God entitle them, a decent respect to the 5 opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 7 We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these 10 rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect 15 -their safety and happiness. lines 59 76, p. 239 He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 60 constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation: For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us; For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States; 65 For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world; For imposing taxes on us without our consent; For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury; For transporting us beyond the seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province,7 70 establishing there an arbitrary government, and enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies; For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments; 75 For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. Vocabulary line 6 impel: to drive forward; to force line 8 unalienable: not to be taken away; today the usual form is inalienable. line 9 secure: to protect from harm or danger line 11 consent: approval; agreement; permission line 64 commit: to perpetrate; to carry out; to execute line 70 arbitrary: not fixed by law or reason; capricious line 76 legislate: to make or enact laws; to establish or authorize powers Teacher Activities and Techniques Text-Dependent Questions GUIDING QUESTION: What persuasive techniques and rhetorical questions empower Jefferson s argument? (Q1) Paraphrase lines 1-15 using the graphic organizer. (See student graphic and teacher KEY.) What persuasive techniques and rhetorical questions empower Jefferson s argument? Possible answer. (See KEY for paraphrasing organizer.) Lines 7 15 include parallel clauses beginning with that. The parallelism unifies the parts of the statement, which emphasizes the ideas expressed; parallelism also adds rhythm. Return to the text, and ask students a small set of guiding questions about the document. (Q2) What argument does Jefferson present in lines 1 6 of the Declaration of Independence? Possible answer. Jefferson claims that the colonists owe the world an explanation for their need to sever ties with Great Britain. He says he will list the reasons that force the separation. (Q3) Reread lines Explain the significance of the itemized list of examples in lines What persuasive techniques and rhetorical questions empower Jefferson s argument? Possible answer. The list itemizes legislation of the British Parliament agreed to by the king but opposed by the Colonies. Lines uses logical appeal to list injuries and usurpations under King George. (Q4) What are Jefferson s purposes for listing the despotic acts of the king? Possible answer. Jefferson s purposes are to explain the need for a new government and to gain the sympathy of undecided colonists and nations. (Q5) Reread lines Why might each of these offenses of the king upset the colonists? Possible answer. The colonists cannot govern themselves and make decisions that benefit them if they do not have control of the army or the government. (Q6) Which grievances in this passage are the most insufferable? Possible answer. The army kept on colonial soil without consent (line 55), to taxation without representation (line 66), and to the dissolution of colonial government (lines 73-74)

3 (Q7) Classification Charts are used to organize facts and details about several related ideas. Use the graphic found at (Best Practices Toolkit Classification Chart p. B17) to identify categories of grievances, such as legislative, judicial, military, and trade. Place specific grievances in each category. Possible answer. Military grievance: kept standing army, quartered troops, etc. lines , p They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.10 We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation; and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends. 105 We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved 110 from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And, for the support of this declaration, with 115 a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. line 107 rectitude: morally correct behavior or thinking line 108 publish: to make information available to the public; to announce; to disseminate or distribute (Q8) In lines what objections does Jefferson appear to be anticipating and refuting? Possible answer. Jefferson appears to be anticipating and refuting the claim that the British people were not aware of the intensity of Colonial dissatisfaction. (Q9) What is the purpose of the final paragraph (lines )? Possible answer. The paragraph provides a formal statement of independence. Jefferson eloquently advances the argument that sovereign states have the full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce (lines ) which remains relevant in the 21 st century. (Q10) Identify two or more central ideas of the document. Possible answer. Thomas Jefferson was clearly inspired by the writing of Enlightenment thinkers. For instance, Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote that if a government did not protect its people s freedom, it should not exist. Voltaire also believed that people had a right to liberty. Enlightenment ideals prompted action and gave colonists a philosophical footing for their revolution by questioning basic assumptions about government. Who really has the right to rule? These old and new beliefs are central ideas of the Declaration of Independence

4 Cross Genre Connections OR Across Text or Non- Text Sources: As you view selected video clips found at use the graphic organizer to record evidence of the people and ideas that influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration. Just the Facts: Documents of Destiny: Foundations and the Colonial Era Inspirations for the Declaration Writing the Declaration of Independence Common Sense The Declaration of Independence See the KEY for possible answers. (Q11) Independently reread pages to locate and analyze persuasive techniques (logical, emotional, ethic appeals) and rhetorical devices (rhetorical question, antithesis, repetition, parallelism) used in the Declaration in preparation for the independent summative assessment. Possible answer. Lines 7 15 include parallel clauses beginning with that. The parallelism unifies the parts of the statement, which emphasizes the ideas expressed; parallelism also adds rhythm. Lines includes parallel sentence structure (He has.) to emphasize the overwhelming evidence that exists to support grievances against King George. Lines includes parallel clauses beginning with For to clearly enumerate there is virtually no end to the injuries inflicted on the colonies by an indifferent and tyrannical king. Lines uses logical appeal to list injuries and usurpations under King George. Lines uses emotional appeal through loaded vocabulary works of death, desolation, and tyranny that would likely create anger among the colonists. Lines uses ethical appeal to portray Jefferson as reasonable, moderate, fair, humble, and patient. GUIDING QUESTION(S): What great thinkers and documents of the 1700s influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration? (Q12) What is the fundamental difference between a system based on a God-given right to rule and a system based on democracy? Possible answer. A system that classifies human rights as a matter of reason and abiding truth names Gods as the ultimate source of these sacred rights. In a government by the people, the citizens agree to abide by government laws and rules. In return, the government promises to protect the citizens rights and freedoms. A system based on democracy recognizes a more inclusive precept expanding to apply, for instance, to women and to people of color. (Q13) Analyze Locke s Second Treatise of Government for common themes that inspired Jefferson s writing of The Declaration of Independence. Possible answer. The Enlightenment led European thinkers to question traditional concepts of government by the people. As American colonists adapted Enlightenment ideas, they too questioned traditional authority, causing them to reject British control and move toward democratic government. (Q14) In what way did John Locke s Second Treatise and Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence produce similar results? Possible answer. Both led people to question traditional authority. The words Jefferson wrote show that his thinking was greatly influenced by John Locke. Both men stress the idea that unalienable rights are as natural as they are sacred and note that protection of these rights is the only just purpose of government. Locke discusses the natural rights that all citizens possess and challenges the divine right of kings. Jefferson uses rhetoric that is thoughtful and deliberate, presenting a careful argument to justify forming an independent government

5 Declaration all men are created equal they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these end, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government Locke all humans have natural rights the function of government is to protect those rights people can replace their government if it fails in its contractual obligations to protect peoples rights Cross Genre Connections OR Across Text or Non- Text Sources: (Q15) How does this illustration capture John Locke s philosophy of what might happen in a state of nature? Formative Assessment/ Rubrics, if applicable Summative Assessment/ Culminating Independent Writing Task Graphic organizers (Paraphrasing, Classification Chart, 2-column notes) and written responses (objective summation) serve as a means to organize thoughts for prewriting activities and formative assessments. PERFORMANCE TASK: In a 1-2 page evidentiary response explain John Locke s ideas about natural rights and social contracts. Then explain how and where these ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence. Possible short answer. John Locke believed that all people were born equal. They had certain God-given rights that he called natural rights. These included the right to life, to freedom, and to own property. He also wrote that an agreement, called a social contract, existed between government and the people. If the government failed to uphold the people s right, the contract was broken. Then the people could choose new leaders. At the start of the Declaration, Jefferson writes that all men are equal and lists Locke s natural rights, with some minor changes. He then draws on Locke s social contract in saying that people have the right to change or replace a government that has become destructive. Possible evidentiary answer. Intellectual inquiry throughout Europe in the 1700s became known as the Enlightenment Era as thinkers began to question long-held beliefs about government. Enlightenment ideals prompted action and gave colonists a philosophical footing for their revolution by questioning basic assumptions about government. Who really has the right to rule? These old and new beliefs are central ideas of the Declaration of Independence. The Founding Fathers discussed and debated these ideas and began to incorporate some of the thinking in the Declaration of Independence to explain why

6 Americans were opposed to British rule in the colonies. The English philosopher, John Locke, had a profound impact on Jefferson s ideology. Many of the Founders ideas about government were based on Locke s philosophy about natural rights and social contracts. Locke published a book called Two Treatises of Government about the natural rights of individuals. In this book Locke advanced his idea of a state of nature where no governments or laws existed at all. Locke reasoned that in a state of nature all people seek to have the following rights: Life - People want to survive and be safe from threats to their lives. Liberty People want to be as free as possible and make their own decision regarding how they live their lives. Property - People want to own things that are necessary to survive, such as food, houses, tools, or land. Extension Activities/Further Resources Both Locke and the writing of Jefferson in the Declaration led people to question traditional authority. The words Jefferson wrote show that his thinking was greatly influenced by John Locke. Jefferson s purpose was twofold: to explain the need for a new government and to explain to undecided colonists and nations the need to sever ties with Great Britain. Both men stress the idea that unalienable rights are as natural as they are sacred and note that protection of these rights is the only just purpose of government. Technology: (see links embedded in pacing guide) Graphic Organizers Classification Charts,Persuasive Essay template at

7 Student Copy Text Title(s): The Declaration of Independence Thomas Jefferson McDougal Littell Literature, pp Genre/Text Structure: Public document Targeted Text Selection Lines 1 15, lines 59 76, and lines Targeted Text Selection Vocabulary Student-Generated Text-Dependent Questions lines 1 15, p. 236 In Congress, July 4, When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and of nature s God entitle them, a decent respect to the 5 opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. 7 We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these 10 rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect 15 -their safety and happiness. lines 59 76, p. 239 He has combined with others to subject us to a jurisdiction foreign to our 60 constitutions, and unacknowledged by our laws; giving his assent to their acts of pretended legislation: For quartering large bodies of armed troops among us; For protecting them, by a mock trial, from punishment for any murders which they should commit on the inhabitants of these States; 65 For cutting off our trade with all parts of the world; For imposing taxes on us without our consent; For depriving us, in many cases, of the benefits of trial by jury; For transporting us beyond the seas, to be tried for pretended offenses; For abolishing the free system of English laws in a neighboring province,7 70 establishing there an arbitrary government, and line 6 impel: line 8 unalienable: line 9 secure: line 11 consent: line 64 commit: line 70 arbitrary: line 76 legislate: GUIDING QUESTION: What persuasive techniques and rhetorical questions empower Jefferson s argument? (Q1) Paraphrase lines 1-15 using the graphic organizer. (See student graphic) Return to the text, and ask students a small set of guiding questions about the document. (Q2) What argument does Jefferson present in lines 1 6 of the Declaration of Independence? (Q3) Reread lines Explain the significance of the itemized list of examples in lines What persuasive techniques and rhetorical questions empower Jefferson s argument? (Q4) What are Jefferson s purposes for listing the despotic acts of the king? (Q5) Reread lines Why might each of these offenses of the king upset the colonists? (Q6) Which grievances in this passage are the most insufferable?

8 enlarging its boundaries, so as to render it at once an example and fit instrument for introducing the same absolute rule into these colonies; For taking away our charters, abolishing our most valuable laws, and altering, fundamentally, the forms of our governments; 75 For suspending our own legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with power to legislate for us in all cases whatsoever. lines , p They, too, have been deaf to the voice of justice and of consanguinity.10 We must, therefore, acquiesce in the necessity which denounces our separation; and hold them, as we hold the rest of mankind, enemies in war, in peace friends. 105 We, Therefore, the Representatives of the United States of America, in General Congress assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the world for the rectitude of our intentions, do, in the name and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are, and of right ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved 110 from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connection between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved; and that, as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things which independent states may of right do. And, for the support of this declaration, with 115 a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. Cross Genre Connections OR Across Text or Non- Text Sources: As you listen to the video clips found at use 2-column notes to record evidence of the people and ideas that influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration. line 107 rectitude: line 108 publish: (Q7) Use the Classification Chart to identify categories of grievances, such as legislative, judicial, military, and trade. Place specific grievances in each category. (Q8) In lines what objections does Jefferson appear to be anticipating and refuting? (Q9) What is the purpose of the final paragraph (lines )? (Q10) Identify two or more central ideas of the document. GUIDING QUESTION(S): What great thinkers and documents of the 1700s influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration? (Q11) What is the fundamental difference between a system based on a God-given right to rule and a system based on democracy? (Q12) Analyze Locke s Second Treatise of Government for common themes that inspired Jefferson s writing of The Declaration of Independence. Cross Genre Connections OR Across Text or Non-Text Sources: (Q13) In what way did John Locke s Second Treatise and Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence produce similar results? (Q14) How does this illustration capture John Locke s philosophy of what might happen in a state of nature?

9 PERFORMANCE TASK: Culminating Independent Writing Task In a 1-2 page evidentiary response, explain John Locke s ideas about natural rights and social contracts. Then explain how and where these ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence. FOR QUESTIONS CONCERNING THIS DOCUMENT PLEASE CONTACT THE DIVISION OF LANGUAGE ARTS READING, ; Dr. Erin Cuartas, Instructional Supervisor

10 The Declaration of Independence Author: Thomas Jefferson In June of 1776, Thomas Jefferson and other colonial leaders had decided to rebel against British rule. But they needed to justify their dangerous action to themselves, to the king, and to the world. Amid all the clash of conflicting interests, amid all the welter of partisan politics, Thomas Jefferson crafted the Declaration of Independence that, after two centuries, Americans can turn to with the assurance and confidence that this great charter of freedom and justice remain firm and unshaken. Directions: The first 15 lines of the Declaration of Independence consist of 3 long sentences. Use this chart to paraphrase these3 sentences phrase-byphrase and explain the meaning of each phrase. Next, write an objective summary of Jefferson s Declaration wherein you analyze how he articulates the central ideas of liberty and how those ideas interact and build on one another. In Congress, July 4, 1776 (1) When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to (2) dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to (3) assume, among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which (4) the laws of nature and of nature s God entitle them, a decent respect to the (5) opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel (6) them to the separation. Paraphrased: (7) We hold these truths to be self-evident: That all men are created equal; (8) that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights; that (9) among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. That, to secure these (10) rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from (11) the consent of the governed; that, whenever any form of government becomes (12) destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and (13) to institute a new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and (14) organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect (15) their safety and happiness. Summarization: Write an objective summary of Jefferson s Declaration wherein you analyze how he articulates the central ideas of liberty and how those ideas interact and build on one another

11 THE ENLIGHTENMENT Ideas of the Age - STUDENT Thomas Jefferson s The Declaration of Independence and John Locke s Second Treatise of Government n the 1700s, there was a burst of intellectual energy taking place in Europe that came to be known as the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers had begun to question previously accepted truths about who should hold the power in government. Their thinking pointed the way to a government by the people one in which people consent to government limitations in exchange for the government s protection of their basic rights and liberties. For centuries, European kings and queens had ruled because it was believed that they had a God-given right to do so. But in the Age of Enlightenment, people began question basic assumptions about government. In America, a popular uprising put a new kind of government to the test: democracy. With this experiment, the young American nation was asking: Who really has the right to rule? to American colonists adapted these Enlightenment ideals to their own environment. The political writings of Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Thomas Jefferson shaped the American Enlightenment and began to eclipse even the most brilliant European thought. Enlightenment ideals prompted action and gave colonists a philosophical footing for their revolution. I know not what course others may take, Patrick Henry thundered to the delegates at the second Virginia Convention in 1775, but as for me, give me liberty, or give me death! Thomas Jefferson was clearly influenced by John Locke s Second Treatise when he composed the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was also inspired by the writing of other Enlightenment thinkers. For instance, Jean-Jacques Rousseau wrote that if a government did not protect its people s freedom, it should not exist. Voltaire also believed that people had a write to liberty. The Declaration of Independence reflects many of these old and new beliefs. GUIDING QUESTION: What great thinkers and documents of the 1700s influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration? What is the fundamental difference between a system based on a God-given right to rule and a system based on democracy? Analyze Locke s Second Treatise of Government for common themes that inspired Jefferson s writing of The Declaration of Independence. In what way did John Locke s Second Treatise and Thomas Jefferson s Declaration of Independence produce similar results? John Locke Thomas Jefferson PERFORMANCE TASK: What great thinkers and documents of the 1700s influenced Jefferson as he drafted the Declaration? Explain John Locke s ideas about natural rights and social contracts. Then, explain how and where these ideas are found in the Declaration of Independence

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