1 American History Chapters : The Cold War Sources: American History: Connecting with the Past (Fifteenth Edition) Give Me Liberty!: An American History (Third Edition) American Pageant (Fourteenth Edition) America: A Concise History (Fourth Edition) American Dreams: The United States Since 1945
2 American History Chapter 27: (The Cold War)
3 The Cold War Key Concepts 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 Cold War: a strained relationship between America and the Soviet Union (U.S.S.R.), producing hostility and suspicion. Lasting nearly fifty years, this is referred to as the cold war era because the two sides never actually fought face to face.
4 WWII Conferences and Causes of the Cold War Key Concept 7.3 (IIID) Yalta Conference (Feb 1945): Big Three begin working out the details for the organization that will become the United Nations. Germany is divided into four sections. The most controversial issue is what to do with Poland. Some historians believe the origins of the Cold war can be found in this meeting. Other historians think the Cold War began when the Soviets stayed in Eastern Europe. Some historians think the Cold War began when the United States dropped the atomic bombs on Japan. Potsdam Conference (July-Aug 1945): By the time this conference was convened, Roosevelt had died and Churchill was no longer prime minister. All participants agree that the Nazi influence must be purged from German culture, but reparations and the occupation of Germany were left unsolved.
5 Effects of the Cold War Key Concepts 8.1, 8.2, 8.3 Nearly 50 years of political conflict and military tensions between U.S.A. and U.S.S.R. The U.S. adopted role of global policeman The U.S. created a military-industrial complex Another Red Scare, in the form of McCarthyism, created fear and hysteria about communists in the government The arms race creates potential for nuclear annihilation
6 Compare and Contrast American and Soviet Post-World War II Goals American Goals to bring democracy and economic opportunity to the conquered nations of Europe and Asia. (An economically strong and politically open world would also serve American interests by providing markets for its products) Soviet Goals (U.S.S.R.) to make sure Germany would never threaten the Soviet Union again to rebuild in ways that would protect its own interests, to establish satellite nations that would serve as a buffer zone against attacks to spread communism throughout the world
7 The Iron Curtain
8 Containment: U.S. Foreign Policy Post-WWII Key Concept 8.1 (IA,B) When George Kennan, an American diplomat in Moscow, warned that the Soviets would spread their ideology if given the opportunity but could be stopped if challenged, Truman took to heart his counsel. Kennan s analysis (known as the Long Telegram) became the foundation of American foreign policy containment, although he later opposed the way in which his observations were interpreted and implemented.
9 The Truman Doctrine Key Concept 8.1 (IA) Truman Doctrine: (1947) President Truman s universal pledge of support for any people fighting any communist or communistinspired threat. Truman presented the doctrine to Congress in 1947 in support of his request for $400 million to defend Greece and Turkey against Soviet-backed insurgencies. U.S. HISTORY: MR. ROLOFSON
10 The Marshall Plan Key Concept 8.1 (IA) Marshall Plan: (1948) a massive transfer of aid money to help rebuild postwar Western Europe, intended to bolster capitalist and democratic governments and prevent domestic communist groups from riding poverty and misery to power. In effect, the Marshall Plan envisioned a New Deal for Europe. The Marshall Plan proved to be one of the most successful foreign aid programs in history. U.S. HISTORY: MR. ROLOFSON
11 National Security Act The National Security Act (1947) establishes a new Department of Defense, the National Security Council (NSC), and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). The CIA collects information through open and covert methods and engages in secret operations abroad. U.S. HISTORY: MR. ROLOFSON
12 The Berlin Airlift Key Concept 8.1 (IA) Berlin Airlift: (1948) A yearlong mission of flying food and supplies to blockaded West Berliners, whom the Soviet Union cut off from access to the West in the first major crisis of the Cold War. U.S. HISTORY: MR. ROLOFSON
13 Escalation of the Cold War Key Concept 8.1 (IA) NATO (1949) Warsaw Pact (1955) Several nations formed NATO in order to protect themselves from possible Soviet aggression. NATO was based on the principle of collective security. The Soviet Union responded to the formation of NATO by creating the Warsaw Pact, a military alliance with its own satellite nations in Eastern Europe.
14 The Fall of China Key Concept 8.1 (IIA) The collapse of Nationalist China was viewed as a devastating defeat for American and its Cold War allies. The fall of China had the following consequences: The U.S. refused to recognize the new government in Beijing The U.S. interpreted the Chinese Revolution as part of a menacing Communist monolith. The fall of China contributed to the anti-communist hysteria in America.
15 Escalation of the Cold War Key Concept 8.1 (IB) In 1949, the Soviets successfully test an atomic bomb. In reaction, Truman gave approval for the U.S. development of an even more powerful bomb.
16 NSC -68 Key Concept 8.1 (IB) NSC-68, formerly a top-secret memorandum, provided a blueprint for American foreign policy in the cold war, complete with moral and political justifications for understanding that the cold war is in fact a real war. NSC-68 helped to spur a dramatic increase in American military spending. U.S. HISTORY: MR. ROLOFSON
17 Origins of the Korean War ( ) Key Concept 8.1 (IB) At the end of WWII, Korea was divided at the 38 th parallel into a Southern pro-american government and a Northern pro- Communist government. When North Korea invaded South Korea, many Americans thought the invasion was initiated by the Soviet Union. Viewing Korea as a clear test of the policy of containment, the Truman administration persuaded the United Nations Security Council to authorize the use of force to repel the invasion. (Initially, American postwar policy focused on Europe. But it was in Asia that the Cold War suddenly turned hot.)
18 The Korean War ( ) Key Concept 8.1 (IB) Again, the Korean War extended the containment policy to Asia. Stung by criticism that the Democrats had lost China, Truman was determined to defend South Korea. American troops did the bulk of the fighting on this first battlefield of the Cold War. 33,000 were killed. Truman and MacArthur:
19 Outcomes of the Korean War ( ) Key Concept 8.1 (IB) Korea remained divided at almost exactly the same place as before the war at the 38 th parallel. The United States succeeded in keeping South Korea free of communism. American military spending is increased with the creation of the military-industrial complex. There has never been a formal peace treaty ending the Korean War.
20 The Military-Industrial Complex Key Concept 8.1 (IIIC) Cold War military spending helped to fuel economic growth that not only perfected weaponry but also led to improved aircraft, computers, medicines, and othe4r products with a large impact on civilian life.
21 Compare and contrast U.S. foreign policy after WWI and after WWII: After WWI The U.S. withdrew from overt intervention in international affairs The U.S. pursued an isolationistic foreign policy after WWI U.S. intervention was aimed at keeping American involvement in world affairs minimal After WWII The U.S. pursued a policy of containment The U.S. became more internationalist and interventionist The U.S. became more aggressive and involved in world affairs
22 McCarthyism Joseph McCarthy: encouraged a widespread fear of communism. McCarthyism: using smear tactics to brand political opponents of being Communists or of being soft on communism. To be soft on communism was political suicide. Careers were destroyed as suspicion replaced evidence. The burden of proof was on the accused, who couldn t face or know his unnamed accusers. Loyalty Review Boards, HUAC (House Un-American Activities Committee), blacklisting, Alger Hiss, etc.
23 McCarthyism Although the assault on civil liberties came to be known as McCarthyism, it began before Senator Joseph R. McCarthy of Wisconsin burst onto the national scene in In 1947, less than two weeks after announcing the Truman Doctrine, the president established a loyalty review system in which government employees were required to demonstrate their patriotism without being allowed to confront accusers or, in some cases, knowing the charges against them. The loyalty program failed to uncover any cases of espionage. But the federal government dismissed several hundred persons from their jobs, and thousands resigned rather than submit to investigation.
24 Hollywood Ten Ten unfriendly witnesses refused to answer the committee s questions about their political beliefs or to name names on the grounds that the hearings violated the First Amendment s guarantees of freedom of speech. The Hollywood Ten were charged with contempt of Congress, and they served jail terms of six months to a year.
25 Ethel and Julius Rosenberg Ethel and Julius Rosenberg are convicted of atomic espionage and sentenced to death in The case against Julius Rosenberg rested on highly secret documents that could not be revealed in court. Just like in the Sacco and Vanzetti case, the judge already agreed with the prosecution. Despite an international outcry, the death sentences are carried out in 1953.
26 Joseph McCarthy In this atmosphere, a littleknown senator from Wisconsin suddenly emerged as the chief national pursuer of subversives and gave a new name to the anticommunist crusade. Despite heavy-handed tactics, McCarthy never identified a single person guilty of genuine disloyalty.
27 An Atmosphere of Fear States created their own committees, modeled on HUAC, that investigated suspected communists and other dissenters. States and localities required loyalty oaths of teachers, pharmacists, and members of other professions. Local anti-communist groups forced public libraries to remove from their shelves un-american books As during WWI, the courts did nothing to halt the political repression, demonstrating once again James Madison s warning that popular hysteria could override barriers like the Bill of Rights that sought to prevent infringements on freedom. In 1951, in Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Court upheld the jailing of Communist Party leaders even thought the charges concerned their beliefs, not any actions they had taken.
28 HIPPO this document:
29 McCarran-Walter Act Passed in 1952, this law reaffirmed the quota system for each country that had been established in It also authorized the deportation of immigrants identified as communists, even if they had become citizens. Truman vetoed the bill, but Congress passed it over the President s veto.
30 Margaret Chase Smith Senator from Maine who challenged McCarthy by presenting a Declaration of Conscience to the Senate. She denounced McCarthy for putting American principles in danger (the right to criticize, the right to hold unpopular beliefs, the right to protest).
31 What is the significance of the Army-McCarthy hearings?
32 Formative Activity Each group creates a graphic organizer and answers the given question. Group 1: What lessons should we learn from the McCarthy experience? Group 2: Was McCarthy a patriot? Group 3: Were the Soviets a real or an imaginary enemy in the early 1950s? Group 4: What does it mean to be loyal in America? What are the best ways to promote loyalty?
33 American History Chapter 28: (The Cold War)
34 The Cold War in the Third World Key Concept 8.1 (IIA) In the years after World War II, the currents of nationalism and anti-colonialism surged across Asia, Africa, and Latin America. (Nationalism: a country taking control of its own natural resources). The United States and Soviet Union both competed with each other for influence and favor in countries across the globe. The policy of containment easily slid over into opposition to any government, whether communist or not, that seemed to threaten American strategic or economic interests. The U.S. became involved in affairs in the Middle East following World War II to prevent oil-rich Arab nations from falling under Soviet influence. President Eisenhower acted to oppose Soviet influence in the Middle East.
35 The Eisenhower Doctrine, 1957 Key Concepts 8.1 (IIA,C) Eisenhower extended the principle of containment to the Middle East with the Eisenhower Doctrine, pledging that the U.S. would distribute economic and military aid and, if necessary, use military force to contain communism in the Middle East. The Eisenhower Doctrine illustrated the increased role of petroleum in American foreign policy. (Suez Crisis, formation of OPEC)
36 Summarize the following paragraph: Key Concept 8.1 (IIB) Latin American countries were driven mainly by a desire to recover control over natural resources, not to serve world Communism, as Americans believed. Why did the United States so misjudge them? The great error Americans made was not in overestimating the Soviet threat but in assuming that nationalist challenges were part of it. American leaders were convinced that the Soviets were plotting to take over Asia and Latin America the way they had taken over Eastern Europe. That has proven wrong. - Overthrow: America s Century of Regime Change from Hawaii to Iraq (2006)
37 Sputnik (1957) Key Concept 8.1 (IB) In 1957, the Soviets launched Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth. The launching of Sputnik caused Congress to increase spending on teaching science and mathematics, exposed the technology gap between the United States and the Soviet Union, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) was established in 1958 in response to the launch of the Soviet satellite.
38 The U-2 Incident In May of 1960, a Soviet guided missile shot down an American U-2 spy plane over Soviet territory. Assuming the spy plane was invulnerable to attack, the U-2 incident shattered American confidence.
39 President Eisenhower ( ) Responses to Communism at Home Privately critical, did little openly to destroy McCarthy Republicans used McCarthy in 1952 election Eisenhower: don t join the book burners but continued Loyalty Programs McCarthy brought down by his own flaws and the Army- McCarthy hearings Nixon s role: HUAC member, VP, and strong anti-communist Responses to Communism Abroad Eisenhower Doctrine Brinkmanship, Domino Theory Negotiated peace in Korea Supported NATO Guatemala: CIA overthrow of govt. for United Fruit Company Iran: CIA overthrow of Mossadegh in Iran Suez Crisis: pressures Britain and France to withdraw Authorizes Bay of Pigs (Cuba)
40 American Cold War Foreign Policy Events in Guatemala, Iran, and later Vietnam, considered great successes at the time by American policymakers, cast a long shadow over American foreign relations. Little by little, the United States was becoming accustomed to intervention, both open and secret, in far-flung corners of the world. Despite the Cold War rhetoric of freedom, American leaders seemed more comfortable dealing with reliable military regimes than democratic governments.
41 The Military-Industrial Complex Key Concept 8.1 (IIIC) The military-industrial complex, was produced from the links among military, corporate, and scientific communities in the late 1950s. Arguably, this is the most important legacy of the Cold War era.
42 American History Chapter 29: (Cold War)
43 The Arms Race
44 Paradoxical Effects of the Arms Race Key Concepts 8.1 (IA,B,C) In 1947 the United States had possessed just fourteen atomic bombs, but by the end of 1950 the number had risen to nearly three hundred and by 1952 to more than eight hundred. The paradoxical effect of the arms race was that the more weapons the two sides deployed, the less secure they were. However, both sides understood that a full-scale thermonuclear exchange could create global conditions impossible for life. Another paradox was that only by embracing this reality could both sides be deterred from launching such a first strike.
45 The Bay of Pigs Invasion The Bay of Pigs invasion was a failed attempt by the U.S. to oust Fidel Castro from Cuba. The U.S. supported the Bay of Pigs invasion by attempting to destroy Cuba s air power.
46 The Berlin Crisis, 1961 After Kennedy authorized a military buildup to show that the United States would not be bullied by the Soviet Union, the Soviets began construction of the Berlin Wall. The Soviets built the Berlin Wall in order to prevent East Germans from fleeing to the West.
47 The Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962 The Cuban Missile Crisis was a standoff between the U.S. and the Soviet Union that could have led to nuclear war. The Soviets provoked Kennedy to quarantine Cuba by positioning missiles on Cuban soil. The Cuban Missile Crisis brought the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. to the brink of nuclear war.
48 (The Vietnam War is on a separate PowerPoint) (President Nixon and the Cold War is on a separate PowerPoint)
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. Thanks so much for purchasing this product! Interactive Notebooks are an amazing way to get your students engaged and active in their learning! The graphic organizers and foldables in this resource are
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