Social Sciences in Asia

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1 o. 35 Social Sciences in Asia Bura, Mongolia, ew Zealan, The Philippines, Singapore P a U

2 REPORTS AD PAPERS I THE SOCIAL SCIECES The Reports an Papers are intene to present to a restricte public of specialists escriptive or ocuentary aterial as an when it becoes available uring the execution of Unesco's prograe in the fiel of the social sciences. They will consist of either reports relating to the Regular Prograe of Unesco an its operational prograes of ai to Meber States or ocuentation in the for of bibliographies, repertories an irectories. The authors alone are responsible for the contents of the Reports an Papers an their views shoul not necessarily be taken to represent those of Unesco. These ocuents are publishe without strict perioicity. Currently available. SS/CH 11 - SS/CH SSlCH SSICH SS/CH 19 - SSlCH 2 - SS/CH 22 - SS/CH 23 - SS/CH 2 - SS/CH 25 - SS/CH 26 - SS/CH 27- SSlCH 28 - SS/CH 29 - SS/CH 3 - SS/CH/31- SS/CH/32 SS/CH/33 SS/CH/3 SS/CH/35 SS/CH/36 - ternational Repertory of stitutions Conucting Population Stuies (bilingual : EnglishIFrench), ternational Co-operation an Prograes of Econoic an Social Developent (bilingual : English/French) ternational Directory of Saple Survey Centres (outsie the Unite States of Aerica) (bilingual: English/French), The Social Science Activities of Soe Eastern European Acaeies of Sciences, Attitue Change: a review an bibliogaphy of selecte research, 196 (out of print in English, available in French). ternational Repertory of Sociological Research Centres (outsie the U.S.A.) (bilingual: English/French), 196. stitutions Engage in Econoic an Social Planning in Africa (bilingual : English/French), ternational Repertory of lnskitu tionsspecializing in Research on Peace an Disaraent, Guie for the Establishent of ational Social Sciences Docuentation Centres in Developing Countries, Ecological ata in coparative research : Report on a first ternational Data Confrontation Seinar (bilingual : English/French), 197. Data archives for the Social Sciences: purposes operations an probles, 1973 DARE Unesco coputerize ata retrieval syste for ocuentation in the social an huan sciences, 1972 ternational Repertory of stitutions for Peace an Conflict Research, 1973 The Unesco Eucational Siulation Moel (ESM), 197. Social inicators: probles of efinition an of selection, 197 DARE - foration anageent syste Social sciences in Asia: I Social sciences in Asia: I1 Selecte Applications of the Unesco Eucational Siulation Moel' Social sciences in Asia: 111 ter-regional axaperation in the Social Sciences

3 Social Sciences in Asia 111 Bura, Mongolia, ew Zealan, The Philippines, Singapore

4 ISB French eition Publishe in 1977 by the Unite ations Eucational Scientific an Cultural Organization Rinte by Rollan UESCO 1977 hinte in France

5 This issue is the thir in the series of Social Sciences in Asia publishe uner "Reports an papers in the social sciences". The first volue covere Banglaesh, Iran, Malaysia, Pakistan an Thailan (o. 32) an the secon Afghanistan, onesia, Japan, Republic of Korea an epal (o. 331, both publishe in The present issue surveys the social science status in Bura, Mongolia, ew Zealan, the Philippines an Singapore. Unesco has conucte the surveys on the social sciences in Asia in pursuance to Resolution of the General Conference at its seventeenth session authorizing the Director-General "to proote the institutional evelopent of the social sciences through country surveys an stuies to eterine nees an priorities an the evelopent of facilities in universities an institutes". Social science organization an policy publish- -e by Unesco in 197 reviewe the social sciences in ifferent regions with stuies on Belgiu, Chile, Arab Republic of Egypt, Hungary, igeria an Sri Lanka. The present series "Social Sciences in Asia" intens (a) to provie an inventory; [b) to help in assessing nees an priorities; (c) to ientify potentialities for social science evelopent; an () to iscover ways of builing up an infrastructure of personnel an institutions. For each country, the social sciences are escribe uner four heaings: historical backgroun; institutional fraework of teaching an research; social science evelopent; ajor issues an perspectives; an recoenations for regional an inter national c o - operation. The current report attepts to explain who oes what an where in the social sciences in five Asian countries; this inforation will unoubtely be useful to the governents concerne in eveloping their social science infrastructures an policies. Data an inforation collecte on the countries concerne have been prograe in the DARE syste, which is explaine in two other publications in this series: o. 27: DARE, Unesco coputerize ata retrieval syste for ocuentation in the social an huan sciences (1972); an o. 31: DARE inforation anageent syste (1 975). Opinions expresse in the signe contributions are those of the authors an o not necessarily reflect the views of Unesco. 3

6 Contents PREFACE Page 3 SOCIAL SCIECES I ASIA: I11 Bura: Khin Maung Kyi Mongolia: Sh. Bira ane. Puntsag ew Zealan: Kevin P. Cleents The Philippines: Gloria D. Feliciano Singapore: Ong Jin Hui

7 Bura By Khin Maung Kyi Professor of Research stitute of Econoics Rangoon I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUD OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES I BURMA A. The early evelopent Though Bura has a long cultural history, the evelopent of the social sciences began only with the establishent of a new University of Rangoon in 192. ancient ties, the eighteen oes of craft an skills eee to have been taught in earllier universities inclue legal science, coes of conuct, strategy, iploacy, an general knowlege. The closest that cae to social stuies was then the stuy of an Dhaasatt ( are treatises on the coes of conuct governing the var- 'ious strata of society - king, onks, an layen; Dhaasatt are copilations of legal principles an preceents). Though both were originally erive fro ancient Hinu texts, the Burese authors theselves through the ages aapte an refine the to suit the local conitions an peculiarities. The last Burese Dhaasatt, copile an use at the ties of the Konboun ynasty, actually represente the istillation of principles an legal practices accuulate up until then. hen the Kingo of Bura was finally taken over by the British after the thir Anglo-Burese ar, the new ainistration, a prototype of ainistration in British-ia, was introuce. Though purporte to be an ipartial apparatus of law an orer, this new ainistration was in fact an alien syste ipose to preserve an proote the policy of laissez-faire, without any reference to the then existing social syste. The inevitable result of this policy was that the natural evelopent of society an culture which otherwise woul have taken place was isrupte, an any cultural fors an social patterns of the past were iscontinue or neglecte. Legal stuies an the coe of social conuct as taught in historical Bura in preparation for higher social positions were no longer consiere relevant. hen the new university was establishe in 192, it was oelle after the great British universities of Oxfor an Cabrige; new eucational subjects were introuce an taught as they were in the institutions of higher learning in estern European countries. The early university eucation ephasize, as in British universities in those ays, the classical-huanist learning. Up to 192, philosophy was the only subject which cae within the extene purview of the social sciences. the new university, history an econoics were introuce for the first tie as acaeic isciplines. However, the stuy of law ha alreay been well establishe as a subject in Rangoon College, the preecessor of Rangoon University. It is quite natural that legal stuies occupie an iportant place in higher eucation since the very ainistration introuce by the colonial power was base on the efinitive legal syste. Though social sciences such as econoics an history eerging in the university of those ays ha neither any organic relationship with the cultural experiences of the past nor ha they grown out the cultural roots of ancient Bura, the evelopent of one of these isciplines (political econoy) in the University soon assue its own istinctive characteristics. Since no social stuies can be evoi of influence fro surrouning environent, these stuies ha to pay attention to the probles of social change taking place in those ays. Econoics taught to Burese stuents neee to be relevant to local conitions an so shoul political science an history be to the realities of social life at the tie. The university ha also been fortunate to have ha a very proising group of scholars who later becae istinguishe in all their respective fiels, as well as benefitting fro contributions of soe scholarly ebers of the ian Civil Service who evote tie an energy to the stuy of the social probles of Bura. The result was the eergence of a correlate set of stuies relating to econoic an social probles of Bura, though these stuies by no eans represente Burese points of view or necessarily spoke for Burese interests. Research finings by these scholars, especially in the fiel of political econoy, 7

8 contribute to the then nascent science of econoic evelopent; the escription an analysis of the colonial econoic syste by soe of these authors becoing the classics in the fiel, contributing to the forulation of ore elaborate theories by later authors. Up to the beginning of orl ar I1 an the subsequent collapse of British ainistration in Bura, law, history an econoic science were ain social science isciplines taught at the university. However, philosophy alreay introuce as a subject prior to 192 inclue a course in psychology for its thir an fourth year classes. This inclusion of psychology as part of philosophy was to be attribute ore to the nature of evelopent of subject than to local variation. Psychology in its infancy ha been the oain of philosophers fro the ancient ties an the evelopent of this subject in Rangoon University, a replica of British University, was no exception to this rule. Political science was taught in those ays only as part of history to thir an fourth year stuents who took history as one of the subjects or those who took an honours course in history. Though history ha been a popular subject taken by any goo stuents aspiring to sit for the recruitent exaination of the covete civil service, political science as a iscipline ha never been aresse to the real issues of the ay an not been seriously proote or stuie. That, probably, was ue to the fact that the university in those ays ha becoe a hot be of nationalist sentient, an the authorities were reluctant to encourage the serious pursuit of a subject which ha possible iplications for the political syste an governent of the ay. The teaching of political science was rather cir- cuscribe an sterile. It ephasize constitutional laws an the estern political syste an. pai a very scanty attention to the social an political theories of socialis. The teaching of Law in the university again was confine to the stuy of the British legal syste, since the legal syste introuce into Bura was siply a version of the British one. Laws enacte for Bura were the exact copies of laws in British ia. These laws, though slightly teperre by ian conitions, were British both in for an spirit. Only in the case of personal law, concessions were grante to traitional Burese laws an stuies of the traitional faily laws were pursue with soe zeal. Most of the legal research in that perio was concerne with Burese Buhist custoary laws governing faily relationships The teaching of econoics on the other han not only stresse the practical application of the subject but also proote the stuy of the local econoic probles. Perhaps, the way in which the subject itself cae to be taught ha been inicative of its relevance to the local interests. the early ays of the university, the ian Chettiyar counity (usually known as oney-lening class) enowe a chair in econoics an a lectureship in banking an coerce. The professor in charge of the epartent wrote a book on business organization an coerce especially for Burese stuents. A book on the political econoy of Bura written by a forer British Lan Recors Official contribute uch towars the unerstaning of the political econoy of British Bura. Successive professors in econoics, even theoreticallyoriente ones, pai a special attention to the evelopent of the political econoy of Bura as a istinct fiel of intellectual pursuit. However, in those ays, the concept "social science" was never expressly use an econoics, political science, philosophy, an law were taught only as part of the huanities as ha been custoary in universities of the perio. B. Social science uring the perio of evelopent planning After orl ar I1 in 196, the Rangoon University was re-establishe on a larger scale. This expansion was influence by social changes taking place at that tie. More young people, a far greater nuber than in pre-war ays, were seeking aission to the university. ith the attainent of inpenence, the governent ha recognize the university as a centre for "training scholars an a sufficient nuber of specialists in all fiels of huan activities, having regar for the socio-econoic nees of the country.'! Many new isciplines, ost of the having possible applications in Bura, were ae an soe of the existing subjects were separate an new epartents create for the; thus anthropology an sociology were introuce as new isciplines in 195 an psychology was separate fro philosophy an given a new chair heaing a separate epartent. Likewise, coerce an statistics were separate fro econoics. Manageent an public ainistration were also introuce as new subjects uring this perio. However, all these new isciplines an subjects still fore part of the Faculty of Arts an the conceptualization of social sciences as istinct Pro the arts an foring a coherent whole was never forally recognize until 1957, when a new faculty was create for social sciences. The newly establishe Faculty of Social Sciences was house in a ilew builing an provie with a new library. The faculty inclue the epartents of anthropology an sociology, coerce, econoics, political science an history, psychology, an statistics. Since law ha alreay been given a faculty status after the war an recognize as a istinct professional stuy, the new faculty i not inclue law. On the occasion of the creation of the new faculty, the Council of the University state that the purpose of organizing the epartents teaching social sciences into a new faculty was to co-orinate their teaching an research activities an to proote interepartental 8

9 co-operation. spite of this provision, the epartents in the faculty operate as ore or less inepenent isciplines, each teaching its own subject as a ajor course of instruction in the bachelor egree prograes. However, the traitional co-operation that ha existe aong econoics, coerce an statistics were continue. The first ajor attept at interepartental co-operation was ae when international relations was introuce as a subject with the political science, anthropology an sociology an econoics epartents participating in the teaching prograe. A aong the econoics, political science an coerce epartents was establishe when these epartents joine forces to introuce a course in public ainistration. ith the view towars foring 3 ore coherent unit, separate epartental libraries were aalgaate into a faculty library, However, these efforts were soewhat retare later, when a new circle of university ainistrators an professors querrie the worthiness of such a subject as sociology as an acaeic iscipline, an a serious ebate ensue, finally leaing to its iscontinuation as a separate acaeic iscipline. spite of these setbacks, the new Faculty of Social Sciences was gaining ore recognition fro the acaeic counity as well as fro the governent. It is also interesting to note that the organizing of the epartents teaching social sciences into a faculty an the prootion of social sciences as istinct fiels of stuy in the university uring this perio ran parallel to the launching of social evelopent prograes after inepenence. Since 197, the Governent of Bura ha been seriously concerne with the probles of reconstruction an the evelopent of the econoy an ha unertaken to launch evelopent prograes. Though the early planners were ore intent upon the physical aspects of evelopent, it soon awne upon the that, to be successful, the evelopent prograe ust take the for of a full-scale effort in all relevant an relate fiels. This thinking in turn ha le to an awareness of a nee for a new type of governent official, an subsequently, to a new syste of training as well for the. The proposals for ipleenting evelopent prograes rawn up in that perio reflecte the necessity for governent ainistrators an anagers who were to act ore like "social engineers", or "social organizers" than as officials. This concept sharply contraste with the traitional view of the colonial perio that governent officials as guarians of the population uner their charge shoul act as officers of law an ainistrators of justice. As the rsle of the governent anagers an ainistrators are change uner the new oonitions, the classical-huanist learning appropriate for the "philosopher-kings" of the colonial ays were consiere no longer aequate for the "woulbe social engineers. I' This oification consequently calle for the concoitant changes in the eucational fiel an began to bring about new initiatives in that irection. C. Social sciences in the revolutionary perio spite of soe goo efforts in the post-inepenence perio, the whole evelopent prograe i not coe to fruition because of political issensions, ainistrative obstacles an cultural bar - riers. Further eterioration of political an social conitions le the Are Forces to take over the reins of governent in The Are Forces, le by the Revolutionary Council, ecie to place Bura on the socialist path an initiate the socialist transforation of the society in Uner this new social prograe, the basic econoic structure an political super-structure were to be thoroughly overhaule. This necessitate the restructuring of the whole eucational syste to suit the changing eans of social transforation. 196, a national seinar on eucation attene by eucators, professors an ainistrators propose basic changes in the Burese eucational syste an a new socialist eucational prograe was ushere in. The teaching of social sciences at the university was greatly altere along with basic changes in other aspects of university eucation. Since the new prograe, unlike the ol syste, ephasize the teaching of sciences an technology useful to the socialist transforation of society, the university was ivie into various institutes, colleges, an universities, institutes representing ifferent professional isciplines an colleges an universities specializing in teaching acaeic subjects. the process, the Departent of Econoics along with those of Coerce an Statistics were groupe to for an institute while the ol syste of iviing the university into faculties was abolishe, an thus ene the nascent Faculty of Social Sciences. The Faculty of Eucation was restructure as an institute. The Departents of Anthropology an Psychology were reintegrate into the Arts an Sciences University. Uner the new socialist syste, a national ieology an philosophy was clearly enunciate to serve as a guie for all social actions. aition, it is also realize that the whole socialist trans; foration entails ass oveent an pzwticipation.' It therefore becae a necessity that the teaching of social sciences relate to the task of eucating the asses or contributing to their political awareness ust be properly reorganize in accorance with the national interest. Uner these changing social eans, political science coul not be viewe as a purely acaeic subject neutral to the prevailing social conitions. It was further recognize that no social science taught even in the purest of liberal traitions coul be consiere value-free an as such, the teaching of these subjects coul not be ieft unchange in the universities. Political science as a iscipline was roppe fro the university 9

10 curriculu an a new University of Political Science was establishe as a wing of the Bura Socialist Prograe Party, the official party of the State. Courses in other social sciences such as anthropology an psychology were also strealine to give ore attention to the probles of the social transforation taking place in Bura. Uner the new schee, the teaching of econoics was professionalize an courses applicable to the planning an anageent of the econoy were given greater ephasis. Methos of planning, accounting an control, econoic statistics an inustrial anageent enjoye an ae ipetus uner the new eucational syste. However, guiing the teaching of social sciences accoring to the national ieology an policy uner the new eucational syste shoul not be construe as a total control evoi of any initiative an freeo norally grante to university teachers. As a atter of fact, the national ieology itself was frae not on the basis of any narrow "is", but with the broaest possible vision for the interests of the people of the country. It is lai own in the national philosophy that Itwe shall critically observe, stuy an avail ourselves of the opportunities, provie by such progressive ieas, theories an experiences at hoe an abroa, as are of real an practical value for the abunance of our otherlan the Union of Bura an for the well-being of the whole nation. I' hile irrelevancies an one-sie criticiss of socialis were curbe in the curriculu of social sciences, research an investigation into probles of social transforation were greatly encourage. The new national research policy recognize the iportance of the social sciences, an a ational Research Boar, co-orinating all research activities of the country inclue a social science ivision which figure proinently in all national res ear ch eneavours. 11. ISTITUTIOAL FRAMEORK There are three ain types of institutions concerne with the teaching an research in social sciences: universities responsible for gathering new knowlege through research activities an iparting the accuulate knowlege in a broa eucational fraework; specialize research agencies establishe for conucting specific research tasks especially in the application of social sciences to the sobtion of practical probles; an professional agencies assigne to collect inforation relate to the social conitions of the country. spite of the fact that the last type of organizations coul not be strictly classifie as research organizations, in the process of perforing their assigne functions, they o collect, analyse an provie the inforation relate to the social econoic conitions in Bura. Organizations such as the Central Statistical Organization, an the Departent of Manpower an Census coe uner this category. A. Teaching 1. stitutional evelopent The ainspring of Burese higher eucation ha been the University of Rangoon, fro which the University of Manalay branche out in The University of Rangoon was first establishe as a separate institution by the act of the Legislative Council in 192. However, its preecessor, the Rangoon College, ha been functioning as an affiliate college of Calcutta University, since 188. its early ays, the Rangoon College was a liberal arts college offering pass or honours egrees in sciences an huanities. However, the curriculu in those ays ha been oele on that of an ian university, ephasizing the classicalhuanist learning consiere at that tie to be the best preparation for caniates for the top positions in the colonial service. The only local variation in the curriculu was the teaching of the vernacular language, Burese, as a subject. The establishent of Rangoon University as a separate entity in 192 arke an iportant watershe in the history of higher eucation in Bura. the new university, new isciplines such as econoics, political science, geography, geology, forestry, engineering an eicine were introuce for the first tie. However the university, patterne after the "Oxbrige" universities of the Unite Kingo, was an elitist one where only those who coul affor to pursue their chosen acaeic stuies i so in quiet acaeic seclusion. The new university as introuce by the British Governent was so exclusive an consiere so inaccessible even to the above average Burese stuents, that a stuent strike against the University Act broke out in 192. The subsequent social unrest fostere a national oveent for inepenence. The authorities aene the University Act in 192, acceing to soe extent to the popular eans of the ay. However, the basic structure of the university reaine unchange; it was an institution of higher learning preparing a select group of able an wellto-o young en an woen in the broaest liberal traitions either for positions in governent or as general eucation. One of the iportant concessions was that the new university followe a feeral syste, uner which separate colleges coul be affiliate to it, thus aking it possible for local colleges to be establishe in outlying towns. A new intereiate college in Manalay was establishe as part of the university in Uner the new Act, the new university was a boy corporate entruste with powers to raise funs, to provie eucation in various branches of learning, to train an procure technical anpower, an to construct an aintain physical plants an facilities. itially the new university consiste of two liberal arts colleges, one, the University College, 1

11 establishe an fune by the governent an, the other, a ission college, finance an run by the Aerican Baptist Mission. Besies these, the College of Meicine, College of Engineering, an College of Agriculture were establishe in 192, 1925, an 1929 respectively. The ain teaching an research functions of the university were carrie out by acaeic epartents of the colleges. The epartents of geography, history, econoics, an law ay coe within purview of social sciences though the wor "social science'' ha never been use in those ays. Each epartent was usually heae by a professor, or a senior lecturer in the absence of a professor. The professor was the apex of the epartental acaeic hierarchy an there was only one professor in each epartent. Senior lecturers, lecturers, assistant lecturers an tutors or eonstrators fore the harcore of the epartental staff. hen the Socialist Revolution was launche in 1962, the university syste was raically change. The aission to the university was opene to all highly intelligent stuents who coul benefit fro higher eucation. Through the liberal istribution of stipens, a nuber, far greater than before, of qualifie but financially hanicappe stuents coul now pursue university stuies. Unlike the prerevolutionary university, which ha continuously ephasize pure learning, professional an technical training essential for construction of the new socialist society was given priority. aition, research an innovation contributing to the social transforation was encourage. Uner the new eucational syste introuce in 196, the Universities of Rangoon an Manalay were ivie into various inepenent institutions specializing in various fiels of stuies; the Rangoon Arts an Science University an the Manalay Arts an Science University took the place of forer liberal arts colleges, while Meicine, Engineering, Agriculture, Veterinary Sciences, an Eucation were establishe as professional institutions each with university status. Heretofore, entrance to stuies in professional faculties coul be sought only upon copletion of the first two years of stuy in Arts an Science Colleges. But uner the new schee, atriculates irectly apply for aission to professional or acaeic institutes because specialization begins fro the first year. The teaching of pre-eical or pre-engineering subjects forerly perfore by the Arts an Science Colleges uring the first two years of stuy has been transferre to the professional institutes theselves. ith regar to social sciences, a rather iversifie evelopent has taken place: econoics, coerce an statistics were taken away fro the Faculty of Social Sciences an entruste to a separate professional institute, the stitute of Econoics. The epartents of history an political science, anthropology an sociology an psychology becae part of the Rangoon Arts an Science University, the Faculty of Social Science having been abolishe in 196. Uner the new eucational syste, there is no longer a single grouping of social science epartents: while the stitute of Econoics provies professional eucation for econoists, accountants, statisticians, the Arts an Science University gives instruction in courses of stuies in history an psychology as ajor subjects leaing to the Arts Degree. Anthropology retaine a separate ientity as a iscipline but has becoe inor subject which stuents ajoring in other subjects can offer as an elective. Since the forer syste of separate faculties for ajor areas of stuy is no longer operative, law has lost its faculty status an now functions erely as a epartent of the Arts an Science University. A course of stuy leaing to the first egree in law was introuce an stuents can choose law as ajor subject fro the very first year. the Arts an Science University, the following social sciences an relate isciplines are offere as separate courses of stuies. Social science subjects 1. Psychology 2. Anthropology 3. Law Social science relate subjects 1. Geography 2. Philosophy 3. History A course of stuy in all these subjects except law takes four years to coplete, while a egree in law requires five years. the first year, all stuents in Arts an Sciences are require to take coon courses, prescribe for each category of stuents, without any elective. The purpose of this is to provie the stuents with a general eucation as a grounwork for specialization in ajor subjects. Though there is no separate grauate school in the universities, grauate courses have been offere in each ajor subject since the establishent of the Rangoon University. Uner the existing regulations, stuents who obtaine qualifying graes in their first egree exainations can enroll as caniates for the aster's egree in respective fiels of specialization. The exaination for the aster's egree consists of two parts; part one, a written exaination, to be taken after two years of stuy, an part two, an oral exaination on the thesis which the caniate ust subit after the written exaination, but within five years fro the ate of registration. Each acaeic epartent in charge of the grauate prograe in 11

12 its own fiel ainistere the prograe within the bouns of the general rules prescribe by the university authorities. 2. Pattern of evelopent in courses an curriculu The evelopent of curriculu an courses has also been largely influence by the governent's social policy. Since the new eucational policy ephasizes the aking of university eucation relevant an contributory to the tasks of the socialist construction, the teaching of the social sciences is also reshape to serve this objective. Uner this policy, priority is given to the teaching of subjects an courses useful an applicable to the social an econoic evelopent of the country. Thus, for instance, the epartents of econoics, coerce an statistics were incorporate into a new professional institute an the teaching of the ore technical aspects of econoics is ephasize. Techniques of econoic planning, input-output analysis, linear prograing, applie statistics an econoetrices, anageent science an operations analysis, accounting, an business anageent for iportant parts of the new curriculu at the stitute of Econoics. It is intene that the Econoic stitute, being establishe as a professional school, will prouce econoic technicians who fit into various positions in governent econoic agencies an organizations. The courses an curriculu in the institute were esigne accoringly. Likewise, the teaching of social sciences in the Arts an Science University is tailore along these lines. For instance in the teaching of psychology, courses in social psychology, inustrial psychology, applie psychology, eucational psychology, an research esign an techniques constitute a greater part of the teaching tie allotte for thir an fourth year prograes. aition, stuents are require to visit plants an factories, stuy social an occupational psychology in actual settings an write a ter paper on the application of psychology to practical situations. The fiel of anthropology also stresses the subjects relevant to social changes taking place in the country; social anthropology, cultural anthropology, an stuy of inority groups an tribes are given special attention. The evelopent of the curriculu an courses in law also has been greatly influence by the changes in the social policy of the governent. the course of socialist revolution, the basic constitutional an legal syste has been altere, with ore changes to follow. Therefore, the new curriculu in law ust take into account not only those social changes alreay effecte but also ipening ones likely to occur in the future. The new law curriculu inclues the stuy of basic legal theories an systes with special reference to socialist legal thought an syste, constitutional laws incluing the evelopent of constitutional laws in Bura. Uner the new regie, while coercial law, the renants of the ol social syste, is being phase out, new laws relating to econoic an social conitions are being enacte. Though geography, history an philosophy coul not be classifie as social sciences in.a strict sense of the ter, epartents instructing these isciplines in the Burese context teach courses oriente towars the social aspects. Soe of these epartents also have taken an active r61e in evelopent of interisciplinary courses in social sciences. It is observe fro the preceing that while teaching of the social sciences has been ae socially ore relevant with the introuction of the new eucational syste, soe social science isciplines have also been roppe altogether or curtaile in the new curriculu. This in a way is an inevitable proble in the face of the revolutionary changes taking place in the society. The institutions of higher learning in this country ha largely grown out of the colonial traitions which in turn ha heavily rawn on estern values an concepts. There is no oubt that the teaching of the social sciences even in the post-inepenent era was largely influence by the values an ieas ore pertinent to the inustrially avance societies of the est. The history of the evelopent of the social sciences in Bura inicates that though soe interepartental or interisciplinary enterprises were attepte, ost ene in failure. The epartental syste of the university was still too strong to weaken the prerogatives of each oain, thus liiting the exchange of ieas an the evelopent of syntheses. hile all of the interepartental prograes are shortlive, not necessarily because of the lack of epartental co-operation, the fact reains that the anageent of interisciplinary prograes are ifficult because the funing, staffing, an control are one only through the epartents. The overall surge in ean for entry into technical an professional institutes stes fro the fact that there are little opportunities for arts or science grauates in governent service because of a glut of university grauates, an that professional grauates are still consiere to have better eployent prospects. Though the new eucational policy restricts the nuber of new entrants allotte annually to such non-utilitarian subjects as the arts or pure sciences, the attraction the professional institutes for the superior stuents to obtain better eployent prospects reuce the calibre of stuents entering the arts an sciences colleges. Since arts inclue the social sciences uner the new setup, what is true for arts subjects is applicable to the social science as well. However, applie social sciences such as law, econoics an coerce, an eucational still continue to increase or at least hol their own as regars the quality of stuents entering their respective epartents an institutes. 12

13 ters of eucational facilities ae available in relation to the nuber of stuents, social sciences, especially applie ones, o not fare too well when copare with other arts an sciences. The faculty-stuent ratio has been consistently increasing since the early sixties, reflecting the fast growth of stuent population in this perio. (See Table I). Table I1 gives the faculty-stuent ratios of various acaeic epartents in the social sciences for the year It ay be observe that applie social sciences like eucation, econoics, an law'ha uch higher rates of the faculty-stuent ratios than theoretical isciplines like psychology an anthropology. This is because a far greater nuber of new entrants have been allotte to ore useful isciplines, while the nuber of new entrants to theoretical subjects was eliberately restricte. It has been governent policy that the allocation of stuents aong ifferent isciplines shoul be eterine accoring to the relative prospects of eployent for grauates in various fiels. As a result, econoics, law, an eucation were allotte a higher nuber of entrants than any other social science iscipline. As the strength of teaching staff in those epartents coul not be increase proportionately, the teacher- stuent ratio has increase rather consierably in the past few years. Table I Growth of Teacher-stuent population in institutions of higher learning in Bura fro to Year uber Arts an Science University Teachers Stuents Ratio stitute of Econoics Teachers Stuents Ratio stitute of Eucation T each er s Stuents Ratio All other professional institutes Teachers Stuents Ratio Table I1 Stuent-teacher population in the social sciences in Bura for the year Teacher - stuent Teaching stafi ratio Sub j ect Lecturing All teach- Stuents Lectur- All staff ing staff ing teachonly staff only ing staff E ucat ion Econoics Geography Law Philosophy Psychology Anthropology History

14 B. Research Acaeic epartents of the university, inepenently establishe research organizations, an social- ata - gathering agencies of the governent are ainly responsible for carrying out research activities in Bura. Acaeic epartents of the university are involve in two types of research activities, epartental research projects initiate an execute by each epartent as part of its official prograe an iniviual research projects initiate an carrie out by iniviual staff ebers accoring to their own interests. Since iniviual research projects are usually finance by the governent an the execution of these projects by staff ebers is treate as perforance of their uties, these projects were brought uner the total research prograe of the university an supervise accoringly by the university authorities. The specialize research agencies are establishe to perfor specific research functions iportant for the social an econoic progress of the country. Coing irectly uner this category in the fiel of social science is the Directorate of Eucational Research responsible for carrying out research activities in the fiel of peagogical ethos an planning an ipleenting eucational prograes. The Historical Research Coission is another special agency establishe by the governent to copile an present an authentic history of Bura fro the earliest ties to the present ay. Though the work of this agency coul not be classifie as entirely belonging to the fiel of the social sciences, any aspects of historical stuies of this coission will coe uner the social sciences category. Apart fro these organizations irectly concerne with research functions, ata collecting agencies an professional organizations executing social prograes in the fiel participate in research activities in the social sciences. The Central Statistical Organization an the Departent of Census, now incorporate into the Departent of Manpower, are two organizations which collect social ata an prouce a series of regular an occasional papers on social conitions of the country. Such regular governent epartents as the Departent of Social elfare, the Departent of Labour an the Departent of Planning, also carrie out soe research projects uner the irection of the Social Science Research Coittee, an participate in the Annual Research Congress which has been hel every year since The research activities of the all governent an seigovernent agencies have been co-orinate by the Research Policy Direction Boar, a inisterial coittee, appointe by the Council of Ministers. This basic broa sketch of the structure of research organization is ore fully explaine in the following section. 1. Organization of research agencies The Research Policy Direction Boar is the apex of the anageent of all research activities an unerneath it is the Research Supervision Boar consisting of only eputy inisters responsible for overseeing the ipleentation of policy irectives of the Research Policy Direction Boar. The Research Coittees fore by the Research Policy Direction Boar accoring to the subject areas inclue heas of acaeic epartents of universities an institutes, heas of specialize agencies, representatives fro the governent technical agencies relate to research activities in various fiels, an proinent scholars in the fiels. The Research Policy Direction Boar, a subcoittee of the Council of Ministers, is a highlevel organization responsible for forulating the research policy, rawing up research plans, appointing the supervisory coittees an other scientific coittees necessary for ipleentation of research prograes an co-orinating all research activities in the country. It is also charge with the responsibilities of forulating guielines neee for the successful ipleentation of the research plans; these inclue laying own proceures governing the interrelationships aong organizations ipleenting the research plans, forulating plans for training scientists an technicians neee for ipleentation of research prograes, an rawing up the prograe for isseination of research finings at hoe an abroa. The Boar is also require to present its views regaring the allotent of oney an other resources aong various research prograes. hile the Research Policy Direction Boar is concerne generally with forulation of research policy an plans, the Research Supervision Research Policy Direction Boar Research Supervision Coittee Science Science Research Research Research Coittee Coittee coittee Heas of University Acaeic Departents Representatives fro Professional Agencies Heasof Specialize Research Organizations Proinent Scholars in Various Fiels Other Research Co ittee, 1

15 Coittee is responsible for the ipleentation of research policies an plans lai own by the higher authorities. This coittee oversees the ipleentation of research prograes, coorinates the various activities of scientific research coittees, an subits recoenations for successful execution of research tasks set out by the Research Policy Direction Boar. The actual ipleentation of policies an guielines lai own by the Research Policy Direction Boar is carrie out by the scientific research coittees fore accoring to subject areas. There are fourteen subject coittees aong which the Social Sciences Research Coittee an the Econoic Sciences Research Coittee are irectly concerne with research in the social sciences. hile the Social Sciences Research Coittee ha been establishe since the introuction of the new research policy an the strealining of research activities in 1966, the Econoic Sciences Research Coittee only cae into existence in 197 because all the research prograes coing within the category of the social sciences ha been growing an the responsibility of carrying out these prograes was too heavy for one coittee. Uner the new setup, the Social Sciences Coittee hanles research activities relating to social welfare, psychology, law, eucation an philosophy, whereas the Econoic Sciences Research Coittee is concerne with research activities in the fiels of econoics, applie statistics, eography, anpower, coerce, public ainistration an social evelopent. The functions of these two coittees inclue the following: (1) ipleenting effectively the irectives of the Research Policy Direction Boar an the Research Supervision Coittee, (2) arranging iscussions an ialogues aong scholars, an prooting interepartental cooperation aong epartents for the avanceent an aelioration of research in respective fiels of stuy, (3) recoening to higher authorities ways an eans of iproving the execution of research plans an prograes, () rawing up the long-ter an short-ter research plans in accorance with the basic principles lai own by the Research Policy Direction Boar, (5) co-orinating the activities of research scholars as well as those of organizations participating in research activities, (6) carrying out what is necessary for progress in the respective fiel of stuy with the approval of the Research Policy Direction Boar an the Research Supervision Coittee. To carry out the above functions, the respective subject coittees eet regularly every onth, an ecie on the priorities of research projects, the forulation of plans an the assignent of research tasks, an the evaluation of the progress of research projects. The research plans rawn up by the subject coittees are synchronize with the national econoic plans; the short-ter or eiu-ter research plan covers the sae uration as the econoic plans o an projects which coul contribute to the ipleentation of the econoic plans are given priority in rawing up the research plans. These subject coittees, though very iportant in their objectives, are only staff coittees ainly responsible for co-orination of research projects. The funing an actual ipleentation of research projects resting with respective ainistrative epartents, the effectiveness of these coittees is soewhat restricte. The Subject Research Coittee ay approve the research projects of the respective epartents within the overall research plan an recoen funs neee for ipleenting the projects, but the responsibilities for aking efforts to procure the requisite funs an executing the projects lie with respective operating agencies. 2. Operating agencies (a) Acaeic epartents of the universities an institutes: As in any institution of higher learning, university teachers in Bura are expecte to contribute to the accuulation of new knowlege in their chosen fiels of stuy. Though in the past, this expectation ha not been foralise into a conition of eployent, or effectively relate to the evaluation of staff, proper creit is now accore to the staff eber who perfors well in this respect. The university epartents uner the irection of the Subject Research Coittees raw up the eiuter research plans an subit the for approval to the acaeic councils of the university an then to the Research Supervision Coittee. The epartents also work out in etail annual research prograes specifying the resources neee an the works to be coplete. These annual plans are then subitte to the universities authorities an then to the Ministry of Eucation for apprsval an also for financial appropriations. The epartental research plans inclue both epartent-sponsore projects as well as iniviual ones. Though iniviual scholars are given latitue in choosing their own fiel of investigation, they are encourage to select topics consistent with the total research goals an contributing 'io the accoplishent of tasks set forth in the plans. (b) Special research organizations the social science fiel, there are two research organizations that coe irectly within the scope of the social sciences, the R'esearch Departent of the stitute of Econoics an the Directorate of Eucational Research. However, their organizational status are not the sae: the Departent of Research in the stitute of Econoics, though a full tie research outfit, is a part of an acaeic 15

16 institution, whereas the Directorate of the Eucational Research is an inepenent organization es - tablishe by an act of the Parliaent an irectly responsible to the Ministry of Eucation. The fact that an acaeic institution separately aintains a research ivision is itself a new experient that has coe only with the establishent of the stitute of Econoics in 196. It is intene that a separate research epartent attache to an acaeic institute will serve as a focal point for organizing the research activities to be initiate by the foreost institution in the fiel. It woul carry out research projects not only useful to the effective teaching, but also contributing to the success of the social econoic construction in the country. aition, this epartent also takes the responsibility of ipleenting the ajor research projects of the institute. It also trains young scholars in research ethos an organizes forus for scholars who wish to present their ieas to their colleagues. This epartent also helps the iniviual research scholars to organize the fiel surveys an provies the with research facilities, other wors, the Departent of Research operates as a prooter, catalyst, an co-orinator of research activities in the stitute of Econoics. The Directorate of Eucational Research is a specialize organization responsible for the prootion an operation of the research prograes basic to the evelopent of the socialist eucational syste. It was first establishe in 1965 as the Eucational Research Bureau with the objects of initiating research activities in eucation, especially the stuy of peagogical ethos in schools. The bureau activities were later expane to cover the esign of eucational tools, the preparation of textbooks in the new an experiental subjects, the isseination of new knowlege through oern ethos, incluing auio-visual ais, an the investigation into effective eans of teaching ault illiterates basic skills in reaing an writing. (c) Social- ata-gathering agencies Apart fro the specialize agencies establishe for oing research in specific areas or fiels, thereare sei-professional organizations, though not exclusively concerne with research, which collect ata an publish inforation about the social econoic conitions. These organizations also Larry out soe research projects to proote their respective objectives. One such organization is the Central Statistical Organization, forerly known as the Central Statistical an Econoics Directorate. The CentralStatistical aneconoics Directorate (CSED in short) was constitute in 1952 by a special Act of the Parliaent to collect statistical ata essential in the foration of social policies an plans. The CSED, a branch of the Ministry of ational Planning, was elegate with the responsibilities of collecting socio-econoic ata, presenting the scientific analysis of these ata, an proviing the Ministry of Planning with technical support in forulating plans an policies. 197, the CSED was reorganize as the Central Statistical Organization with the ain objectives of proviing the statistics require for the forulation of plans, an of presenting the statistical analysis an inices of econoic conitions. This organization at present, generally through other operating agencies, continuously copiles ata relating to each iportant sector of the econoy an analyses these ata in epth. aition, it also conucts continuous surveys on soe selecte aspects of the econoy such as cost of living in urban areas or cost of cultivation in agriculture. Uner the supervision of the Econoic Science Research Coittee, the organization also carries out research projects within the total Research Prograe of the governent. The Census Division of the Departent of Manpower is an organization engaging in the iportant function of perioically taking the census of the population an reporting about the various characteristics of the population to the stateauthorities as well as to the general public. 3. Research activities Social sciences research activities at the university ate back to its earliest ays. However, the ipetus in research was accelerate after inepenence when the social planners of the ay cae face-to-face with the realities of the probles of social reconstruction. At that tie (the 195s), the Econoic Research Project, the ternational Relations Project an the Stuent Counseling Project were iportant prograes in the social science research activities of the university. The Econoic Research Centre fore by the econoic, statistics, an coerce epartents of the university stuie various aspects of econoic planning an evelopent incluing such pioneering stuies as the inputoutput oel of the Burese econoy, stuies relating to agricultural an rural evelopent, probles of sall business, stuies of probles of inustrialization an probles of eographic changes. The ternational Relations Project, jointly operate with the assistance of Johns Hopkins University, initiate research projects investigating probles of political oernization an the evelopent of Bura's foreign relations, 1955, an ternational Seinar on -ation Builing an ational Ientity was hel on the Rangoon University capus with scholars coing over fro South East Asia an other countries. The Stuent Counseling Project of the Departent of Psychology was introuce to eet the nee for creating ore effective stuent relations in the university. It was intene that the project woul help stuents in choosing careers or in overcoing probles of ajustent in the university. Though the project was ore action oriente, research into the basic probles as well as the stuy of effectiveness of the stanar psychological tests uner Burese conitions was carrie out before aopting any counseling ethos. 16

17 The newly-create Departent of Anthropology an Sociology also began research projects stuying faily relations in Burese culture an ethnographies of various inorities. The Departent of History, possibly encourage by the foration of the new Historical Coission an aply staffe with younger Burese historians returning fro abroa after further stuies, ha prouce new an iportant historical research uring this perio. spite of a goo beginning ae in social research in those ays, research activities were not well colorinate. Since each university epartent ha been allowe to set priorities accoring to its own conceptions of the nees of the country, the ore lofty ai of avancing the frontiers of knowlege often prevaile over the ore unane objectives of aking research useful to the econoy. Bringing the social research to serve the cause of social evelopent taking place in the country ha never been ae an operational policy uring this perio. However, with the forulation of a new policy regaring science an technology an also with the establishent of the Research Policy Direction Boar, a new era in research activities was ushere in, in 196. Research activities conucte uring the last ten years reflect the ipact of the policy the governent has carefully forulate an steafastly followe since 196. It was lai own, as one of the principal objectives of higher eucation, that research shoul be carrie out so as to contribute towars the success of the socialist construction. "Research for its own sake" which ight have been acceptable in ore affluent societies has no relevance to a eveloping country which nees to obilize all its available resources for efine social goals. It is iperative that research activities be eaningfully relate to the probles of socialist construction. The long-ter policy an plan of the Bura Socialist Prograe Party expresses the goals as well as the ethos of achieving these goals. It is intene that Bura will ouble its per capita incoe in twenty years, by 199. To achieve this, existing bases of the econoy such as agriculture an forestry will be further expane an inustries with high potentials such as fishery an oil will also be evelope. Partial inustrialization will be accoplishe through the establishent of inustries utilizing national resources. The iproveent of existing technology in basic inustries such as agriculture as well as the introuction of new technology appropriate to the conitions of available resources is envisage. It is also planne that within twenty years the progressive socialization of basic econoic sectors will be carrie out. These basic lines of evelopent broaly inicate the goals to which research activities in all spheres ust be irecte. More specifically for the social sciences, it was lai own that the ways of iproving the existing ethos of econoic anageent shoul be stuie, an the probles of creating a new social orer irecte towars the expresse national goals shoul also be explore. This ephasis on stuy of current sacially-relevant probles is reflecte in the irection the research activities have taken in recent years. Since papers rea at the Annual Research Congress represent a goo saple of research activities going on in all fiels, we analyse an classifie those rea in the Social Science Divisions of the Congress fro 1966 to 197. Accoring to the scale of operationality of research, papers repres enting operation- oriente research preoinate. This scale is ivie into three categories: basic, operational, an action. Basic research is efine as research which helps to unerstan the funaental properties of the syste or funaental aspects of the subject, without being aresse Yo specific probles of applications. Broaly efine, this inclues any theoretical analysis, interpretative stuy or any general escription of the syste. the social sciences, these research efforts ay range fro the stuy of properties of all social syste to the escription of general characteristics of a particular syste. Operation-oriente research efforts, on the other han, are those which seek ore generalize solutions to probles of social evelopent. These inclue types of research which help analyse the situation, escribe the nature of the probles or inicate ajor lines of attack on the proble. Action-oriente research is concerne with fining solutions to specific practical probles an evising ways of ipleenting suggeste solutions. the social sciences, such topics as a stuy of the causes of inflation or a stuy of the probles of technical aoption in rural society ay be efine as operation-oriente, while research relating to specific proposals for cobating inflation or investigation into the introuction of a particular syste of counication eia for technical isseination in a specific setting ay be classifie as action-oriente. Table I11 inicates that while only 13. an 8. 5 per cent of papers can be classifie as belonging to basic research an action-oriente respectively, 78.5 per cent of papers are in the category of operation-oriente research. hile the low nuber of basic research papers is to be expecte uner the existing policy, the sall nuber of actionoriente papers ay have resulte not fro the policy, but fro the proble of briging the gap between research an application. The growth of action-oriente research eans an effective syste of counication, anh co-operation between researchers who look for possible solutions an executives who apply theae solutions. hile researchers nee to unerstan the realities of the probles in the fiel an ust be prepare to tackle these probles, those in charge of operations an execution ust be receptive to new ieas an suggestions. It takes tie an patience by those 17

18 Table I11 Classification, by level of operationality of papers rea in the Social Science Division of the Bura Annual Research Congress fro 1966 to 197 uber Per Cent Basic research papers Operation-oriente research papers Action - oriente research papers 21 a involve to create an atosphere of trust an cooperation, for social research to be of irect service to those in the fiel. Those paper's rea at the Social Science Division of the Annual Research Congress were still further classifie accoring to isciplines an fiels of application. Table IV shows the classification of papers by ajor isciplines in which econoics, sociology, eucation, an law rank in iportance in escening orer. The preoinance of research in econoics is obvious; the whole socialist transforation effort is base on econoic plans an prograes. The sall nuber of papers in anthropology results fro the fact that anthropology as a subject is not represente in the Social Science Division an is part of the Language an Culture Division. Table Iv Classification by iscipline of papers rea in the Social Science Division at the Bura Annual Research Congress fro 1966 to 197 Anthropology Sociology Psychology Philosophy Econoics Deography Eucation Law Statistics Manageent uber a a Per Cent a The istribution aong other ajor isciplines roughly approxiates the priorities given to various isciplines. However, the sall nuber of papers on anageent probably reflects the liitations of oing research in an action-oriente fiel since ost researches in anageent are expecte to be action-oriente. Table V Classification by fiels of application of papers rea in the Social Science Division at the Bura Annual Research Congress fro 1966 to 197 ustry Agriculture Mining Trae Transport Counication Banking Labour Social elfare Eucation Health Econoic Planning Public Ainistration o Application uber a Per Cent a Table V inicates the nuber of papers groupe accoring to ajor fiels of applications. As expecte, eucation an public ainistration in the social sector an inustry, agriculture an econoic planning in the econoic sector, are foun to be ajor fiels of application, reflecting the iportance of each fiel in the total econoic plan, The cross-classification by iscipline an by level of operationality inicates that basic research is concentrate ore in philosophy an law than any other isciplines, again reflecting the fact that it is ore ifficult for certain subject atters to be operationalize. contrast to the papers rea at the Social Science Division of the Annual Research Congress, papers appearing in the Journal of Bura Research Society represent the inepenent research activities of scholars. The Journal of Bura Research Society is a well-respecte organ of a research society foune over 6 years ago. The socieiy's objective is to proote cultural an scientific activities relating to Bura. Accoringly, the Society's journal presents the research activities of scholars in various fiels. Table VI shows the breakown of research papers by various subject atter. Here again, econoics, anthropology, an sociology toppe the social science fiel. However, in ters of level of operationality, it reveale that papers in this journal are less operation-oriente than those rea in the Social Science Division of the Anual Research Congress. This inicates that though operationality has been ephasize as a policy, 18

19 Table VI Classification by subject atter of papers in the Journal of Bura Research Society fro 198 to 197 uber Per Cent Language an Literature 33 Linguistics 22 Philosophy 2 History, 69 Archaeology 1 Geography Anthropology Sociology Psychology Econoics Law Eucation Politics Stat is tics 1 Physical Sciences ia Biological Sciences 1 Geological Science 9 Technology researchers still spen a balance proportion of tie on basic research as well, assuing that the contributors to the Journal an those reaing research papers at the Annual Research Congress overlap.. Finance an sponsorship The governent is the ain an, in ost cases, the only source of finance for supporting research activities in Bura. Except for soe assistance fro international agencies, the governent represents all expeniture in research. At present, there are two types of financial support for research; one, by financing the expeniture of the regular research agencies or in-house research units an the other, by giving grants to the universities for research activities. As state organs, specialize research agencies or in-house research units are finance entirely by the state. Both capital an current expenitures of these organizations are inclue in the buget of the governent. aition, the governent also allotte a certain su as grants to the universities an institutes for research activities. These grants are eant to be use for inciental expeniture only, since salaries an wages for personnel, the cost of equipent, an cost of other capital ites such as builing etc., though not necessarily intene for research -purposes only, have been finance through the regular buget. The total research expeniture of the governent, when copare with other types of expeniture, is still sall; the current expeniture'allotte to specialize research organizations as well as to in-house research activities aounte to 3 illion kyats, only.25 per cent of the total governent expeniture, an.11 per cent of the Gross Doestic Prouct. Table VI1 gives the breakown of current expeniture allotte to various specialize research agencies. The only inepenent research organization in the social sciences is the Directorate of Eucational Research. Its share in the total current expeniture of all research organizations is rather sall. But this organization, though only recently establishe, has been growing very rapily an the construction of new builings to house the expane prograes has been uner way. Of grants given to the university, the share of the social sciences is quite ipressive an growing increasingly larger. Table VIII, the allotents of research grants to the various universities an teaching institutes for the last five years are shown; a fairly sizeable aount, in soe years up to 7. per cent of the total, has been allotte to the stitute of Econoics. hen the aount grante to the social science epartents of the Arts an Science Universities is taken into consieration, the share of all social sciences becoes quite significant. This fact is confire in Table IX which gives the university research grants broken own by epartents for the year It is shown that the grant given to social science epartents fore per cent of the total university grants. The breakowns for other years are not available, but since the stitute of Econoics receive the larger share of grants, the sae pattern is likely to follow. Since research funs are allocate irectly to epartents, how to finance the interisciplinary project has been a proble which ust be tackle in such an enterprise. At present, to put into operation an interisciplinary or interorganizational research project, one epartent has to act as a sponsor, an the inciental expenitures for the project are bugete through this sponsoring epartent. So far this arrangeent has worke rather well. 1972, the Departent of Research of the stitute of Econoics collaborate with the Central Directorate of Econoics an Statistics in a research project stuying eployent conitions in nine urban centres. The cost of the project was borne by the Central Econoics an Statistics Directorate. Siilarly, a preliinary stuy on the conitions an otivations of youth in Bura was carrie out by the special coittee consisting of Social elfare Departent, the stitute of Econoics, an psychology epartent of Rangoon Arts an Science University. The Social elfare Directorate was responsible for funing the project. All these projects were successfully coplete. But the scale of these joint operations is too sall an 19

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22 the experiences of interepartental research rather too liite to warrant saying anything efinite about the aequacy of the existing arrangeent. The assistance fro the international agencies for research an teaching in the social sciences fore a very insignificant portion of the total aount spent. the late fifties an early sixties, a series of projects strengthening teaching an research in econoics, coerce, an statistics were initiate with the help of external assistance. A training prograe for younger teachers an researchers has been successfully execute with the assistance fro these projects. Recently, the UICEF has assiste the Eucational Research Departent with equipent, supplies an training facilities for projects concerning introuction of auio-visual ais in schools, the esign of eucational tools, an other projects of the Directorate. But in ters of the total resources use, the quantu of foreign assistance has been sall. It is ainly ue to the governent policy of ephasis on self help an internal efforts an that foreign technical ai is only to be sought in the areas where local resources or skills are not aequate. C. Social science anpower If all institutions concerne with teaching an research in the social sciences are viewe as a whole or as a syste, the staff responsible for teaching an research in these organizations ay be consiere as inputs, while those who grauate fro these institutes or those who obtaine training in these organizations can be classifie as outputs. this section, we inten to iscuss the aequacy of anpower inputs relative to the establishe goals an also probles of eploying traine anpower coing out of the syste. e shall first appraise the quantu an quality of technical anpower input in ters of the type an extent of work to be perfore. Table M Breakown of research grants to universities an institutes by subject areas for the year Aount grante (Kyats ) per cent Social Sciences Econoics Others - Culture Philosophy History Geography 38, 7 Law 1,5 Psychology, 3 Anthropology 2, 7 1, , 6, 7, , Languages Burese 6 English 3 Oriental Stuies 3,75, Physical Sciences 1, Physics 1,532 Earth Sciences 15, Geology 15, Biological Sciences Engine eping Agriculture 2,9, 6, - Total: 162,

23 ~ 1. Manpower input Table X inicates the extent of avance training the university staff in social science epartents has receive. The percentage of staff with postgrauate egrees in the social sciences is rather sall, only per cent of the total. However, the proportion of staff ebers who have ha avance egrees aong lecturing staff is quite high; 85 per cent of the lecturing staff have obtaine post-grauate egrees. If we assue the lecturing staff to be the ain vehicle of propagation of knowlege in the universities, the nuber of staff with post-grauate training can be sai to represent the status an the conitions of staff training in the universities. However, when we consier the fact that tutors, the basic echelon of the teaching staff coparable in their functions to teaching assistance in Aerican universities, have been force to assue the r61e of lecturers because of the rapi influx of stuents, the level an extent of avance training attaine by the lecturing staff alone cannot truly be taken as inicative of what the faculty in general has attaine. e shoul take into account that tutors theselves, instea of teaching sall classes on a ore personal basis, have taken over the lecturing functions, an tutorial classes theselves have grown in size an becoe ore like lecture classes. this situation, the sae qualification is now eane fro the tutorial staff as fro the lecturing staff. TableXI gives the proportion of staff ebers who attaine various levels of eucational an professional qualifications in research an researchrelate agencies in the social sciences. It is foun that 77 per cent of technical staff in all research an research-relate organizations have ha foral professional training in their respective fiels per cent of the technical staff of these organizations also ha post-grauate egrees in their own fiels. The sae pattern is also observe in each of the organizations. Though the nuber who have coplete post-grauate stuies is rather sall, the professional preparation of the staff as a whole can be juge satisfactory. Uner the existing syste, there are two ethos of securing traine personnel for an eucational or research institution in Bura. The epartents coul irectly recruit persons who have alreay obtaine avance egrees in their fiels or arrange for suitable staff to unergo further training at hoe or abroa. Most professional epartents utilize both ethos effectively. Because Bura has long operate a state scholarship schee uner which proising young scholars are sent to various institutions of higher learning in foreign countries, there has been a strea of qualifie scholars returning hoe after stuies abroa. aition, each governent epartent incluing the universities has ha in operation the staff training prograe, rawn up along with the Four Year Econoic Plan, an covering the sae perio as the plan. Uner this prograe, both Table X Teaching staff with avance training in their respective fiels Staff with avance egrees Traine Total staff as o. ae of university o. of Master's Master's Ph. Ds per cent an institute Staff local Foreign Foreign Total of total 1 Arts an Science Universities (a) Geography (b) History (c) Psychology () Philosophy (e) Law (f) Anthropology stitute of Econoics stitute of Eucation Total

24 junior an senior staff are provie with opportunities to unertake further stuies or unergo training at hoe or abroa. Thanks to this long ter arrangeent, the technical qualifications of staff ebers in these organizations have been iproving constantly. 2. Manpower output Social science grauates fro the universities an institutes were largely absorbe by governent agencies operating in the econoic an social sectors. Grauates of the stitute of Econoics, for instance, will join as accountants, econoists or anagerial assistants in such econoics agencies as the Directorate of Planning, Buget Departent, State Corporations an other state econoic organizations. The Ministry of Eucation eploys grauates of the stitute of Eucation, while various lawenforceent agencies an juicial epartents utilize grauates in law. Up to 197, social science grauates were not face with serious probles of uneployent though there were soe ifficulties for other orinary arts or science grauates uring the sae perio. Because of the rapi socialization of enterprises an the subsequent establishent of any large-scale state enterprises uring this perio, university grauates in general were reaily absorbe into the ainistrative achinery. However, since 1 97, the organizational growth has been stunte owing to the slow growth rate of the econoy. Since then, uneployent aong university grauates has been increasing an is likely to o so for soe years to coe. It was estiate in one stuy that even if the planne objectives of 5. 9 per cent increase in Gross Doestic Prouct over a twenty-year perio is attaine, the proble of uneploye grauates will reain. this stuy, the nees for anpower with ifferent levels of skills forecaste accoring to the paraeters given in the twenty-year plan were atche against the. probable anpower output coing out of the eucational syste. It is foun that while uring the next twenty years, the supply of eployees with lower-level skills coul be absorbe by the expansion of econoic activities, the supply of eployees Table XI Eucational status of technical staff in research organizations an research-relate agencies in the social sciences First egree Diploa Eucational with profes- or status sional iplo- other a or profes- profes- o. Organi- Docto- Masters sional first SiOMl Others Total zation rate egree training 1 Directorate of Eucational Research uber 1 Per cent Division of Census Manpower Departent uber Per cent Central Statistical Organization uber Per cent Total nuber Total nuber of Per cent

25 rl -.-I L 6, 1 c !.A - E 6,.A.w.A L 6, > E: 7 CI. E c CI 1 - L M c 3 E P 1 E E.A 5 3 L CO.-I * CO e CO * * * * r( * CI Q) > E P ) Q) -. - G.A v1 P E I,- z rl * * * * * - ) 3 r. #-I U l #-I B 2 (3 r( r( e r( rl r( Q) Q) v1 A s I CI Q) c, P 91 Q) CI + a U CO I? CO OD *.-I r(.-i h M E ) H % E 91 c, a x w fi U U) * * * * * a, L 7 + r. z.a L 2 rci Q) + a x + 2 ).-I CO.-I CI I rl ) 2 #-I M U l r. c. s c1 * * * * * O *.-I 8 s. - l - Ll c a, *I 3 - a U CO a3 r( CO 19 8 * r(.. 3 E 25

26 with ile an higher level skills woul excee the ean for such eployees. This calculation of course assues that the present rate of ean for higher eucation as well as the existing rules for aission an ethos of exaination woul continu e. e notice that the nuber of all university grauates has increase by 5 per cent in the last eight years an the output of grauates in social sciences by about 75 per cent in the sae perio, as inicate in Table XII. Since the nuber of grauates in any particular year largely epens on the nuber of new entrants aitte to the institutions of higher learning four to six years earlier, any raical change in the pattern of the first year enrolents will alter the rate of the output of university grauates in later years. There was such a change in the year that year, in spite of the establishe policy of restricting university aission to those who can benefit ost an to a nuber corresponing with the nees of the econoy, new entrants to existing arts an science universities ha been allowe to increase by alost two ties an a newly-introuce University Corresponence Course took in an aitional 18, 998 stuents for the first year prograe. Even if the nuber of new entrants stabilizes at the 1965 level for a few years to coe, the output of grauates will alost ouble in four years' tie an the alreay worsening conitions of grauate uneployent will further eteriorate. Although the eployent conitions of the applie social science grauates, that is, grauates in law, eucation, econoics an coerce have so far been coparatively satisfactory, the inclu - sion of these professional courses in the corresponence prograe rastically increase the nuber of stuents offering these courses, 95 stuents in the Corresponence Prograe offere econoics as ajor an 656 stuents in the sae prograe offere to rea for the law egree, whereas the nuber of new entrants to the regular prograes of the stitute of Econoics an Eucation were kept at the sae level as before, 1 an 5 respectively MAJOR ISSUES AD PERSPECTIVES A. Evolution of policy Though we coul not conten that Bura has ha a efinitive an pronounce policy for the social sci.ences, there has eerge, uring the fifteen years a fraework which efines the bounaries an liits within which the social sciences ust operate an the irections in which these sciences ust go. The earliest inication of governental thinking in this regar is the provisions inclue in the stateent of national ieology an policy enunciate in The yorl-view an goals of the Socialist Prograe Party provie the basic social fraework by which a new Burese society, a huane society, free fro all fors of exploitation, of working peoples striving together for the coon betterent, woul be establishe. These basic worl-views an goals in fact becae the basic orientations towars which the social sciences ust guie the course of their own evelopent. hile econoic exploitation is pronounce unesirable, the path of social evelopent through the coon striving by socialist eocratic ethos is appe out in the national ieology an prograe. More specifically, the first policy stateent on university eucation lai own that university eucation ust be eaningfully relate an responsive to the cause of socialist construction. This policy further inicates the rsle the sciences ust play an the ephasis it ust ake in eveloping the curriculu an prograing the research. the ational Research Policy, forulate in 1966, the above points were further efine. It recognize the avanceent of science an technology to be the prerequisite for the successful construction of a socialist state an econoic syste. Aitionally, it pointe out that science an technology being evelope in Bura ust be relevant to the social econoic conitions an, at the sae tie, be oern enough to be able to catch up with the international stanars. It is unerstoo that science an technology as referre to here inclue the social sciences as well. The objectives of the Directorate of Eucational Research as expresse in the charter of the organization ephasize again conucting research contributing to the success of the current eucational prograe, evaluating the current eucational practices, an exploring possible solutions to the eucational probles of Bura. These objectives illustrate that the question of relevance to the existing conitions is not narrowly efine; the policy oes not restrict the researchers to the low level of practical probles only, but offers a wie latitue in exploring the general probles of eucational evelopent as well as evaluating the pros an cons of current prograes an practices. Since there is no other inepenently establishe research agency in the fiel of social science besies the Eucational Research Directorate, no foral policy with regar to other social sciences has been forulate. But we can expect that the sae type of objectives woul have been uphel if there ha been soe other social science research agencies in existence. Though there has been no forally expresse policy of social sciences, the Research Policy Direction Boar perioically set own priorities an irections to be followe by the various Subject Research Coittee. For the perio of the Secon Four Year Plan , the following aong various guielines lai own are concerne with the social sciences. 26

27 8.A U c: v).p I - l k bd k P I c C. 5.A k E.rl 5 k D I * E-U: )p. I e E-* I c- ~ - I E- e- I E-& E- I O DE- I 3 a nw - a c DCO n w -.I I D DE- n w -I I n D D * n L( 3 U ) L M n? * * * * CO * c 3 w w k * -3 w" - * CO * * CO ED CO E" E U L Q, k -3 a e- 2, I I 5 J k L % w L- * rl * CO E- 9 * e- c..w w w L Q, + -3 w 9 E- CO E- E- e- c- * e- CO E- E-.w 25 p O 2 zg a L k ob CO E- E- E- * c- CO CO a3 CO - a Q) CO CO CO CO * E-.w % :& - L c c 73 $2 w E- + OD CO * E- CO CO ( E- O CO * * CO CO OD * * E- ra.w E 27

28 (1) Consistency with the objectives an prograes of the plan. (2) Aaptation of foreign technology to Burese conitions an evelopent of new technology (3) appropriate to local situations. Exploring new technology an ethos which will ake econoic organizations ore efficient. () Stuy of probles for the construction of a socialist econoic structure. (5) Stuy of probles for the construction of a socialist social syste. (6) Stuy of culture, literature, an ieology of native races. The escription of the evolution of research guielines relating to the social sciences inicates that the current frae within which social sciences operate, though a workable instruent, is an offshoot of the policy irecte towars the evelopent of the "harer" sciences an technology. The approach is base on the iea of harnessing all ethos, techniques, an resources in the builing of a new society. The current guielines o not spell out the exact place an rsle of the social sciences in the whole schee of the sciences, but coul be taken to have inicate that the social sciences are consiere useful in the socialist construction an any contributions fro social sciences in this regar are welcoe. Though this approach is effective in arshalling all available help in the national struggle for evelopent, it ay be that a ore positive policy is neee in the reconstruction of the social sciences theselves. The current policy guielines are aie ainly at irecting research activities, an the creation of the social sciences as a ivision is opte probably ore for the convenience of anaging research than for any special recognition. Siilar guielines governing the evelopent of curriculu an courses in the universities an institutes exist, but the social sciences have not been conceive as a unifie fiel, nor have they been earcate an given inepenent status in the acaeic organization. Eucation an econoics have been carve out of the ol syste into separate institutes because of their usefulness to the whole evelopent eneavour. Law, psychology, an anthropology are accepte as ifferent isciplines, an what they can contribute to the social evelopent is appreciate, but the organization of these isciplines into a unifie fiel has not been reattepte since the abolition of the short-live faculty of social sciences in 196. This probably stes fro two reasons. First, the preoccupation with the evelopent itself probably biase one towars useful sciences such as engineering an geology whose contributions coul easily be easure. The whole university eucation has ephasize science an technology to such a point that any young people began to equate arts an huanities with backwarness an parasitis. Another reason for not specifying a separate fiel for the social sciences is relate to the proble of the social sciences theselves. Unlike other sciences or even languages, the usefulness or "congeniality" of social sciences in a new social setting was consiere a oubtful case, especially if one takes into account the estern bourgeois origin of social sences an the alignent in the past of soe of its isciplines, like international relations, political science, with the previous regies, or with partisan views iniizing the sins an extolling the virtues of the parliaentary eocratic systes. So a ore cautious approach by way of prooting these aspects of isciplines serving the practical interest of the country was taken. But for the socal sciences to be of real value to the host society, it cannot be a ere bag of social gagets or a congloerate of useful techniques; the whole theoretical structure elineating the process of change in the eveloping societies ust also be constructe. This is not the proble of policy alone; in this question figure proinently the inherent probles of the isciplines theselves an special probles of transplanting the in new soil, iffering entirely fro their original ones. B. Developent of the social sciences as a fiel of stux Making the social sciences relevant an responsive to the social conitions in the country is not an easy task. For knowlege iparte fro the social sciences, to be of service to the country, it ust first be appropriate to the country's stage of evelopent. The social sciences, as they have been evelope in the est, are ainly aresse to the probles of inustrially-avance countries. There is no enying the fact that probles iportant to the inustrially-avance societies ay not be at all relevant to a eveloping country in the early stages of that evelopent. Social scientists in a eveloping country, especially in one unergoing a revolutionary process of change, face the first proble of ajustent when they start esigning a prograe in the social sciences. Even if they have esigne a course well-suite to the country's nees, which in itself is no sall task since relevant knowlege about eveloping societies is still incoplete or not organize yet, the proble of fining a suitable textbook is alost insurountable. A well-written textbook in physics, cheistry or any other sciences coul easily be use in a university of any country, east or west, capitalist or socialist, whereas a stanar textbook in econoics or sociology is harly suitable for stuents in eveloping countries, uch less so for those in countries unergoing socialist revolutions. For instance, structural-functionalis in sociology shoul be of use in explaining how pieces hang together in ongoing societies even if,in its extree for, it has a bias towars aintaining a status quo. The question is how this conception can be eaningfully 28

29 relate to the question of class conflict an social change or how this theory can be set in the fraework explaining both change an stability, or avance an backwar societies. the sae vein, arginal analysis, theory of ean, theory of istribution shoul be set own in such a way that these will explain the socialist syste as well as the ixe econoy. Keynesian econoics shoul be properly contraste with the Marxian theory of stagnation an evelopent. So far, there has been no textbook in econoics or sociology applicable an relevant to all social systes. either is there any textbook written for the socialist econoic syste, but incorporating all usable concepts fro estern econoic thoughts. The proble of a coprehensive theoretical synthesis in any social science iscipline is the task thrust upon all scientists in the fiel. This ission is further restricte by the slow evelopent of the fiel itself. ith all these liitations in in, Burese social scientists have taken it upon theselves, on the one han, to copile a boy of theoretical knowlege consistent with ieals an conitions of the country an, on the other, to evelop each iscipline as a praxiology useful an applicable to solving probles in Bura. Due to the urgency of the ean for practical knowlege as well as the ifficult nature of the first task, the evelopent of social sciences as a praxiology is ephasize. This tren is clearly evient when one stuies the way in which the teaching of econoics was ajuste to eet changing conitions. Other applie social sciences like eucation an law followe suit. But the ore behavioural isciplines like psychology an sociology have ha a harer proble of ajustent. First of all, what technique of scieiology or psychology woul be useful to the social construction is rather uncertain, at least not reaily apparent. As theoretical isciplines, they are ore value-laen or ethnocentric. Unlike econoics, they have not got a reay set of useful tools. Econoists can pull out of their hats such techniques as input-output oel, linear prograing, social accounting, or econoetric ethos, while the behavioural sciences have not ha anything coparable to the in ters of usefulness. Largely because of this, the ajustent of sociology or psychology to changing conitions is slow an soewhat retare. Even when a praxiological approach is successfully ephasize as in econoics, a eeper unerstaning of econoic process through theoretical analysis is still require for the lasting contribution to social progress. It shoul be realize that a penetrating theoretical analysis of econoic process, though its use is not ieiately apparent, will help the planners evise hetter alternative stwegies. The sae is also true in the cases of sociology an psychology. A eeper unerstaning of eleents an processes of social change will go a long way towars contributing to esigning a better prograe of social change. The iea that the social sciences coul equally play a significant rble in effecting a planne social change has not been ipresse upon the potential users of knowlege, or policy-akers. So far, the iportance or usefulness of the social sciences to the evelopent process has not been fully recognize. It sees that the tie has now coe for social scientists to play a ore iportant r61e in social construction. The recent policy of ephasizing efficiency at all levels of governent calls for help not only fro technology, but also fro the praxiology of social sciences. Better preparation, an ore vigorous efforts fro social scientists are now iperative. C. Research an applications On the basis of the facts presente earlier, we coul not say with any assurance that research in the social sciences in Bura has been effectively relate to operational probles, as intene by the ational Research Policy. or coul we conten that these research efforts in ters pf quantity as well as quality have reache the stage where they play a requisite r61e in the process of evelopent. First of all, the aount of oney, aterial an anpower expane so far to this en has not been coparable with efforts ae for the avanceent of research in other sciences an technology. There is no oubt that the relative priority given to harer sciences ust be greater, but the question is: "Do the social sciences receive the encourageent they eserve? '' or "Has the full power of the social sciences been harnesse to serve in effecting a planne social change?" The answers to these questions are not in the affirative. As reporte earlier, although the social sciences' contributions are welcoe, how significantly they can further the cause of socialist evelopent is never fully realize. Although it was intene that social science research shoul irectly help to solve the practical probles of socialist construction, the current perforance of the social sciences is not what it coul have been if their full potentials ha been utilize. Action-oriente research efforts which shoul have preoinate in the total prograe are still too few an too spasoic to be of any help to ecision-akers in the practical fiels. The feeback between users an researchers has not been well organize: too few executives will approach the researchers for help an too sall a nuber of researchers have ha the opportunities of seeing their finings put to the aci test of practicality. That the social sciences have not playe the rale expecte of the as practical sciences contributing to evelopent efforts is probably ue, on the one han, to the reticent or restraine atosphere that ha pervae the state organizations up to the last few years an, on the other han, to the liitations of social scientists theselves 29

30 through their lack of experience in practical fiels. Selling new solutions or ieas as alternatives to what has been alreay one is a elicate social process even when the value an potentials of the research are fully unerstoo. other sciences an technologies, the aoption of a new technique or process usually involves a iniu of organizational change. Even when organizational ajustent is neee, it is recognize that the ajustent oes not iply any inherent inefficiency of anagers. It is unerstoo that huan ajustent is ae only to accooate better achines or techniques. On the contrary, the social sciences stuy the organizational echaniss or social arrangeents theselves. Social researches invariably weigh the efficiency of current social arrangeent, thus inirectly evaluate the effectiveness of anagers as well. For exaple, a stuy of evising supervise creit for farers ay prouce solutions invaliating current practices an outating current organizational skills. A new oel for inventory control replaces the existing controls in the whole organizational syste. A new peagogical etho in school will rener obsolete current skills an knowlege of the teachers. All these innovations an iproveents in social arrangeent, which is the essence of the social sciences, involve huan aaptation an ajustent in egrees uch larger than coul be observe in the case of applications ' of research in other fiels. Unless toplevel ecision akers were very receptive to the introuction of further innovations an conscious of their values, an there existe a preiu on efficiency an a esire for iproveent sprea through all levels of the organization, social research coul not thrive. These conitions conucive to the evelopent of applie research, however, were har to fin in the early stages of socialist transforation. The urgent nee for ore rastic social changes overwhele the requireents for efficiency in internal structure. Thus, achieving the local optiu is often sacrifice to the overall interest of aking rastic changes successful. However, as socialist construction gains oentu, the nee for efficiency an iproveent in operational systes becoes ore strongly felt. The question of the prepareness of social scientists is another factor showing the progress in aking social research ore useful for solving probles. Social scientists so eeply ibue with traitions of constructing theories an builing oels are often reluctant to becoe involve with facts or, not having ha the requisite experience, hesitate to tackle the probles of operations in the fiel. The general lack of otivation for aking serious research efforts is another obstacle in the progress of social sciences responsive to the nees of the country. The current syste of rewars in the universities an other institutions of higher learning i not give enough weight to research work in the evaluation of the perforance of personnel. Coping with the ever growing nuber of stuents in the universities also sietracke the ore lauable iea of expaning the frontiers of knowlege an rewaring those who i it. The weaknesses of the current syste of organization in research is another proble to be tackle to iprove perforance in research prograes. The fact that organizations which say what project shoul be initiate or given priority have not ha the authority to provie resources akes ipleentation ifficult. Subject res ear ch coittees, though responsible for setting priorities an rawing up the prograes, coul not provie the necessary eans to enable operating agents to carry out the projects. Ha there been a single authority to set priorities an to istribute resources, the research prograes woul have been ore effectively ipleente. If significant progress in the fiel of social research is to be achieve, there are certain areas towars which sufficient efforts ust be irecte. So far there has been no co-orinate attept to stuy various phases or aspects of evelopent process. A stuy of the various aspects of oernization will not only iprove unerstaning of ongoing process of social change, but also raise the stanar of perforance of those in the fiel. Since the Burese econoy, with its liite arket an restricte resource base, woul have to evelop within the context of external trae an counication, it is iperative that Bura be integrate into the worl econoy was well as into soe kin of regional counity with coon econoic interests. The country's international econoic an political relations is,therefore, another area of research which ust be given priority. Another iportant area of research is the stuy of cultures of inority an ethnic groups of Bura. The proble of integrating ifferent ethnic groups into a unifie culture has been a national preoccupation for a long tie past an will still engage a large part of the nation's efforts for soe tie to coe. It is recognize that this task coul be accoplishe only through coparable iproveents in social an econoic conitions of these areas, attune to the nees an esires of the people. This proble poses another challenge to social researchers to show that they are responsive to social eans. aition, the stitute of Econoics' effort in the fiel of research shoul also be strengthene. Econoic research shoul be irecte towars proviing help in iproving efficiency in econoic planning an anageent. There is no oubt that research efforts in the social sciences ust be expane an strengthene to reey the weaknesses of the current prograe. There are two alternatives available for expaning research activities in Bura. Establishing ore inepenent research agencies is an alternative which will require a large ose of aterial an a new crop of traine anpower both of which 3

31 coul not probably be spare in the current state of the econoy. A ore logical option is to strengthen existing university epartents an organize research units within the universities an the institutes. Having ha the largest nuber of traine anpower in the social sciences, the universities an institutes shoul be encourage to channel part of their resources into research activities. The establishent of research units within the universities woul exploit available resources to the fullest extent. These units woul be operate by a sall core of experts aie by other acaeic staff of the universities. Since eans for higher eucation as well as for research contributions are expaning, the introuction of a new prograe to increase the nuber an to iprove the quality of teachers an researchers shoul be consiere. D. Future irections for resource use It has been alreay inicate that, within the planne perio of twenty years, the nee for anpower with higher-level skills, will not be sufficient to absorb the future output of the institutions of higher learning in the country, assuing that the sae conitions for aission, in exainations, an the sae egree of esire for higher eucation reain. However, it is estiate that the total anpower supply woul atch the total anpower ean at the en of the planne perio. This inicates that ore anpower with lower-level skills than with higher-level ones is require. Although the rate of increase in university stuent population as a whole nees to be restraine, internal ajustents of stuent population between institutes or isciplines by increasing the nuber of aissions to soe institutes or subjects an ecreasing the nuber of new entrants to other institutes an subjects woul still be necessary. At present, grauates of professional institutes for about 25 per cent of the total output of grauates, the rest being grauates of Arts an Science Universities. It is expecte that even within the projecte nuber of stuents, an increase in nuber enrolling in professional institutes an in applie isciplines ay be esirable. It is likely that grauates in applie social sciences, especially in econoics, eucation, an law, woul be neee increasingly as the jpleentation of the Twenty Year Plan progresses. All these observations suggest that both teaching facilities an teaching staff in social sciences will have to be expane. It is also note that bringing social sciences into close contact with real life probles of socialist construction eans calls for a greater effort in the sphere of research. A theoretical synthesis eaningful to the national ieals an conitions nees to be create out of the welter of conflicting concepts an trens currently existing in each social science fiel. These again require better preparation on the part of the teaching staff. Both to increase the nuber of traine teachers neee to eet the expaning eans for grauates in applie social sciences an iprove the quality of the acaeic staff in general to enable it to carry out new tasks in research effectively, we nee a ore vigourous grauate training syste than the existing one. A better organize grauate school syste coparable to those existing in estern an socialist countries is an alternative we shoul seriously explore. At present, grauate teaching is the resiual ite of the total teaching loa an the faculty evotes ost of its tie to the teaching of unergrauates. The present syste of confining each grauate stuent only to stuies in his chosen fiel an not allowing hi to take inor courses in other epartents probably restricts the vision an foresight of the stuent in his intellectual eneavours. A grauate school with epartents each offering a wie variety of courses both for its own ajor stuents an stuents fro other epartents woul proote cross fertilization of ieas an be able to organize a better prograe in fiels in which interisciplinary stuy is a "ust" for a eeper insight. fact, there is no fiel in the social sciences which coul not possibly benefit fro such cross fertilization. The regional stuy an evelopent stuy, priorities in the schee of evelopent of the social sciences in Bura, coul be effectively introuce in such a syste. A grauate school with a faculty evote to a higher-level teaching an research will also create strong acaeic currents which will sprea to the whole university. IV. REGIOAL AD ITERATIOAL CO-OPERATIO Traitionally, the University of Rangoon ha ha close contacts with the estern acaeic worl, especially with universities in the Unite Kingo. During its early ays, ost of its professors were recruite fro the staff of British universities an any of its professors eventually returne to faous Brj.tish universities to occupy senior positions there. The first group of Burese professors to replace British professors were also ebers of the first batch of Burese scholars traine in British universities. Because of this close contact with the outsie worl an of the superior quality of the teaching staff, the contributions of Rangoon University to the fiels of the huanities an the social sciences ha been quite consierable, particularly in those of history, econoics, an geography. The University of Rangoon has continue to aintain its early stanars an quite a few Burese professors fro Rangoon now occupy iportant chairs at universities in the est. Just before an after inepenence, relations with the outsie worl in the acaeic sphere becae ore iversifie. Scholars were sent not 31

32 only to the traitional centres of learning in the Unite Kingo, but also to universities in the Unite States, estern Europe, an the Soviet Union. But the bulk of Burese scholars in this perio ha receive their eucation in the Unite Kingo an the Unite States. This was probably because the Buran whose knowlege of foreign tongues was restricte to English only, coul ajust well in universities at which English was the eiu of instruction. However, since the takeover of power by the Revolutionary Council in 1962, Bura has oifie this policy an sent her young scholars to various lans where best knowlege in each fiel coul be obtaine. Though Bura ha ha this long traition of association with the outsie worl in the acaeic fiel, the Burese scholars' contacts with the outsie worl becae less frequent in the postinepenence era, especially in the revolutionary perio. The preoccupation with their own probles of ajustent to changing conitions preclue Burese scholars fro aking extensive contacts with the outsie acaeic worl. Moreover, the probles which ha engage these scholars in the early perio of socialist revolution were so intrinsic to national conitions that local experts theselves ha ha to fin their own solutions. However, even uring this perio, counication an exchanges with foreign scholars, though soewhat less frequent, still continue. Burese social scientists contribute to scholarly journals in other countries. hile ost of the theoretical writings, especially in econoics, appeare in the journals in the est, research finings were reporte in journals publishe in neighbouring countries. Although there is no journal evote entirely to the social sciences, two learne journals, The Journal of the Bura Research Society, (J. B. R. S. in short) an the Union of Bura Journal of Literary an Social Sciences inclue any papers in the social sciences. Although both journals are bilingual, ost articles in the J. B. R. S. are presente in English. Bura has also hoste two international eetings in the social sciences uring this perio. 1955, a seinar on "ation Builing an ational Ientity" was hel in Rangoon, attene by scholars fro the est an neighbouring countries. 1959, the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Bura Research Society was celebrate on the capus of Rangoon Universitywith a research conferenceattene an contribute to by note scholars frouniversities in the est as well as fro institutions in Southeast Asian countries. At both conferences, the wie-ranging questions of national builing in Southeast Asia were iscusse an papers concerning this subject contribute. More recently, Bura has participate in the Unite ations sponsore orl Population Year an introuce research prograes stuying various aspects of population changes in Bura. The University of Rangoon, now Rangoon Arts an Science University, the stitute of Econoics an the stitute of Eucation have aintaine corial relationships with respective institutions of higher learning in Southeast Asia. Another evelopent in this regar is the eerging scholarly relationships with fraternal socialist countries. Many young scholars in the social sciences now go for further stuies to institutions of higher learning in Eastern European socialist countries an Burese social scientists participate in international seinars on proble of evelopent hel in these countries. A. Areas for regional an international co-operation It is the national policy of the governent that a country ust work out its own solutions to its probles an shoul evelop its econoy through its own efforts. This, however, shoul not be interprete as equivalent to the iea of seclusion. It is alreay expresse in the national ieology that Bura will avail itself of pertinent an useful experiences of other countries, irrespective of their social systes. It has also been an accepte policy of the governent that econoic co-operation, utually beneficial an without any strings attache, will always be welcoe, especially if sponsore by the Unite ations. The sae policy is followe in the atter of acaeic evelopent in the country. It is accepte that local social scientists coul learn fro other countries knowlege useful an relevant to the probles at han. Even though we posit the view that Burese social scientists ust synthesize an evelop social sciences within their own social fraework, there are efinite areas in which international co-operation will facilitate the rapi progress in our own efforts towars this en. 1. One such area is the evelopent of acaeic curricula an textbooks. The fact that we cannot ake outright use of textbooks fro estern countries is recognize not only by us but also by scholars in other lans where siilar social conitions prevail. Our proble of ajustent to local conitions will be in soe ways siilar to that face by social scientists in Sri Lanka, Tanzania, or Cuba. Social scientists in eveloping countries are generally likely to have analogous probles coon to the current stage of evelopent. The nee for theoretical synthesis is not exclusively the proble of social scientists in eveloping countries though they ay have felt the nee ore earnestly. This is the area in which social scientists fro avance countries coul contribute substantially. Unesco coul sponsor a project which woul help copile basic textbooks in soe social science isciplines such as sociology an econoics in which institutional orientations were strongly felt. Meber countries intereste in the proble coul participate in the project. The iniu an international organization intereste in the fiel, such as Unesco, shoul o, is to sponsor seinars an 32

33 ~ workshops on esigning curricula, creating textbooks, an teaching of courses in social sciences in eveloping countries. These seinars coul be expane into general seinars in which all eveloping countries coul participate an special seinars ealing with probles particular to countries with siilar social systes. This last proposal woul greatly facilitate the evelopent of social sciences responsive to the nees of eveloping countries. 2. The secon area-in which international cooperation coul contribute to the evelopent of the social sciences is the regional exchange of scholars an knowlege in various social science fiels. This proble is ore crucial for sall countries, whose future evelopent epens on closer cooperation aongst theselves. There is no oubt that no single sall country coul be either viable enough to withstan the vicissitues of international trae, or econoically strong enough to reap the full potential of international specialization. terests of soe countries in a region are so interrelate for econoic survival an stability that each ust unerstan the probles of others. any ways, the probles of Bura woul be siilar to those existing in neighbouring countries. How Bura solves its own evelopent probles will be quite relevant for other countries in the region. Regional exchange of scholars, regular forus to exchange viewpoints an share research finings will be greatly neee to be utually beneficial. 3. The avance training in the social science is another area in which regional co-operation can be very effective. At present, all avance training in social sciences in eveloping countries erives its ipetus fro institutions in inustriallyavance countries whose probles are very issiilar to theirs. e shoul recognize that social sciences relevant to our social setting coul be avance only within our own countries. If each country in a region coul concentrate on a chosen fiel of specialization an exchange knowlege with the others, the stanar of avance training coul be effectively raise. The establishent of a regional school in the social sciences or in applie social sciences is often taken as an efficient way of proviing high-level training within the context of local conitions. A regional school, to be accepte by potential users in eber countries, ust offer acaeic or technical training coparable in quality to that obtainable in institutions of higher learning in inustrially-avance countries. The prootion of suchaproject calls for, as a preconition, the availability of high-calibre social scientists within the region itself. It has been the experience of eveloping countries that it is very ifficult to attract scientists with high-level qualifications an experience to positions in eveloping countries, an the willing available expatriates there are possess such oest qualifications that they harly coan the respect an acceptance of local colleagues they are to work with. The evelopent of regional school, therefore, shoul coe at a later stage only after raising the quality of own scientists within the region itself.. One of the ifficulties in the evelopent of the social sciences in eveloping countries is the lack of sufficient nuber of eia through which researchers an scholars counicate their finings an opinions. Scientific journals publishe in inustrially-avance countries coul not allocate enough space to papers contribute by scholars in eveloping countries. Journals publishe by each eveloping country are too few in nuber an soewhat restricte in coverage; these journals again prefer to ephasize probles of their own countries. e believe that the publication of regional social science journals through the co-operative efforts of eber countries in each region ay fill this gap. Bibliogr 1. Bennison, J, J., Census of ia 193, Volue XI, Bura, Part I - Report. (Rangoon: Supt Governent Printing an Stationery, 1933). 2. Bura Historical Coission (January June 1961, Bulletin of the Bura Historical Coission, Vol. 1, Part I, Bura Research Society, Research Texts Hiss (Rangoon: Bura Research Society, 197).., Fiftieth Anniversary Publications, o. 1 an o. 2, (Rangoon: Bura Research society, ). 5. Bura Socialist Prograe Party, Bura Econoic Plan Directives an Report (Rangoon: Sapaybaikan Press, 1971). 6., Philosophy of Correlation Between Man an Environent, Party's Philoso- &(Rangoon: Sapaybaikan Press, 1969). 7., Short an Long-Ter Econoic Policies (Rangoon: Sapaybaikan Press, 1972). 8. Departent of Higher Eucation, "Stuents in stitutions of Higher Learning in " (Rangoon: Departent of Higher Eucation, Ministry of Planning, 1975). Mieographe. 9. Eucational Research Directorate, "Secon Four Year Plan ( )" (Rangoon: Eucational Research Bureau, 1971, Monograph. 1., "Annual Reports", (Rangoon: Eucational Research Bureau, ). 33

34 ~~ ~~ ~~ 11. Governent of the Union of Bura, Econoic Survey, (Rangoon: Governent Printing an Stationery, ). 12., stitute of Public Ainistration an Manageent, "Ais an Activities" (Rangoon: Prie Minister's Office, 1959). 13. Governent of the Union of Socialist Republic of Bura, Planning an Finance Minister's Report to Hluttaw on Four Year Plan (Rangoon: Ministry of Planning, 197). 1., Deputy Prie Minister's Report on Secon Four Year Plan (Rangoon: Planning Ministry, 1975). 15. Governent of the Union of Socialist Republic of Bura, Reports to the People Reports to the Hluttaw , 197, 1975 Governent Bugets Governent Service Care (Rangoon: Ministry of Planning an Finance, ) 16. "History of the Central Statistical an Econoics Directorate ( )", (Rangoon: Central Statistical Organization, Ministry of Planning an Finance, 197). Mieographe 17. stitute of Econoics, "Fiftieth Anniversary Reports of Departents of Econoics, Coerce an Statistics", (Rangoon: stitute of Econoics, 197). Mieographe. 18., Directory, ( ) (Rangoon: stitute of Econoics, Rangoon, ). 19. Kaung, U, "A Survey of the History of Euca- tion in Bura Before the British Conauest an After", Journal of Bura Research Society, Vol.XLV1, Deceber, 1963, pp Kyi, Khin Maung, "Projections of ew Entrants to stitutions of Higher Learning", (Rangoon: Departent of Research, stitute of Econoics, 1 969). Mieographe , "Tutorial Teaching Syste in Universities", (Rangoon: Departent of Research, stitute of Econoics, 1968). Mieographe. 22., "Proposals for Prootion of Research Activities in Universities with Special Reference to Cultural an Social Stuies", (Rangoon: stitute of Econoics. 1969). Mieographe. 23. we, Thann Than, "Research in Eucation", The Guarian, May 6, 1973, Sunay Suppleent. 2. yi yi, Dr., "The Developent of University Eucation in Bura", Journal of Bura Research Society-, Vol. XLVII, June 196, pp Research Policy Direction Boar, "Social Science Coittee, Five Year Plan ( )", (Rangoon: 1971). Monograph. Social Science Coittee, Research Plan ( )", (Monograph in Burese), (Rangoon: 1975). Monograph. 26. I : 27., "Econoic Science Coittee, Research Plan ( )': (Rangoon: 1975). Monograph. 28., "Policy Stateent", (Rangoon: 1975). Monograph. 29. Research Policy Direction Boar, "Priorities for Drawing Up the Research Plans for the Four Year Perio fro 1975 to 1978", (Rangoon: 1975). 3., "Speeches of the Presient of the Research Policy Direction Boar ( )", Ministry of Planning, Rangoon. 31. "Sixty Years of Research", The Sunay orking People's Daily, Sunru, R. M., "Population Statietics of Bura", Econoics Research Paper o. 3, 1957 (Rangoon: University of Rangoon, 1957). Monograph. 33., "A ote on Coparison of Occupational Data in the 1921 an 1931 Censuses", Econoics Research Project Paper, o. (Rangoon: University of Rangoon, 1957). Monograph. 3., "Census Data on the Labour Force an the coe Distribution in Bura, ", Econoic Research Project, Paper o. 18 (Rangoon: University of Rangoon, 1957). Monograph. 35. Swe, Thein, Dr., "Long Ter Eployent Prospects", (Rangoon: Planning Departent, Ministry of Planning an Finance, 1976). Mieographe. 36. Rangoon Arts an Science University, Han- - book, (Rangoon: University Press, 1965). 37., Hanbook, 197, an "Fiftieth Anniversary Reports of Departents of Anthropology, Geography, History, Law, Philosophy, Psychology" (Rangoon: Rangoon University, 197). Unpublishe Papers University of Rangoon, University of Rangoon Hanbook an Calenar, (Rangoon: University of Rangoon, 1923)., Hanbook of the Faculty of Social Sciences, (Rangoon: Rangoon Gazette Lt., 1958)., Hanbook of the Departent of Coerce, (Rangoon: Rangoon Gazette Lt., 1958). an, Thein, U, "Projecting School Enrolent an Estiation of Teacher Dean for All Levels of Eucation" (Rangoon: Bura Eucational Research Bureau, 1975). Mieographe. in. U. "The First Five Years of the Bura.~ Research Society", Journal of Bura Research Society, Vol. LIII, June 197, Part I, pp

35 Mongolia By Sh. Bira an E. Puntsag Acaey of Sciences of the Mongolian People's Republic I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUD OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES I THE MOGOLIA PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC trouction The origin an evelopent of the social sciences in the Mongolian People's Republic are closely connecte with the country's social thought heritage on the one nan an the strong ipact of oern sciences on the other. The beginning of social thought in Mongolia ates back to the ancient perio. For exaple, the iea about khan (eperor) an his power eerge very early on an ha been hane own fro generation to generation, until it was raically change an replace by quite a new theory of people's power. The concept of the "two principles'' (alliance of religioi; an the khan's power), base on the Mongol noas' iea of the khan's power as being anate by the Blue Heaven an the Buhist octrine of Dhara (religion) represente the last wor in Mongol religious-feual social thought an was use by the Mongolian ruling class in an attept to restore their national statehoo as late as 1911, when the country free itself fro the Manchu epire. The faous Secret History, written in 12, testifies to the rather high level of the evelopent of the socio-political an historical thought uring the perio of the Mongol State (13th century). Fro the 16th century onwars, Buhis in the for of Laais oinate all spheres of spiritual life. Until the people's revolution in 1921, Mongolia existe uner the sae historical an ~ cultural conitions as Europe in the Mile Ages. Buhist theology pretene to be the source of all knowlege in the country. The foreign yoke of Manchu-Chinese colonizers place great obstacles on the path of social an cultural evelopent of the Mongol society. The great scientific iscoveries an cultural achieveents of the 18th an 19th centuries in Europe ha little ipact on Mongolia uring the perio of alien oination. evertheless, espite all these circustances, certain branches of social knowlege - philosophy incluing logic, historiography an philology ae notable progress. There is a large boy of literature by local authors on Buhist philosophy. The treatises of agarjuna, Vasubanu, Asanga, Dharakirti an other ancient ian thinkers were also wiely stuie an coente on. Philosophy in ol Mongolia was a serf of Buhist theology with the few in favour of the positive heritage of ancient ian Buhist philosophy being exclusively the laas (onks). Only in late 19th an early 2th century i soe kin of new tren eerge in the evelopent of socio-political an philosophical thought. Soe ieologists put forwar the ieas of national inepenence, feual nationalis as well as strongly critizing the colonial an feual regie an the Buhist church in the country. These new ieas were clear reflections of the intensification of national liberation an revolutionary oveent in Mongolia. History, like philosophy, can be consiere to be a traitional branch of social knowlege. Such historians as Khutugtai Setsen Khun-taiji, Sagan- Setsen, Lubsanansan, Pashipuntsag an others greatly contribute to the stuies of Mongol history. The origin of a critical tren in unerstaning history as a eans of keeping alive the eory of the country's past inepenence uring the perio of the foreign oination an the concept of national statehoo constitute an iportant achieveent of Mongol historiography. Along with the national history, the Mongol historians stuie the histories of such other countries as ia, Tibet an China, etc. The Mongol linguists i uch to create a national syste of script on the basis of the Sogian- Uighur writing belonging to the ol Araaic alphabet. They also elaborate the ain rules for the Mongol written language. Choiji-Osor was the first to prouce a graar for the Mongol language in the 1th Century, The ancient ian linguistic school foune by the 35

36 faous Panini (5th century B. C. was very popular aong Mongol graarians. His work an that of other ian, Tibetan linguists were wiely stuie by the Mongols. One shoul stress that, as with culture in general, social thought coul not evelop faster than the country's objective situation woul perit. The country lagge far behin the general level of worl culture. Until the 192s, the country's culture was wholly eieval in character. The long perio of Manchu oination ha ae Mongolia one of the ost backwar countries in Asia. It was only after the People's Revolution of 1921 that Mongolia gaine access to oern civilization. The Revolution arke the start of the change- over fro feual - r eligious thought patterns to oern scientific outlook. Social science isciplines efining the social sciences w e procee fro the assuption of basic principles of Marxist classification of sciences. e support those who place uner the social sciences all the isciplines that stuy probles relate to the past, present an future of huan society an explore social laws an phenoena. e, therefore, assign to the social sciences the following isciplines: history, econoics incluing huan geography an eography, philosophy incluing sociology, political sciences incluing law, philology (linguistics an literature stuies), social psychology an peagogy. History During the post-revolutionary perio Mongolian historiography, free fro the fetters of clerical feual ieology, began to evelop on a copletely ifferent scientific basis. Mongolian historiography unerwent raical changes in the irection of a coplete secularization of history for a better unerstaning fro the point of view of class struggle an an expansion of historical knowlege of other countries of the worl of which the ol Mongolian chroniclers were copletely ignorant. the opinion of the Mongol historians of those ays, the practical significance of history lay in arousing an eveloping national consciousness of the people by placing history in the service of the revolution an the national interests of the country. The ol iea of history as that of kings an great religious figures gave way to a rational unerstaning of history bringing the pioneers of the post-revolutionary Mongolian historiography closer to a aterialist interpretation of history. It is worth entioning that the Mongolian authors began writing an translating books on the history of other countries of the worl heretofore unknown to the Moneols le. e. Histc an Europe, etc. 1. It was after the Secon orl ar that the Mongolian historiography ae consierable progress. The History of the Mongolian People's Rea c, written by the Mongolian historians in collaboration with Soviet colleagues, first publishe in 195 an reprinte in 1967 (Eitorial Boar: E. M. Zhukov, B. Shirenyb, Sh. atsagorj, A.A. Huber, G. Ph. Ki, D. Dylykov, Kh. Perle, Sh. Bira) was the first Marxist historical essay on Mongolia fro the prehistoric perio up to the present ay. An English translation was publishe in The Short Essay of the History of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party (Eitors-in- Chief: B. Lhasuren, B. Shirenyb. B. Balo, L. Sanja, B. Tuev), publishe in 1966 by the stitute of Party history, was a political history of oern Mongolia, covering the perio of 1917 t'o The three-volue history of the MPR (Eitors-in-Chief: B. Shirenyb, Sh. atsagorj, Sh. Bira, Kh. Perle,. Ishjats, M. Sanjorj,. Ser-Ojav, B. Tuev), publishe in , arke a further success for Mongolian historiography. It is worth entioning that new branches of history have begun to evelop in the country: historiography, historical source stuies, archaeology, ethnography, archives stuies, etc. The best works by oern Mongolian historians are characterize by profoun scientific analyses an interpretations of historical facts on the basis of the ethoological principles of ialectical an historical aterialis with the ai of objective cognition of the historical process in Mongolia, iproveent of ethos an techniques of writing history an a consierable expansion of the subjects of historical research covering the anifol historical processes in Mongolia an huan society in general. Aong the country's proinent historians are Acaeician B. Shirenyb (author of the History of the Mongolian People's Revolution, Mongolia in the Late 19th an Early 2th Centuries an any other books an papers), Acaeician Sh. atsagorj (author of the History of Khalkha Mongolia an any others), Corresponing Meber of the Mongolian Acaey of Sciences, Kh. Perle (author of the History of Kians an any other works),. Ser-Ojav (author of the History of the Turks, Doctor. Ishjats (author of the Foration of the Single Mongol State an the Establishent of Feualis), Dr. B. Tuev (author of books on the history of the working class in Mongolia), Dr. Sanjorj (author of the History of the Mongolian People's - State an other works), an Dr. A. Minis (author of stuies on the history of the econoic policy of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party). Philosophy Moern political an philosophic thinking in Mon - golia cae into being through the influence of the liberating ieas an revolutionary teachings of the 36

37 ~ ~~ Great October Socialist Revolution in neighbouring Russia. The leaers of Mongolian Revolution an founer-ebers of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party were the first to becoe acquainte with Marxist teachings an to apply the in their revolutionary activities. The first Party ocuents (prograes, irectives, etc. ) an the press, particularly the newspaper Unen, ae great contributions to the sprea of Marxis- Leninis in Mongolia. The first ecaes after the revolution were characterize ainly by the popularization of Marxist philosophy with a ajor effort to translate the classics of Marxis-Leninis into Mongolian. The first Mongolian translation of the Counist Manifesto was ae in Many other popular works an paphlets on ifferent questions of Marxist philosophy were also publishe in translation. aition, basic courses of Marxis- Leninis, ialectical an historical aterialis were taught at political schools an circles of ifferent levels. The founation of the chair of Marxis-Leninis at the newly-create Ulan-Bator University in 192 arke the start of teaching an research of philosophy at the university level. University textbooks were publishe on ialectical an historical aterialis an basic courses on Marxist philosophy. Research work in philosophy was further intensifie with the establishent of the stitute of Philosophy, Law an Sociology at the Acaey of Sciences in Mongolian philosophers conuct consierable research in the history of philosophy, theory of non-capitalist way of evelopent, probles of socialist construction an eucation in Mongolia, etc. The following are only a few of the recent publications: Socio-political an Philosophic Thought in Mongolia by Ch. Juger, Progressive Deocratic ieas in Mongolia on the Turn of the 19th-2th Centuries by D. Dashjats, The Dialectics of Historical Developent of the Present-ay Mongol Society by Ts. Balkhajav, The Theory of Contraiction an Conflicts by S. Sonogobo, Law of ature an Features of Political Super Structure in the Countries of Socialist Orientation by Tso. asrai, etc. Econoics Copare with history or philology, econoics is a new branch of the social sciences. But both teaching an research in econoics have ae great progress uring the last few ecaes. The urgent nee for theoretical an applie research in ifferent branches of econoic sciences is ue to the ever-increasing eans of the country's socio-econoic evelopent , Mongolian econoists, together with their Soviet colleagues, carrie out wieranging research in arat (cattle-breeing) econoics. The first significant results in econoic research appeare as issertations for octor's an caniate's egrees in econoics. (Conteporary Arats an the Arat Econoy by. Jagvaral, 1956, Probles of the evelopent of the Agricultural Co-operatives of the MP by S. Jaaba, efene in 1956, publishe in 1958, The Foration of the Socialist Property in ustry in the - MPX by Ch. Sereter, 1957, Cooity Prouction an Trae in the MPR by M. Pelje, efene in 196, publishe in 196, The ays of creasing an Marketability of Social Econoy of the Agricultural Co-operatives in the MPR by D. Dugar, efene in 1961, publishe in 1966, etc. ). Since its founation, the stitute of Econoics of the Acaey of Sciences conucts extensive research in ifferent branches of the econoic sciences, incluing Marxist political econoy. During the past few years, the stitute's research efforts ealt with anpower resources, the elaboration of the probles of specialization an istribution of agricultural prouction an inustry, efinition of ways an ethos of the iproveent of planning syste in the MPR etc. The stitute participate in working out ore than 5 ajor econoic arrangeents, such as perspective plans, interbranch balances of national econoy of the MPR an so forth. During recent years, a great eal of attention is being given to stuies of the probles of the introuction of a syste of new econoic anageent in the Mongolian People's Republic. Econoists are successfully working on the theoretical probles of the Socialist econoy of the MPR such as the peculiarities of the evelopent of econoy uring the transition perio fro feualis to socialis, foration an evelopent of the socialist property, operation of the.basic econoic law of the socialis, socialist econoic integration an the probles an evening out of the country's econoic evelopent with the eber-countries of the Council of Mutual Econoic Assistance, a scientific basis for general schee of istribution an evelopent of prouctive forces of the country up to the year 2, etc. Aong the successes of econoic sciences, ention shoul be ae of the evelopent of such new branches as statistics, atheatic econoics. Statistical ata on the national econoy are being publishe yearly since 195. Soe proinent Mongolian econoists are Acaeician. Jagvaral (author of the book Arats an Arat Econoy an other works), Corresponing Mebers of the Acaey of Sciences Dr. Lubsangorj (author of Developent of Trae an Hoe Markets in the MPR), Prof. U. Kabar (author of Peculiarities of the Transition Perio of the MPR fro Feualis to Socialis, Copletion of the Builing of the Material Technical Basis of "Mongolian People's Republic. 37

38 Socialis - a new stage in the evelopent of the - MPR an other works), Dr. Zagasbalan (author of Probles of Socialist ustrialization of the MPR), Dr. Gurjav (author of Probles of Planning in ustrial Enterprises, Econoic Matheatic Methos an Moelling) an Dr. Dashonov (author of Main Probles of tensification of Cattle-breeing). Philology (Linguistics an literature stuies) Philology was given a new goal in the post revolutionary perio. Mongolian philologists began to carry out quite an extensive research in ifferent branches of philology graually astering the oern scientific ethoology. Between 192 an 193, the first works by Mongolian philologists ap- = peare (The Orthography of the Mongolian Script by. Jaiyan in 192, The Orthographic Dictionby S. Shagji in 1937, The Graar of the Mongolian language by Sh. Luvsanvanan in 1939 an others. ) Mongolian philologists i uch to provie schools with aequate textbooks an other training appliances. o less iportant was the work one by Mongolian linguists in connexion with the eraication of illiteracy an the replaceent of the ol script with new, Cyrillic one. The new Mongolian script elaborate by Mongolian linguists an introuce in 192, playe a great rsle in rapily abolishing illiteracy. Significant results in both linguistics an literature stuies have been achieve uring the last two ecaes. The chairs Qf philology at the Ulan- Bator University an at the State Peagogical stitute an the stitute of Language an Literature of the Acaey of Sciences conucte intensive research in linguistics an literary criticis. The perio saw the publication of a large nuber of onographs, collective works an scientific papers on coparative stuies of the Mongolian languages, structure of the oern Mongolian language stuies on kinre an foreign languages (Altaic an Turkish, Russian, English etc. 1. Consierable progress was ae in lexicography, lexicology, ialectology. An explanatary ictionary of the Mongolian language, Mongol-Russian an Russian- Mongolian ictionaries an soe other bilingual ictionaries were publishe. The elaboration of the scientific an technical terinology of the Mongolian language is one of the ajor succhsses of Mongolian linguists. Much work was one in the fiel of history an theory of Mongolian literature. (Three-volue Mongolian literature, short history of oern Mongolian literature, works on such iportant writers as Choiji-Oser, D. atsagorj, Ts. Dainsuren an others). Textual criticis has been successfully eveloping uring the last few years (publications of the classics of the ol literature an works by conteporary writers). Much attention is evote to stuies of cultural an literary contacts of Mongolia with other countries in the past an present. Research on the contacts between conteporary Mongolian literature an the Soviet literature yiele goo results by settling any questions concerning the beneficial influence of the Soviet literature on the Mongolian literature, the consoliation of socialist realis in the conteporary Mongolian literature etc. Other works were evote to the history of literary contacts between Mongolia, ia, Tibet an other Asian countries in the past. Soe proinent philologists are Acaeician Ts. Dainsuren (the author of the Anthology of Mongol Literature - One hunre pieces, Essay on the History of Mongol Literature an any other books an papers), Acaeician Sh. Luvsanvanan (author of the Structure of the Moern Mongolian Language in two volues an other works), Acaeician B. Rinchen (author of the Graar of the ritten Mongolian Language in four volues an other works), Corresponing Meber of the Mongolian Acaey of Sciences A. Luvsanenev (coauthor of the big Mongol-Russian an Russian- Mongolian ictionaries an author an eitor of any other books an papers), Corresponing Meber of the Acaey of Sciences P. Khorlo (coauthor of The Short History of Moern Mongolian Literature an author of other books an papers), Dr. Sc. (philology) S. Luvsanvanan, Caniates of Philology Ts. Khasbaatar, M. Gaaba, S. Tsen, B. Sono, D. Tserensono, D. Tseev, E. Vanui, etc. Sociology Sociology plays an iportant rble in oern society evelopent. This r61e is ever-expaning in the collection an analysis of inforations require by a society for guiance towars specific goals an for solutions of practical tasks. The Research Sector for Sociology was establish e uner the Acaey of Sciences in 197, an the establishent of the stitute of Philosophy, Sociology an Law in 1972 was another step forwar in the growth of sociology in the country. ow there are several centres for sociological research in the country. At present, the stitute of Philosophy, Sociology an Law is conucting investigations on the change of class structure in the MPR an on the probles of labour an socio-cultural activities of the ebers of the society. The Sociological Laboratory of the Ulan-Bator University is conucting research on the eucation an upbringing of stuents an youth while the Mongolian Trae Union Sociological Centre is investigating probles of labour organization, etc. The Ulan-Bator city Party Coittee has a Council for Sociological Research, while a Sociological Group was establishe uner the Central Coittee of the Mongolian Revolutionary Youth League. Branch offices of the Feeration of Mongolian Philosophers an Sociologists were foune hanuber of regional centres to carry out sociological research in the rural areas of the country. 38

39 ~~ ~ - Law Law has an iportant place in the social sciences in the MPR. Such categories as state foration, its legal syste an feual law were known to the Mongol society as early as the 3r Century B. C., the perio of the oination of Huns in Mongolia. Thanks to the people's power, the traitional law of the feual state was replace by a new revolutionary legislative syste in which the interests of the working people are protecte by law Fro this beginning, the stuy of law an the research involve becae reality. Thus, up to 195s the reactionary r61e of the ol society an its jurisiction an the eergence of people's power with its oern jurisiction ha been wiely explaine an popularize through juriical literature circulate aong the asses. Fro the 195s onwars, the stuy of national an international law unerwent its oern evelopent an a nuber of works were written by Mongolian authors in the fiel of state an law, incluing Main Direction of Legislative Function of People's Power ( ) by S. Jalan-Ajav, Probles of State an Co-operative Property Protection During the Transitory Perio to Socialis via on-capitalist Path of Developent by R. Gunsen, an onographs by J. Avkhia an others on criinology an on the state an law. Lawyers an other ainistrative personnel were first traine at the law school an since 196 at the Faculty of Law at the State University of Ulan-Bator. 1972, a Departent of State an Law was foune an an stitute of Criinology was establishe in 1973 uner the State Procurator an both are engage 'in research ealing with the theory an practice of legal regulations, criinology an international law. Deography A Boar of Faily registration was foune in 1951 uner the Ulan-Bator city ainistration an population censuses were carrie out in 1956, 1963 an Fro the i-1 95s onwars, eographic research has been conucte regaring age an sex structure of the population, istribution, ortality, birth rate, the average length of life, etc. The question of public health was stuie, for exaple, in the context of reprouction of population an its correlation with socio- econoic factors of the society. Prognostication was introuce into the eographic stuies in the 196s an is use in national planning. ow eographic research is conucte at the stitutes of Econoics an Geography of the Acaey of Sciences by the Sector for Deography of the Research stitute of the Central Boar of Statistics of the MPR, an at a chair level in the Meical stitute of Ulan-Bator. A series of books have been publishe on population probles, incluing those of average length of life, igration, prognostication, labour resources an utilization, etc. Current investigations are concentrate on the probles of labour resources location, igration an theory of reprouction of population. Econoic geography (incluing huan geography) Prior to the people's power era, Mongolia lacke a scientific establishent to eal with the geographic sciences an ost contributions in this fiel were by Russian an other foreign scholars. After the installation of people's power, a new national chapter was unertaken an a epartent for Geography was foune uner the then Boar of Letters an it publishe the first atlas of the country in 193. The first book on econoic geography appeare in 1937 uner the title Motherlan of the Mongols. ational geographers were traine in the USSR higher schools an a chair of Geography was establishe at the Ulan-Bator State University in 1956, an another in 1952 at the State Peagogical stitute. The stitute of Geographic an Perafrost Stuies establishe in 1962 uner the Acaey of Sciences now has a research epartent in Huan Geography. Departents of Econoic Geography were also foune at the University an other higher eucational establishents. Publications of these research units inclue Basic Probles of ~~ Econoic Geography in the MPR(1971, Population of the MPR (1967), Migration in the MPR (1972) an textbooks on geography, series of atlas for schools of general eucation an so forth. ow, the scientific staff of the stitute of Geography is planning to create series of aps an a four-volue set of onographs on the value of natural conition in application to the national econoy evelopent, an this project is expecte to be coplete before 198. Preparatory work for the publication of a national atlas has also been starte. The stitute puts out an annual publication calle Probles of Geography of Mongolia an the articles by geographers also appear in the foration Bulletins of the Acaey of Sciences an other scientific perioicals of the country. 11. ISTITUTIOAL FRAMEORK OF TEACH- IG AD RESEARCH (a) Teaching Due to the lack of oern syste of general eucation in the pre-revolutionary Mongolia, the creation of higher eucational establishent in the country was a lengthy process. First, it was necessary to establish the school network for priary, seconary an specialize seconary eucation. This task was coplete by the beginning of the 19s. The country's first university built with the ai an assistance of the USSR, was inaugurate 39

40 in 192 at Ulan-Bator. The possibility of founing a higher eucational establishent in the country thus create was proote through the avance public school syste an the ever increasing nuber of grauates fro the 1-year an specialize seconary schools. The state university of the MPR Accoring to its charter, the principal task of the university is to instill in all its stuents the spirit of the aterialistic outlook, to obtain fro the oern achieveents of science an technology an to utilize the creatively in national evelopent, to give the the necessary knowlege for scientific research an the popularization of science aong the population. The university plays a leaing r81e in training stuents in social sciences. During the first 25 years or by the early 197s 15 stuents in 16 specialities ha grauate fro the social science faculties of the university. The State University of the MPR. which since its 192 founation has grauate ore than 11 stuents in about 5 specialities, now has 15 faculties an a stuent boy of 35. The following are the social science faculties an chairs at the university: 1. Faculty of Social Sciences, consisting of three epartents: (a) Departent of History; (b) Departent of Philosophy an (c) Departent of Law: The Faculty of Social Sciences have the following six chairs: Mongolian history, History of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, Philosophy, Theory. of Scientific Counis, The State an the Law, an the stuies of legal applications. (2) Faculty of Econoics with three chairs in Banking an Planning, Book-keeping an Finance an Statistics; (3) Faculty of Coerce an Econoics, consisting of four epartents: (a) Departent for the Econoics of Coerce; (b) Departent for Coercial Book-keeping; (c) Departent for the Science of Cooities, an (b) Departent for the Technology of Public Catering. The Faculty of Coerce an Econoics has the following three chairs: Coerce an Econoics, Technology of Public Catering an in Cooity Science; () Faculty of Philology, consisting of five epartents of Mongolian, Russian, Englsih, Japanese an Chinese with six chairs in the Mongolian language, the Mongolian language an literature, the Ru-ssian language, Russian literature, Foreign languages an Peagogy. aition to the above faculties, the university has corresponence an evening courses in Transport Econoics an Engineering, Law, Coercial Book-keeping, Econoics of Coerce, Finance an Econoics of ustry, Book-keeping an Calculation, an a sociologicai laboratory. Thus, in acaeic year the university ha four social science faculties with eighteen chairs at the fifteen faculties an fifty chairs at the university. the sae year, the nuber of stuents of the university reache 5 an will grow to 6 by acaeic year, the nuber of social science stuents was 223. Using the alreay- existing epartents of his - tory an philology which lai the founation for social science teaching in the university syste as a base, the faculty of social sciences in the university was opene in 197 coprising the following three epartents: (1) Departent of Philosophy, (2) Departent of Political Econoics, (3) Departent of History. The founing of the Faculty cif Social Sciences has greatly facilitate avance stuies in Marxist theory, philosophy, political econoics an, especially, stuies of Mongolian history an the history of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, an proote the start of social science research an the training of cares, capable of teaching social sciences at higher an seconary eucation establishents. Marxist philosophy, the Theory of Scientific Counis, Political Econoics an the Histories of the MPRP an the CPSU are taught as copulsory courses at all faculties of the university an other higher eucational establishents. For soe isciplines like History of the MPRP, there are interfaculty chairs. The curricula at higher eucational establishents in general an those at the social science faculties inparticular were revise in The curricula now in force can be ivie into three categories: (1) curricula, ientical to those of the Soviet oel, (2) curricula, rawn up with regar for the national features an the Soviet experience, (3) newly-create curricula conforing to national particularities an the iscipline to be taught. The ational Conference of Social Science Teachers, hel in 196, ecie to inclue in the higher curricula, as inicate below, the following five iniviual social science isciplines: First year - History of the MPRP (12-15 hours)* Secon year - History of the CPSU (7-8 hours) Thir year - Marxist Philosophy (12-1 hours) Fourth year - Political Econoics (12-3 hours) Fifth year - Founation Scientific Counis (9-12 hours) These five isciplines are consiere to be the ain subjects of the social sciences parallel with isciplines of specialities an represent 15-2 per cent of the teaching hours for social science faculties an 12-1 per cent for natural science faculties. The acaeic year is ivie into two parts fro i Septeber to 25 January an fro 9 February to 3 June. Mongolia, there is free eucation an stuents receive onthly stipens accoring to *First figure enotes hours for non social science faculties an the secon is that for social science faculties.

41 their progress. Avance stuents are aware special grants. Social science teaching consists of lectures, laboratory work, seinars, prouction practice, course work (project), iploa work (project), tutorial consultation, class an hoe control works, inepenent stuies by the stuents, etc. 1965, the Methoology Council for Social Science Teaching was set up uner the State Coittee for Higher an Specialize Seconary Eucation. This council is regponsible for iscussion an approval of social science curricula for higher an specialize seconary schools, text an hanbooks, translations, etc. To obtain a egree at the university an at other higher eucational establishents, stuents ust successfully pass all require exainations. Having one this, they are aware a iploa for higher eucation by the State Exaination Coission. The holer of such iploa has the right to teach social science isciplines in the senior graes of seconary or specialize seconary schools an to join social science research institutions as an assistant fellow. Aission to all higher an specialize seconary schools is eterine by the national nees in the ifferent specialities. Thus, all grauates are assure that their specialities will be use upon grauation. The aittance an istribution of grauates, regulate by the state planning syste, reflect the social stratu of the stuents, training at the university an other higher eucational establishents, etc. For exaple, the ratio of stuents of the State Peagogical stitute uring the acaeic year of showe that chilren of agricultural workers represente 3. 3 per cent, chilren of factory workers 3. per cent an the intelligentsia per cent. This ratio is also consiere in the istribution of the grauates aong various branches of cultural an econoic institutions of cities an regions of the country. The higher school teachers an stuents ratio is 1 to an annual service for a higher school teacher is a axiu of 15 hours, incluing teaching, research an other activities, (on average 6 hours per teacher an senior teacher). At present, there are soe 78 scientists, scholars an teachers eploye in the higher eucational establishents, of which 8 per cent are acaeicians or corresponing ebers of the Acaey of Sciences an 2 per cent are octors, science caniates, professors, an assistant professors. Serious attention is being given to raising the stanars of qualification for university an college teachers. For exaple, further iproveent of the teacher's qualification syste has been urge, along with increasing the nuniber of teachers to be sent to avance training institutes in the USSR or to the faculties which were opene in 1968 at the State University of.ulan- Bator. Evening schools an corresponance courses are inclue in the social science eucation syste. The evening university of political sciences was foune in 195 at Ulan-Bator. It now has four epartents an twelve courses with about 5 parttie stuents. They usually calle listeners, attening lectures uring their free tie, except uring the exaination perio, when they ust be excuse fro perforing their regular office or factory work. 1966, the Departent of History of the evening university was expane an renae the History an Philosophy Departent, an, in the acaeic year, the Departents of Journalis an Arts were establishe at the university. After passing their exas, the grauates of the evening university receive iploa in political higher eucation. Farty High School of Political Sciences (foune in - 192) The ain purpose of this high school is to train party an governent officials, social science teaching staff for university an other higher eucational an specialize seconary eucational establishents, office eployees an executives for youth an trae union organizations, ainistration, press an inforation, etc. ithin fifty years, over 1 stuents ha grauate fro the school. The school is coprise of a Departent of Political Science, an Extra-ural Departent, a two-year course in political science, an a Faculty of Journalis with following chairs: (1) philosophy, (2) political econoics, (3) history, () social (party) organization, (5) anageent an national econoy, an (6) foreign languages. The stitute of Politica1,Science an the Research stitute of Political Science have fore a joint Scientific Council for granting scientific egrees. Research works on political science for the ain scientific publications of the school. The State Peagogical stitute (foune in 1951) The State Peagogical stitute has seven faculties, twelve epartents an seventeen chairs, an about 2 stuents of which over 8 are at the social science faculties. the acaeic year of the stitute ha grauate stuents, half of who hel first egrees in the Social Sciences. The three social science faculties of the stitute are: 1. The Faculty of Social an atural Sciences: (a) Departent of History with two chairs, one in history, the other in philosophy, (b) Departent of Geography with a chair in geography, (c) Departent of Cheistry with a chair in cheistry, () Departent of Biology with a chair in biology; 1

42 ' Table 1 uber of higher school grauates in social sciences (in thousans) Total Breakown nuber of Per - econo - teachers Year grauates centagein all sei- ists an an eusocial lawyers cators ences sciences , 18, 8, 3 1.1, ' , 3, 6 1,5, 3, 5 1,7, 3, ,6 I, Source: ational Econoy of the MPR 1975, p The Faculty of Mongolian language an Literature with two chairs, one in the Mongolian language an the other in Mongolian literature; 3. The Faculty of Russian language with two chairs, one in Russian language faculty, the other is for non-professional faculties. - The stitute of Agricultural Science (foune in 1958) This stitute has five faculties, aong which a Faculty of Agricultural Econoics (1973) an 3 chairs in the social sciences, incluing those in Agricultural Econoics an Manageent, Agricultural Statistics, Book-keeping an Calculation. During the acaeic year, 59 stuents were grauate fro the Faculty of Agricultural Econoics, Aong others coul be entione the stitute of Buhist stuies an several specialize seconary schools in law an in econoics. The School of Econoics, foune in 192 ha traine alost 1 econoists uring the course of the last 5 years. At present, there are over 13 stuents in 7 specialities. The nuber of stuents at the social science faculties of the higher eucational establishents uring the last few years has ecline since the 195s an the 196s when social science teachers were greatly neee for Mongolia's newly built seconary an specialize seconary schools. But espite the slight increase in research workers, working in the social sciences, the country's nee for the is steaily increasing fro year to year. This new tren urgently calls for an increase nuber of social scienc'e stuents thus opening great opportunities for strengthening social science faculties of the university an other higher eucational establishents. 1976, soe 71 stuents in 33 specialities grauate fro the State University. Aong these were 36 social science stuents in 18 ifferent social science specialities with econoi'sts preoinating. The list for aission for the university an the State Peagogical stitute - the two ain institutions for training social scientists - inclue 21 social science specialities, or nearly one-thir of all specialities for the year's aission. It ay also be entione that the ratio of stuents, to be sent abroa on a stuy in the social sciences copare to the other sciences is 1 :lo. This inicates (1) the increasing nuber of engineering an technical stuents an (2) the effects of university evelopent which peritte the training of social scientists in the MPR. Reflecting this process is the tenency for a greater nuber of social scientists to obtain their egrees within the country instea of going abroa. Training of such specialists as econoists, historians an agronoists at hoe has certain avantages in ters of their qualification quality. Mongolia has an effective science policy worke out both for the natural an the social sciences. Such iportant issues as co-orination an solutions for natural an social science probles are set forth an reflecte in the governent's science policy. Training an research are the ain coponents of the science policy for such governent institutions as the Coittees for State Planning, for Higher an Specialize Seconary Eucation for Science an Technology, etc. The State Coittee for Higher an Specialize Seconary Eucation is the legal institution irecting higher an specialize seconary eucation in the country, The Coittee is responsible to the governent for the further iproveent an evelopent of the syste, training of specialists, planning in confority with the ever-increasing eans of national evelopent an scientific an technological progress. this connexion, the Coittee establishes the ain irections for the evelopent of higher an specialize seconary eucation in the country an works out easures for the further iproveent of the eucational syste. The Coittee perfors such activities as rawing up of the curricula for higher an specialke seconary eucational establishent an their approval, publication of textbooks, etc. Organizationally, the Coittee is heae by a person appointe by the Great People's Khural (the highest legislative boy in the country) an the ebers of the Coittee ust be approve by the governent. Projecte research to be carrie out by the higher eucational establishents, base on the national plan target establishe post-grauate courses at the university an in the institutes, are also 2

43 subitte to the coittee for its approval. Another coittee function is to raw up the list of specialities in which stuents are to be traine in the higher an specialize seconary eucational syste. The coittee eals with regulations work for aission to an grauation fro the university an higher school, eployent of postgrauates, etc. Another national scientific institution is the State Coittee for Science an Technology, foune in This coittee has several epartents, incluing co-orination, co-operation, prognosticating an planning, etc. The Scientific foration Centre, the Higher Attestation Cois - sion for granting scientific egrees an titles are also controlle by the coittee. The council of the coittee, heae by the coittee chairan, is the ecision-aking boy of the coittee. The whole coittee is responsible for the introuction of scientific an technological achieveents into the national econoy. (b) Research The organizational structure of scientific research in Mongolia coprises three principal units: (1) Acaey of Sciences with its specialize institutes, (2) the university an other higher eucational establishents, (3) research institutes belonging to the inistries an other like establishents. (1) Acaey of Sciences The Acaey of Sciences of the MPR was establishe in 1961, replacing the Boar of Letters, foune in 1921 after the People's Revolution. It is the highest scientific institution in the country, uner the irect authority of the governent. The acaey's purpose is the evelopent of the funaental investigations in the ost iportant irections of the natural an social sciences with ue regar for the latest scientific achieveents an especially for scientific an technological progress in the worl. The acaey has the uty of supervising the funaental investigations of ajor probles of natural an social sciences, conucte in research institutes an higher eucational establishents, efinition of the basic irections of their research, co-orination of these with non-acaeic researches at the research institutes an higher eucational establishents. The scientific activities of the acaey an its institutes are conucte on the basis of annual an long-ter plans, establishe by the acaey in confority with the state plan for national evelopent. These plans ust be iscusse at the general session of the acaey an approve by the governent. The acaey also hanles science policyaking an planning. Control over the conitions for scientific evelopent an research plan, in particular by the acaey, is possible thanks to the planne syste of science an social science policy. The research plans of the acaey usually reflect the urgent nees of the evelopent of the national econoy an culture. The ipleentation of these plans obviously epens on the science policy an organization, in which social science has its own part to play. Researchers, who have successfully solve a scientific proble, can get scientific egrees after successfully efening their issertations. The two ain scientific egrees are Caniate of Sciences an Doctor of Sciences. Degree awar epens upon the relevance of the subject, theoretical an practical iportance for the national econoy an culture, significance for science an other scientific values, etc. Marxist philosophy is one of the copulsory isciplines for all post-grauate stuents, who have to pass as pre-conitional exaination, regarless of their specialities. Social science Caniates an Doctor egrees can be obtaine by a postgrauate after a successful efence of a thesis before the scientific councils, functioning at various scientific institutions. The acaey alone is responsible for the training of scientific researchers an hearing efences for the egree of octor scientiaru. The egrees ay be also grante or obtaine in copetition. There are scientific councils now at the Acaey of Sciences, the university an several other institutes. The acaey has full an corresponing as well as honorary an foreign ebers. Scientific qualification for professor an assistant professor an scientific egrees ust finally be confire by the High Coission for the Certification of Scientific Degrees an Titles. The title of senior researchers can be grante by the appropriate scientific institutes to those junior researchers who ha passe the regular recertification test. Uner the new syste introuce in 196 9, eployent of researchers can be ecie on a copetition basis. Grauates fro higher schools can join research units as probationers for two years an, afterwars, epening on their success with the certifying test can be proote to junior researchers. Each iniviual, except those exepte by special regulations, has to take the certifying test once for every 5 years. Post-grauate courses are three-year ones for full-tie stuents an four-year ones for corresponence stuents. Copetitor syste is also allowe for the egree of caniatus scientiaru taken ostly by those with tenure an works publishe in their fiels. Copetitors are to efen their theses within a two-year perio. The Acaey of Sciences of the MPR has now fourteen institutes eploying over one thousan people incluing 8 full-tie scientific workers. It also has a social science section heae by one 3

44 of the vice-presients of the acaey. The section eals with ajor institutes engage in basic research of social sciences. stitute of History One of the largest an olest research centres in the country is the stitute of History of the Acaey of Sciences. Foune in 1921 as the Sector for History uner the Boar of Letters, it was reorganize in 1961 into the stitute of History of the Acaey of Sciences. It now has four sectors an. an archaeological laboratory an eploys or e than 5 scientific workers, incluing acaeicians, octors an caniates of sciences. The four sectors are: (1) Sector for Archaeology an Ethnography, (2) Sector for the Meiaeval History of Mongolia, (3) Sector for the Moern History of Mongolia, an () Sector of the orking Class Moveent. The institute has a scientific council for granting egrees (1 958) an puts out four annual publications in archaeology, ethnography,.history an a series on original sources. The titles of the publications are: (1) Stuia Archeologica, (2) Stuia Ethnographica, (3) Stuia Historica, () Monuenta Historica. stitute of Econoics (foune in 1963) The stitute of Econoics houses the following sectors: (1) Sector for Socialist Econoic Theory; (2) Sector for Econoic an Matheatic Methos; (3) Sector for Econoic Effectiveness of Social Prouction; () Sector of Socialist Econoic tegration; (5) Sector of ational Econoy Manageent; (6) Sector for Living Stanar Stuies. The annual publication of the stitute of Econoics of the Acaey of Sciences is the Series, of Research orks of the stitute. view of the growing iportance an the increase workloa of the institute, the governent ha ecie to establish a secon one uner the State Planning Coission an the Acaey of Sciences of the MPR. Soe of the sectors forerly uner the stitute of Econoics of the Acaey of Sciences now have been transferre to the newlyfoune stitute of Econoics. Foune in 1976, the Research stitute of Prouctive Force Developent an Distribution has the following eight sectors : Sector for Joint Econoic Forecasting, Sector for Heavy ustry an Geology, Sector for Agriculture, Light an Foo ustries,, Sector for Builing Construction, Transport an Counications, Sector for Public Service, Sector for Probles of Distribution, Sector for Regional an Coplex.Probles of Econoics, Sector for Cartography an Calculation. stitute of Philosophy, Sociology an Law (foune in 1972) Like other institutes of the Acaey of Sciences, the stitute of Philosophy, Sociology an Law has a scientific council, a irector an a scientific. secretary. It has three epartents: philosophy, sociology an state an law. The Departent of philosophy has three sectors: ialectical an historical aterialis; scientific counis an history of philosophy an buhist stuies. The Departent of Sociology has two sectors: sociological survey an social psychology plus a sociological laboratory. The State an Law Departent has two sectors for theory of state an law, an for applie laws. Sectors for ethics an aesthetics, econoic law an international law will be establishe in the near futule. The institute also issues series an onographs on the probles of philosophy, sociology an law. stitute of Language an Literature The first centre for philological research was foune in 1921 an becae the stitute of Language an Literature in It is the ain scientific institution for the probles of linguistics an the history of literature uner the Acaey of Sciences of the MPR. The stitute of Language an Literature of the Acaey has the following sectors: (1) a sector for language with a laboratory for experiental phonetics; (2) a sector for terinology; (3) a sector for encyclopaeia an () a sector for literatur e. The stitute publishes the following series: Stuia Mongolia; Corpus Scriptoru Mongoloru, Stuia Folklorica, Stuia Linguae et Literaru; Bulletin on Terinology an others. stitute of Oriental Stuies (foune in 1968) This institute ainly eals with Asian an African stuies, in particular, an international relations, in general. Forerly the Departent for Asian an African Stuies (foune in 19681, it was reorganize in 1976 as the stitute of Oriental Stuies with the following epartents an sectors: (a) Departent of Asian Stuies; (b) Sector for African Stuies; (c) Sector for Latin Aerica an () Sector for Publication an foration. (2) University an other higher eucational establishents The ain task of the university in Mongolia is eucation an not research. But it oes not ean that the university oes not go in for research. At present, research at the university an other higher eucational establishents is carrie out at the chair levels. This began in 196 when the university

45 publishe its first scientific series. Since 1956, the university has put out the series of research works by unergrauate an post-grauate stuents who stuie in the social sciences faculties. Social science research at the university has grown in iportance uring the last few years. Thus, uring the perio of , ore than 7 projects incluing those ealing with social science probles were carrie out at the Ulan-Bator University. Accoring to the 1975 statistics, soe 251 persons or 68.7 per cent of the university teaching staff were engage in research work, whereas' over 8 stuents participate through the research circles, societies an the stuent esign bureaux. Aong research subjects were ones on philosophy, history of Buhis, conteporary history of Mongolia, econoics, psychology, etc. The portion of research carrie out uner foral contract is increasing, but this practice has not as yet been aopte by the social sciences at the university. Selecte research works of the university an other higher eucational establishents are publishe in their research series. The State Peagopical stitute Like the university an other higher eucational establishents the State Peagogicel stitute has an annual an five-year plan for research activities in which the social sciences play an iportant rsle. The institute has a Stuents' Society of scientific research with ore than 5 stuent-ebers. The society organizes annual copetitions for the best research works fro the teachers an stuents to be publishe in the annual series: Research an T e&,ching Methoolo,q. (3) stitute of Party History (foune in 1955) The stitute of the Party History, which can be consiere as an stitute of Political Sciences, is an inepenent research establishent functioning uner the irect authority of the MPRP Central Coittee. It consists of a Research Departent, a sector for the Translation of Classics as well as archives an a library. The Research Departent has two sectors - Sector for the Party History of Mongolia an Sector for the ternational Counist Moveent. The institute's ain research effort eals with political history of the country, her social institutions an international relations with the rest of the worl. Other institute functions are translation an publication of classics of Marxis an Leninis, works on political sciences, text research an publication of archive aterials the institute publishe Essays on the History of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party an is now preparing The History of the MPRP in 2 volues. During the last five years, the institute has publishe 23 onographs an ore than ajor articles translation an publication of collecte works of V. I. Lenin fro its fourth eitipn was coplete along with several other theatical collections of V. I. Lenin an 3 volue collecte works of K. Marx an F. Engels incluing Capital by K. Marx. stitute of Peagogical Research (foune in 1963) This stitute is a research centre for eucational an peagogical activities by teachers an eucators intene to iprove their eucations an specializations. The institute publishes a series of peagogical research works. At present, the institute is engage in rawing up teaching ethoology for all graes of seconary school, an perspective stuies for schools in stitute of Criinology (foune in 1973) The institute analyses the nature of cries in ifferent regions of the country. The institute has publishe onographs on criinology an public prosecutor's uties as well as relate textbooks. Organizationally, this institute is uner the State Prosecutor. Social Science Manpower our estiation the traine anpower in social sciences in Mongolia is ore or less aequate to the nees for the country's evelopent espite its lower rate copare with natural sciences. The total nuber of scientific workers has increase uring the past five years ( ) by 2.6 ties in the natural sciences an 1.6 ties in the social sciences. At present, there are ore than 25 specialists with higher eucation at work in various branches of the country's national econoy of which over 7, or about 32 per cent, areregare as social science anpower. This is a stabilize rate for the last several years as well as with regar to the ieiate foreseeable future. Accoring to the latest available ata, per cent of higher school grauates between 197 an 1975 were social science stuents, an betwcen 1976 an 1986, the Acaey of Sciences will train 7 Doctors of Sciences, 13 Caniates of Scir'rices out of which per cent inten to be sock~l scientists. evertheless, one shoul bear in in that a great nuber of specialists with higher eucation in the social sciences are eploye outsie social science research units. Statistical ata show that out of the above 7 with higher eucation in the social sciences, only little over 5 are engage in social science research an the rest or alost 65 are eploye in various governent, public an eucational organizations throughout the country. But the several thousan social science teachers, teaching in the 891 general eucational 5

46 R es ear ch units Table 2 Major research units an istribution of scientific workers as of 197 nuber 29 Breakown stitutes Acaey High at Minisof Sc. school tries Scientific workers eploye of which in social sciences Source: Central Statistical Boar, an ozens of specialize seconary schools argue in favour of such a istribution of social science anpower in the country. ee, it ay be the ain reason to justify the situation uner consieration. But espite the coparatively higher rate (35 per cent) for training personnel in social sciences, the rate for research workers is only 21.3 (see Table 3), lower than the average rate of overall growth of scientific workers is a question likely to be iscusse an graually solve through a science organization an policy for the country. The latest ata inicate that out of a total 572 scientists per cent are in the social sciences. But out of the total research workers engage in social sciences, 2. 7 per cent hol caniate's or octor's egrees. Table 3 Proportion of Social Scientists to the Total as in 1975* Per- Total incl. o. in the centage natural sc. social sc. of social scientists Scientific orkers Can. of Sciences Doctor of Sciences in All *The nuber of scientific workers is given as in 197 ata. (Source: Central Statistical Boar). Mongolia now has been the soli base for carrying out all future fors of research on the basic probles of oern society to back up the general progress of the social sciences in the country, although there is a shortage of qualifie social science personnel, especially so cia1 /cultu- ral anthropologists, social psychologists an sociologists. There is a growing ean for social scientists to organize coplex investigations covering various probles of oern evelopent for a ore profoun consieration of the specific social processes, now taking place in the socialist counity as well as internationally. These probles cover all aspects of social life, incluing econoics, social relations, ieology, eucation an oe of life, an, therefore, can be solve by joint efforts of scientists in various specialities. Eviently, there is a growing interest in co-operation between social scientists an the natural scientists for certain investigations an, neeless to say, the co-operation between social scientists in ifferent fiels. our opinion, this tren can actually be regare as the reflection of a process of scientific integration, resulting fro the scientific an technological progress of our tie. social science institutions, the subjects now uner stuy are such probles as the prouctive forces of Mongolia at her present stage of evelopent, the ialectic of prouctive relations, the functions of the state in a socialist society, changes in the class structure, the theory of non-capitalist evelopent an the experience of Mongolia, etc. These probles are also being investigate at the stitutes of Philosophy, Law an Sociology, an Econoics. As regars application, the work of the stitute of History can be classifie as eucational, while the stitute of Econoics, for exaple, eals with inustry, agriculture, welfare, etc. Research carrie out at each iniviual institute has the character of sub-iscipline, unless the research was subitte to ifferent institutes for investigation. principle, such fors of co-operation an co-orination in social science research ight be encourage, an, in this case, the research uner iscussion coul be classifie as interisciplinary. ithin the research institutions, alost all the branches of the national econoy concerne are involve, whereas the social scientists theselves are being eploye in various scientific an public ainistrations, incluing the Acaey of Sciences an its research institutes, university an higher schools, the party an govern ent agencies, inistries of the state, international boies, trae unions, youth an other ass organizations. Majority of the scientists with scientific egrees are involve with the Acaey of Sciences an its institutes. All five social science institutes can be regare as governent research institutes an their research as ainly - basic. But operational an action researches are being an can be use occasionally in any of the institutes concerne. 6

47 Research is governent-finance. The capital investents in the evelopent of science have been increase 28 ties in 197 as copare with 19 an the total expeniture on science in the last five-year plan increase by 95 per cent an the nuber of research workers ties. This is evience of the steay increase in governent spening on scientific research, incluing that of the social sciences. But the analysis of ynaics of the research potential of the MPR shows, that the portion spent on intellectual potential (Science an Eucation) out of the total resources for evelopent of scientific an technological potential i not increase but tene to ecrease. This inicates that the growth of technical potential lags to a large extent behin the growth of science an eucation. This gap can be explaine by the Mongolia's specific situation - a country, econoically backwar in the past an now carrying out the process of econoic integration within the syste of socialist counity. Subjecte to the nees in national econoy evelopent, facilitate by the all-roun co-operation with the inustrially-evelope countries of the socialist counity, soe branches of the social sciences in Mongolia have grown slowly copare with the accelerate rate of econoic growth. An avance econoy is inevitably the basis for avance evelopent of science in any country. Hence, econoical evelopent is the ecisive factor for equalizing the levels of scientific an technological evelopent of the socialist countries. this sense, close co-operation in econoy an culture is to the avantage of the socialist counity. () Publications an literature Before 1921, Mongolia lacke both scientific an orinary publication. Toay, there are over 32 public libraries, an 7 newspapers an journals are printe with a circulation of 1.1 billion copies. The State Public Library of Ulan-Bator, with 2 illion books, is one of the biggest an richest in Asia. Accoring to the statistics in 1975 per 1, persons volues of books was 5.9 thousan (in volues). Scientific publication, incluing books an perioicals in the social sciences, is increasing year after year. Thus, out of works printe by the Acaey Publishing House for , social science works accounte for ore than 1. The stitute of History of the Acaey of Sciences alone publishe works aounting to 52 quires uring , while the total volue publishe in the whole country was 3723 quires uring (1) There are a goo nuber of translations fro foreign languages into Mongolian, of which any were social science works, Translation an publication in foreign languages of Mongolian works are iportant eans of counication in our erala) this respect, Unesco is aking a worthy contribution to the utual unerstaning of nations through their literatures. The institutes of the acaey, engage in the social sciences, have a ozen of perioicals on various fiels of the social sciences. Aong the ost popular of these are: The Heral of the Acaey of Sciences (onthly in Mongolian with a review in Russian), Stuia Historica an Stuia Mongolica, series put out by the corresponing institutes. The acaey social science jo,urnals contain the following proportions of subject atter: oern perio - 3 per cent cultural history - 25 per cent probles of general history per cent scientific inforation per cent translation - 1 per cent Book reviews, bibliographical notes, surveys - 1 per cent(3) MAJOR ISSUES AD PERSPECTIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMET OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES Great iportance is assigne to the evelopent of social sciences up to a level with natural sciences. Social sciences have not only theoretical an cognitive but also irect practical iportance because they work for the establishent of a scientic basis for governing society. Therefore, the social sciences are inseparable fro the natural sciences in the forulation of governent scientific policy. Fro this viewpoint, we can say that the governent of Mongolia is currently pursuing a policy for all the social sciences on the basis of the sae set of principles as for the natural sciences. social sciences policy-aking, however, the planning of research efforts an application of results play uch ore iportant rble. Although the planning of research both in the social an natural sciences in Mongolia is recent, it has becoe part an parcel of the state planning syste for the country's national econoy an culture. Uner planning, the two aspects i. e. the ain tasks require by the socio-econoic an cultural evelopent of the society an the evelopent of the science itzelf - are consiere. Planning of research is either annual, longter (five years) or perspective (15-2 years). Accoring to the current plan ( ), the ain trens of social science research are to be: - suarization of the experience of the MPR's transition fro feualis to socialis by-passing capitalis; questions of socialist construction; (I) ot incluing trans1at;ons. (2) Theajorityof the 25 books, translate fro Mongolian into Russian with printings of 7 illion copies uring the post-war perio, were social an political science works. (3) (Ethnography in the Socialist countries. M., 1975). 7

48 social relations; the ouling of a new an; the evelopent of socialist oe of life; - planning an anageent iproveents in econoy, scientific labour anageent; preparation of a aster plan for the evelopent an istribution of the country's prouctive forces; - research into the socialist econoic integration with the Soviet Union an other COMECO countries, etc. this connexion, our concern is to strengthen the now-existing scientific institutions by increasing the nuber of scientific egree-holers as well as young people traine in one or another fiel of the social sciences require. Mongolia, all expeniture involve in training an research in all branches of sciences has been an is being et by the state. The state buget for 1975 allotte 2. per cent of its expenitures for social an cultural services an, as a result, at the en of 1975 there were soe 262 specialists with special seconary eucation an 195 specialists with higher eucation engage in the national econoy per 1, persons. The state spens 3-35 thousan tugriks per specialist with higher eucation for his training. Thus, active in the evelopent of the social sciences in Mongolia are the social scientists theselves, stiulate by the aequate research potential of the people's governent an by the latter's aterial resources as a whole. But being epenent on the urgent nees of the national econoy at a certain tie, the social sciences, as classifie by iscipline, application an research, have evelope at ifferent rates. For exaple, econoics has rapily grown both in basic an applie research as copare with eography or law or even sociology. This tren ight continue until national aterial an technical potential has becoe aequate to perit equal evelopent for all isciplines of the social sciences as well as that of the natural sciences. But the evelopent of the social sciences cannot be contingent on the evelopent of the natural sciences. For exaple, espite its r61e to show the echanis of action of the law of a socialist society an to ipleent the scientifically-establishe recoenations for the society's further evelopent, the concrete sociological research is still in its infancy. The ain probles hanle by the new research centre now are: (a) theoretical generalization of the Mongolian experience of non-capitalist evelopent, (b) ialectical evelopent of the socialist society of Mongolia, (c) socio-econoical changes in the structure of the society, etc. orer to grapple with these iportant probles, the country now nees ore sociologists, social/cultural anthropologists an social psychologists. This ean, consiere by the governent in regar to the nuber of social scientists to be traine, is uly reflecte in the total nuber of 3, people state to receive higher or specialize seconary eucation uring the course of the current plan ( ). The shortage of qualifie social scientists will be ease with the opening of the sociology epartent at the State University, an by sening a certain nuber of stuents abroa for training in the social sciences. Like the naturaj sciences, social sciences are generally belit to be preoinantly useful activities of a socl-ty an also serve to turn science into a irect prouctive force in the society. To this en, the continuing expansionan consoliation of the link between science an prouction an practice is one of the laws governing the evelopent of the social sciences in Mongolia. Social science policy is aequate to the country's nees an the social scientists, in turn, are able to play an iportant rle in the country's general econoic an social evelopent. For exaple, the econoists contribute greatly to the evelopent of the national econoy with their basic research in the evelopent of the prouctive forces, their istribution an in the resultant prouction of aterial values, etc. Historians not only contribute with their works on national an international history, but also take an active part in eucating the younger generation. The 196 social science teachers conference prouce a lengthy recoenation, running to chapters an containing 29 articles,. Aong these were a nuber of proposals to the governent which were later put into effect. Another ore effective for of political activity by social scientists is their participation in the nation-wie iscussions of laws or the rafting of a law. For instance, the 196 raft law for eucation an carezrs was iscusse through the party, ainistrative an other ass organizations. Following the iscussions, any of tne suggestions an proposals put forwar were accepte ah incorporate into the final law. Aong the recoenations was one stating that the iscipline of scientific counis was to be inclue in the university prograe as a social science iscipline. Another le to the reorganization of the joint Departent of History an Geography at the State Peagogical stitute into separate epartents. aition, each iniviual institute engage in scientific research has the right to work out proposals on concrete questions for the approval by the governent authorities concerne. There are any other exaples whereby not only institutional but also personal/iniviual proposals have been approve by the governent. By its funaental character, the social sriences have ar, active rle to play in counity life an especially in efining urgent probles, connecte with the social an econoic aspects of the scientific an technological progress of the country. At the sae tie, the aterial an technical basis for scientific institutions, facilitate by the growth of our national econoy is, one of the ecisive factors for the successful solution of all scientific probles, incluing those of the social sciences. These features of the social sciences have been 8

49 thoroughly consiere an reflecte in the research organization plan for , worke out an prognosticate in the light of the irectives of the governent institutions. Accoring to this plan, for instance, econoic research will be conucte in the following irections : (a) Theoretical probles of expane reprouction, the action of the law of copliance of prouctive forces with prouction relations an its character in the MPR an the ethoological aspects of ways an eans for ajusting the econoic growth of the MPR with COMECO eber countries; (b) Coprehensive scientific basis for the general evelopent an istribution of the country's prouctive forces; (c) Probles for iproveent of the econoic ethos an organizational structure of the anageent of national econoy; () Establishent of ethoology to efine the econoic effectiveness of social prouction, criteria, inicators an recoenations. (e) Research on the labour-consuing nature of aterial prouction of the MPR. working out ethos to efine labour prouctiveness an the increasing of average wages. The results of the research will hopefully serve as orientations an theoretical bases for future evelopent of the country's national econoy an the iproveent of the effectiveness of social prouction. the fiels of philosophy, sociology an law: (a) Social relations, social an class structure of the counity, sociological question of labour culture an oe of life for factory workers an co-operative ebers, iniviual probles of anageent of the society, process, evelopent of socialist eocracy an its processes, legal fors of the econoic functions of the state; (b) Research on the vital probles connecte with the spiritual life of the Mongolian people, foration of a scientific worl outlook in the country, history of socio -political an philosophical thought of the Mongolian people in the 16th-19th Centuries, an so on. History: (a) Transforation fro feualis to socialis in Mongolia, urgent probles of international an Asian stuies, archaeological an ethnographical research, etc. It ay be note that, as regars the ethoological aspects for carrying out the above projects, this coul be one through coplex an interisciplinary research. For exaple, the probles of istribution an evelopent of prouctive forces coul be solve through joint participation by all institutes (coplex research), while the structural investigation of Moern Mongolian society is one by historians, sociologists, econoists an atheaticians (interisciplinary research). Suing up, one can state that the social sciences in Mongolia have ae consierable progress uring the last few years, particularly since the creation of the ational Acaey of Sciences. IV. RECOMMEDATIOS FOR REGIOAL AD ITERATIOAL CO-OPERATIO Social science evelopent in Mongolia is closely linke to all-roun co-operation with the socialist countries. Fro the tie it opene, the State University of Mongolia has ha close scientific relations with Moscow, Leningra an Irkutsk universities. This is now true with all socialist countries as well as with universities an scientific institutions of ia, Great Britain, France an others. Since 195, there are unergrauate an post-grauate stuents fro the countries of Asia an Europe at the University of Mongolia. It is worthwhile to point out that scientific cooperation between MPR an USSR has grown stronger an entere a new stage with the establishent of the Mongolian Acaey of Sciences in A bilateral agreeent for scientific co-operation between it an the Soviet Acaey of Sciences was signe in Uner the agreeent, the two acaeies exchange scientific workers, aterials an inforation, organize joint scientific expeitions, hol scientific conferences, an so on. The Soviet Union is proviing uch help in eucating the young Mongols in oern Science an technology. Accoring to the 1976 ata, 151 stuents fro Mongolia ha been eucate in the Soviet Union uring the last 5 years. the last 1 years alone, 37 scientific workers ha visite the Soviet Union on issions an ore than 25 scientific workers ha got octor's an caniate's egrees in the scientific institutions in the USSR. There has been fruitful co-operation between Mongolian an Soviet scientists in the fiel of social scierces, incluing econoics, history, an philosophy. Our econoists, in collaboration with their colleagues fro the Soviet Union an other countries of the socialist counity, are taking an active part in the investigations of such conteporary probles as interstate specialization an co-operation in the fiel of inustry an agriculture of the socialist countries, fors an perspectives for joint enterprises an joint prognosis, an so forth. Diversifie co-operation, irect contacts an integration of pur scientific establishents with the appropriate establishents in the USSR an in other COMECO-eber countries is of vital iportance for the introuction of scientific an technical achieveents an speeing up the rate of socialist construction in the country. The Acaey of Sciences selects its foreign ebers fro aong the proinent scholars of 9

50 foreign countries an has a grant for honorary egrees for foreign ignitaries. The Mongolian scholars are also honoure in the sae way. Mongolia is'highly-honoure to take part in the Unesco activities to the best of their abilities. Either irectly or through its national coission, Mongolia aintains fruitful relations with the Unesco heaquarters an its regional offices in Asia. Mongolian representatives participate perioically in the international conferences, organize by Unesco an fin the helpful an useful. Despite the language barrier an istance, Mongolian scientists are intereste in further stiulation of relations with Unesco an other international organizations. Unesco was generous enough to ai in builing a polytechnical institute in Ulan-Bator as well as vocational training schools elsewhere in the country. These schools train qualifie workers for factories an stockbreeing an turn out hunres of pupils every year. aition, Mongolia has participate in the Unescoproject for Central Asian Stuies since Since 1973 Mongolia is a eber of the ternational Association for the Stuy of the Cultures of Central Asia. The activities of the Mongolian ational Coission for Central Asian Stuies were highly praise by the Unesco authorities at the international syposiu on the R61e of oas in the Civilization of Central Asia hel in Ulan-Bator in May This syposiu, organize by the Mongolian Acaey of Sciences anthe ational Coission for Central Asian Stuies an sponsore by Unesco, was attene by representatives fro soe twenty-o countries an hear 63 papers. The syposiu aterial has been publishe in a single volue, containing all the papers an ocuents of the conference (R81e of the oaic Peoples in the Civilization of Central Asia, Ulan- Bator, 197). Mongolia is a eber of the ternational Coittee of Historical Sciences an participate in the regular congresses of that organization since 196. The Feeration of Mongolian Historians (since 1957), the Feeration of Lawyers (since 1953) an the Association of Mongolian Sociologists (since 1972) take part in the activities of their corresponing international boies. Mongolian econoists an philosophers will join the ternational Feeration of Philosophic Associations aln the ternational Econoic Association in the near future. Mongolia has alreay participate in previous congresses of these two international organizations. The MPR Acaey of Sciences also takes active part in the work of such social sciences international organizations as the Peranent ternational Altaistic Conference (PLAC), the ternational Congress of Huanitarians of Asia an orth Africa an others. The Acaey of Sciences of the MPR is aintaining peranent contact with Mongoiists of foreign countries. The first three ternational Congresses of Mongolists were hel in Ulan-Bator an, at the last one in 1976, a new congress section Mongolia an the Countries of Central Asia was set up on the initiative of the Mongolian ational Coission for Central Asian Stuies. It was also on the initiative of the MPR Acaey of Sciences, that the ICM Peranent Coittee (the executive boy of the ternational Congress of Mongolists) was foune in 197 an was subsequently registere by Unesco as a Specialize ternational Boy. These international forus of scholars organize by scientific institutions eonstrate the ever- growing activity an responsibility of our social science scholars. Both international an regional co-operation in the social sciences coul be expane even further uner the present-ay favourable worl conitions, particularly in Asia whose countries have uch in coon culturally an historically. this context, Unesco, acting as a link between the countries intereste in regional co-operation, can play a still ore iportant rble through its regional offices. Owing to the steay growth of the national econoy an culture, Mongolia nees an increasing nuber of highly qualifie scientific cares. e are convince that all these current probles face coul be solve through our international collaboration an co-operation with the frienly countries an authoritative international organizations for scientific evelopent like Unesco, an through efforts towars axiu obilization of our own resources an the progress of science an technology in Mongolia. It is also iportant that the process of positive change now taking place in the worl uner the influence of etente, creates the proper conitions for the expansion of cultural an scientific cooperation between ifferent countries, incluing those of Asia. Bibliogr aphy 1. Bira, Sh. Mongolian Historiography: "Rapports rv Methoologie et Histoire Conteporaine". Verlag Ferinan Berger an Sohne, Horn /Vi en. 2. Bira, Sh. Social Science Developent an its Perspective in the Mongolian People's Republic. (Materials of the First Conference of - Vice-presients of the Acaeies of Sciences of Socialist.Countries. Moscow, 1975). ( Russian). 3. Chulun-Bator, Sh. Scientific an Technical Potential in the MPR. Ulan-Bator, ( Mongolian). 5

51 . History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Vol. 1-3, Ulan-Bator, I 969. ( Mongolian). 5.. History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Moscow, ( English). 6. History of the Mongolian People's Republic. Vol. 3. Lonon, ( English) Shagarsuren, L. Public Eucation in the Mongolian People's Republic. Ulan-Bator, ( Russian). 8. Shirenyb, B. Creative Thought. "Cultural Rebirth". Ulan-Bator, Shirenyb, B. On the Results of Scientific re- search of the Mongolian Acaey of Sciences for the Preceing five years plan an tasks for the perio of Ulan-Bator, ( Russian). 1. Shirenyb, B. Society an Science: Probles of their teraction. Ulan-Bator, Social Science Teaching in Mongolia. Ulan- Bator, 196. ( Mongolian). 12. Yu, Tseenbal. Socialist Mongolia's Historical Path of Developent. Ulan-Bator, ( Russian). 13. Zag, L. History of University in Mongolia. Ulan-Bator, ( Mongolian). 1. Congress of the Mongolian People's Revolutionary Party, 17. Ulan-Bator, Guielines for the Developent of the ational Econoy an Culture of the Mongolian People's Republic for Ulan-Bator, June ternational Congress of Mongolists, 2. Ulan- Bator, Vol.l R61e of the oaic Peoples in the Civilization of Central Asia. Ulan-Bator, ational Econoy of the MPR, (Statistical Collection). Central Statistical Boar uner the Council of Ministers of the MPR. Ulan-Bator, ( Mongolian an Russian). 51

52 By Kevin P. Cleents Lecturer in Sociology University of Canterbury Christchurch I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUD ew Zealan is a sall nation, heavily epenent on priary prouction for its relatively high stanar of living. This econoic epenence on agriculture, now ecreasing slightly as anufacturing output increases, has resulte in successive ew Zealan governents' thinking of scientific research priarily in ters of applie research beneficial to econoic prouction. As Dr. E.I. Robertson, Director-General of the Departent of Scientific an ustrial Research (D. S. I. R. ) state, in 197, " ew Zealan the ost iportant research fiels are agricultural, an a ajor part of the epartent's work has always been aie at fining an eveloping ways of attaining ore efficient prouction fro the lan... an solving probles resulting fro ore intensive pasture, crop an livestock prouction. "(1) This view is raatically reinforce by actual governent expeniture on ifferent scientific activities. (See Table 1). Since ore than threequarters of all scientific research in ew Zealan is finance fro governent sources(z), these figures provie a very accurate inication of how governent views the relative status of the natural as oppose to the social sciences. spite of this rather obvious preference for the natural sciences, social science isciplines (anthropology, business ainistration, econoics, eucation, social geography, political science, public an social ainistration, psychologyan sociology) arenow well establishe within ew Zealan's six universities an ake their influence felt in a nuber of ways within the counity - e. g. in ters of public an private consultancy an avisory work. It woul, however, be isleaing to say that the social sciences in ew Zealan evelope in a co-orinate fashion at the sae tie. All of the isciplines entione above were introuce at ifferent ties an uner ifferent circustances in ifferent universities. Victoria University, for ex- exaple, establishe an Econoics Departent in 197 an starte offering courses in econoics after this tie, but Canterbury University on the other han i not establish a separate epartent of econoics until the 195s. Siilarly, political science as introuce at Victoria University in 1939 as an inepenent subject, whereas it ae separate appearances in other ew Zealan universities uch later. ters of the overall eve'lopent of the social sciences, it is ifficult therefore to ake generalizations that apply to every iscipline equally. To take one further exaple, the social science content of geography, psychology an anthropology has varie in ifferent universities at ifferent ties an has been ererine, to a very large extent, by the availability of staff with social science qualifications an skills. To provie specific etails about the evelopent of each iscipline is beyon the scope of this stuy, but reaers shoul appreciate that generalizations about the evelopent of the social sciences ay o soe injustice to the evelopent of specific subjects within specific institutions. Like any other things in ew Zealan society, the social sciences have evelope in a fairly unplanne an unco-orinate fashion. stitutions like Victoria University, however, (because of its proxiity to the governent, an its early evelopent of social science subjects) nurture a social scientific perspective on ew Zealan society which has becoe the basis for uch conteporary social scientific investigation of ew Zealan society. Ernest an Pearl Beaglehole, for exaple, lai soe useful founations for the subsequent anzlysis of conteporary Maori an Pakeha (European) society (see Soe Moern Maoris, 196, Aucklan, hitecobe an Tobs). The Beagleholes were not alone in contributing to the overall (1) D. S. I. R. Research, ellington, Governent Printer, 197, p. 5. (2) 1975 ew Zealan Official Yearbook, ellington, Governent Printer, p

53 Table 1 Actual Science Buget Expeniture for Year Ene 31 March 197 by Activit (Corresponing expeniture for year enez31 March 1973 in parentheses)(l) Activity Agriculture Forestry Fisheries Minerals Manufacturing Builing an Construction Transport atural Environent Social Sciences Huan Health Funaental Research Other Scientific Services Departental Expeniture Grants Total ($) ( $) ($) 16, 16 (13, 372) 2, 129 (1, 812) 3, 858 ( 3, 36) 25 ( 37) 1,15 ( 1,18) 17 ( 23) 1, 198 ( 1, 6) 19 ( 155) 2, 15 ( 1, 829) 11 ( 128) 952 ( 76) 251 ( 2) 777 ( 81) 53 ( 65) 9,679 ( 7, 817) 352 ( 299) 18,289 3, 883 1,32 1,37 2, 26 1, ,31 (15,18) ( 3,397) ( 1,27) ( 1,21) ( 1,957) ( 96) ( 879) ( 8,116) 11 ( 336) 26 ( 22) 675 ( 538) 661 ( 58) 16 ( 13) 677 ( 593) Total evelopent of social scientific thinking in ew Zealan; they an others like the, e.g. Sir Thoas Hunter, establishe the legitiacy, istinctiveness an iportance of the social scientific perspective. Once governent an the public began requesting social scientific inforation an knowlege about ew Zealan's econoy, polity an society, the universities then began responing to the eans by establishing new an expaning ol social science epartents. It has not been an easy task an soe social science subjects, especially the 'hewer isciplines" such as sociology an political science have ha to work har to legitiate their clais to inepenent existence. At the University of Canterbury, for exaple, psychology was taught for a nuber of years within the Philosophy Departent, an even now sociology is technically still a part of the Psychology Departent, although it runs its own separate prograe. Siilarly, econoics an political science were originally taught within the History Departent. These arrangeents occurre because of funing ifficulties an soe acaeic an ainistrative reluctance to ait social science subjects as equals with the oler arts an natural science isciplines. The evelopent of ew Zealan sociology provies an interesting illustration of the ifficulties that confronte, an in ifferent ways still confront, ew Zealan social scientists. trying to evelop their isciplines within universities an in the counity. hile sociology is to soe extent atypical in that it was a late eveloper (econoics, social geography an anthropology were establishe uch earlier), it nevertheless provies soe inication of how one subject establishe itself an began aking a contribution to knowlege about social structure an process in ew Zealan. The evelopent of sociology has been well ocuente by K. Mayer(a), D. A. Hansen an R. J.-R. King(3), R. H. T. Thopson(), (1) Report of the ational Research Avisory Council for the Year Ene 31st March 197, ellington, Governent Printer, p. 2. (2) K. Mayer, "Sociology in Australia an ew Zealan", Sociology an Social Research, 9, (October, 1961, pp (3) D..A. Hansen an R. J.R. King, "Sociology an Social Research in ew Zealan", Sociology an Social Research, 5, (October, 1965), pp () R. H. T. Thopson, "Sociology at the University of Canterbury", Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociology, Vol:l, uber 2, (October, 1965), pp R. H. T. Thopson. -. "Socioloav -" in ew Zealan", Sociology an Social Research, 51, (July 1967). pp R. H. T. Thopson, "The Developent of Sociology in ew Zealan", Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociology, Vol. 8, (October, 1972). pp

54 D..G. Tis(l). an C. Balock an J. Lally(2), so I will siply outline soe of the ajor etails of the ways in which sociology establishe itself as an autonoous "respectable" university iscipline. (Reaers wanting ore specific inforation can get it fro the original sources cite above. ew Zealan, as in ost estern countries, the evelopent of separate social science subjects has been a process of increasing ifferentiation fro oler "establishe" isciplines. Sociology was originally nurture within epartents of Philosophy an Eucation. It ae its first appearance as a separate subject in 1921 as a copulsory requireen for the newly create Diploa of Social S~ience(~j. hen this iploa was later abolishe it was transferre to the B. A. egree an reaine there until 191 when it was reove fro the Calenar. Many explanations have been offere for this reoval, but accoring to Thopson "it appears to have ie quietly of inanition. "() sofar as sociology ha any existence after this tie it was sustaine by enthusiasts in epartents of philosophy, psychology an eucation. Professor H. C. D. Soerset ( )(5) actively avocate the evelopent of sociology as a separate iscipline throughout the 19s an 195s. but it i not ake a foral appearance again until 1957 which was approxiately the sae tie that sociology began its "foral" expansion in the Unite Kingo. the late 195s, therefore, acaeic sociology acquire a secon opportunity to establish itself within ew Zealan universities. This tie, however, there were ore qualifie people available to teach it (notably J. H. Robb an H. C. D. Soerset at Victoria University an R.H.T. Thopson at Canterbury University). its secon phase there was ore stuent interest an university staff gave it ore support than previously. Unlike the early evelopent of political science at Victoria University, which largely cae into existence because of external pressure fro groups such as the ew Zealan stitute of Public Ainistration, sociology establishe itself largely because there were people like R. H. T. Thopson an J. H. Robb who were on the spot in establishe faculty positions (Robb a School of Social ork an Thopson was in a Departent of Psychology). These two people an the colleagues that joine the generate stuent an social ean for the iscipline. It was only in the late 196s, however, that chairs were finally establishe (Victoria University 1966, Aucklan University 1968, aikato University 1969, Canterbury an Massey Universities , an sociology coul be sai to have es - tablishe a fir clai to be recognize as a separate social science iscipline. After the establishent of founation chairs the evelopent of sociology as a university subject was ipee soewhat by ifficulties associa- te with the hiring an retaining of suitably qualifie staff. ew Zealan universities ten to copete with Australian universities for staff an when sociology began expaning - in the 196s - ew Zealan university salaries were not copetitive with Australian. Many ew Zealan sociologists secure eployent across the Tasan, while British an orth Aerican sociologists intereste in Australasia tene towar Australia rather than ew Zealan because of the higher salaries an larger population. This initial isavantage was exacerbate by a sellers' arket in university staff generally, especially in rapily growing subjects like sociology. During this perio (195s-l 96s) ew Zealan sociology epartents ha a nuber of establishe posts unfille because suitably qualifie staff i not apply for the vacant positions. This situation was accopanie also by expaning stuent enrolents in all subjects, which eant that teachers of sociology, for exaple, foun theselves confronte with high stuent loas an a large nuber of ainistrative eans on their tie. During this perio establishe natural science isciplines, like physics, ha no ifficulty in eveloping new specialist areas an appointing qualifie staff, but new isciplines i an because of this were unable to ake aitional clais on university staff allocations, since in ost instances they ha staff positions unfille. (6) The parlous staffing situation unoubtely create probles for the soli founation of sociology as an establishe university iscipline. As one of the founation teachers put it in 1965: "The rapi evelopent of courses in sociology eant that teaching has continue on a rather han to outh basis. The proble of staffing reains ifficult, although we have passe beyon the stage where the hea of the epartent has to worry about the possible coplications shoul the only available lecturer be run over by a bus. Because of these initial ifficulties in attracting an recruiting suitably qualifie staff, an because the teachers of sociology were rather overworke, library an research resources were not evelope in a particularly coherent or rational (1) D..G. Tis, "A Coent on 'The Developent of Sociology in ew Zealan'", Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociology, Vol. 8, (October, 1972).. pp. _ (2) C.V. Balock an J. Lally, Sociol tralia an ew Zealan, Conn., Greenwoo Press, 197. (3) R. H. T. Thopson, 1967, op. cit., p. 55. () R. H. T. Thopson, 1972, op. cit., p (5) Forer Professor of Eucation, Victoria University of ellington an author of Littleens Patterns of Change, Chrischurch, hitcoulls Liite (2n Eition), 197. (6) I a grateful to J.H. Robb for clarification of this point. (7) R. H. T. Thopson, 1965, op. cit., p

55 way, an this situation is only now beginning to be rectifie - just at a tie when ew Zealan as a whole is in the ile of an econoic recession! The last five years ( ) have seen the evelopent of a buyers' arket for university staff, an ost ew Zealan sociology epartents are now fully staffe. ters of stuent nubers, however, while other social science an non-social science subjects are enjoying soe overall reuction in ean, sociology is experiencing an upsurge. At Canterbury University for exaple, first year enrolents jupe fro 5 in 1975 to 7 in This kin of aitional ean obviously places soe constraints on the ability of sociology faculty to fulfill teaching an research functions equally. By an large though, sociology as a new social science iscipline is now well establishe within five of the six ew Zealan universities an it has the potential for aking a very worthwhile contribution to the acaeic an popular unerstaning of ew Zealan society. As long as teaching eans o not continue to escalate, sociological research in ew Zealan will continue to iprove both quantitatively an qualitatively. The Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociology, for exaple, which has been eite in Australia for the last twelve years is now being eite by ew Zealan (at the Sociology Departent, University of Canterbury) an this too shoul encourage younger ew Zealan sociologists to publish their work in ew Zealan as well as overseas. hile the evelopent of sociology is generis, this brief escription inicates soe of the probles one social science iscipline experi-, ence when trying to gain recognition. acquire suitably qualifie staff an establish creibility within the ew Zealan acaeic counity. Other social science subjects have ha ifferent experiences, soe easier, soe harer, but overall copetition rather than co-operation has characterize the ifferent isciplines I evelop - ent an bargaining for scarce university resources. Because social science subjects have tene to copete with each other for such resources, university ainistrations an the public are not accustoe to think of the separate acaeic isciplines as ifferent parts of a unifie social science, but there are recent inications that the Social Developent Council (which avises the ational Developent Council, an inicative planning group for governent) increasingly fins any of the istinctions either superficial or historical accients. The Social Developent Council recently efine the social sciences as: 'I... group of relate isciplines concerne with huan behaviour, especially as this arises fro an is relate to regular an patterne interaction aong establishe groups of people. hile there is no final an efinitive list of 'social sciences', coonly accepte usage woul inclue such isciplines as anthropology, econoics, eucation, huan or social geography, political science, public ainistration, social ainistration, social psychslogy, sociology an certain branches of statistics. ''(1) All of these subjects are now taught within ew Zealan universities an governent is increasingly working out ways of aking use of social science resources in its analyses of conteporary ew Zealan society an in its projections for the future. hile traitionally, the pressure has been towars a ifferentiation of social science subjects (e.g. econoics an political science fro history, psychology an sociology fro philosophy an eucation, social geography fro physical geography), it sees likely that the current ownturn in the econoy, an restrictions on university finances ay precipitate soe' oveent towars re-integration of the separate isciplines at the university level so that areas of overlap an uplication can be iniize or eliinate.,, 11. ISTITUTIOAL FRAMEORK OF TEACHIG AD RESEARCH I THE SOCIAL SCIECES (a) Teaching There are six autonoous universities in ew Zealan an one agricultural college (Lincoln) affiliate to the University of Canterbury. The four olest universities, Otago (Dunein), Canterbury (Christchurch), Aucklan, an Victoria (ellington), were originally constituent colleges of the University of ew Zealan, (the statute for which cae into force in 187). The feeral University of ew Zealan was isestablishe in 1961 an the constituent colleges becae inepenent universities with the power to ake their own regulations an confer egrees. The University of aikato (Hailton) was establishe by Act of Parliaent in 1963, as was Massey University (Palerston orth) which ha originally been an agricultural college. aition to the six universities there are fourteen nonegree conferring technical institutes, an teachers' training colleges in Aucklan, Hailton Palerston orth, ellington, Christchurch an Dunein. The great bulk of social science teaching occurs within the universities - although it is graually being extene to teachers' training colleges an technical institutes. Since the isestablishent of the University of ew Zealan in 1961 each university has evelope itself in slightly ipferent ways. aikato University, for exaple, has trie t'o integrate its subjects (1) Social Developent Council, Proposals for the Orffanization of Social Science Research, Mieo., ellington, April, 1975, pp

56 Table 2 Social Science Subjects Taught in ew Zealan Universities Aucklan aikato Massey Victoria Univ. Canterbury Otago Univ. Univ. Univ. of ellington University Univ. Anthropology X X X X Business ainistration X X X X X X Econoics X X X X X X Eucation X X X X X X Geography X X X X X X Political science Public /social ainistration X X X Psychology X X X X X X Sociology X X X X X X X X by grouping the within five schools of stuies, naely the Schools of Huanities, Social Sciences, Eucation, Science an Manageent Stuies. (l) This eans that stuents choose schools of stuy rather than iniviual subjects although there is a consierable range of subjects within each school. the oler universities(2) subjects ten to be offere on an iniviual basis within loosely organize faculties or schools. The above social science subjects are offere at ew Zealan universities within faculties of Arts, Social Science, Coerce an Science. Table 3 Percentages of Full-tie Acaeic Staff E lo e in the Teaching of Social Science Subjec --=b :s, 1975 Anthropology Business Ainistration Econoics Eucation Geography Political Science, Psychology Sociology L: Each university co-orinates its social science subjects in slightly ifferent ways. At the University of Otago, for exaple, anthropology, eucation, econoics, geography an political stuies are within the Faculty of Arts an Music, while psychology is in the Science Faculty. At the University of Canterbury, social sciences are taught principally within the Faculty of Arts, which is the pattern for Aucklan University too. At Victoria University of ellington, social science subjects, while taught ainly in the Faculty of Arts, are offere also within the Faculty of Coerce an Ainistration. At Massey University there is a Faculty of Social Sciences an a separate faculty for the Huanities. Faculties an schools within ew Zealan universities rationalize an co-orinate course offerings an epartental resources so that iniviual epartents o not uplicate courses an stuents can plan egrees that ake best useof all resources in the faculty. They also provie the non-professorial ebers of staff with a foru for the airing of grievances, an evelopent of acaeic policies. hen the arts faculties were establishe in the late 19th Century in the four olest universities they were set up to co-orinate epartents such as classics, English, atheatics an philosophy. The evelopent of social science subjects an the (1) University of aikato Calenar 1976, Hailton, ~~ ~~ ew Zealan, p. 57. See J. C. Beaglehole, The University of ew Zealan: An Historical Stuy, ellington, ew Zealan Council of Eucational Research, J. Garner et. al., A History of the University of Canterbury , Christchurch, Caxton Press, for a couple of useful. historical works on university evelopent in ew Zealan. Calculate fro the University of Aucklan Calenar 1975, Aucklan, ew Zealan; University of aikato Calenar 1975, Hailton; ar 1975, Christchurch; Otago University Calenar 1975, Dunein. 57

57 ~~ expansion of traitional arts subjects has now resulte in ost arts faculties losing uch of their ability to eterine what happens within each epartent an ost.epartents now operate reasonably inepenently of each other. The nuber of social scientists eploye within ifferent isciplines in each university an between universities varies quite substantially. This variation norally reflects: (i) what is aske for - which norally eans what the hea of the epartent asks for; (ii) staff-stuent ratios; an (iii) whether the subject concerne has laboratories or not. For exaple, eucation epartents, which have been establishe for a long tie an which provie services to teacher training colleges an eucation boars, eploy 19 per cent of all social scientists in ew Zealan. Psychology epartents eploy 15 per cent an econoics epartents eploy 1per cent. More recently establishe social sciences such as sociology eploy 1 per cent, political science 9per cent an business ainistration 12 per cent. These figures give soe inication of the relative staning of each social science subject within each university. Table shows the variation that exists within an between isciplines in each university an between universities. (The table is isleaing in two isciplinary areas, naely geography an psychology, since any of the people eploye in these subjects are not social scientists an woul prefer to call theselves physical or natural scientists, but the figures shown o inclue a goo proportion of both social geographers an social psychologists.) Soe social science epartents are sall an new an receive relatively little recognition in ters of high status positions or staff allocations while others are large an have a high proportion of high status positions (e.g. the Econoics Departent at Victoria University which has ha influential professors as well as high stuent enrolents, an a consierable aount of consultancy contact with the Reserve Bank of ew Zealan, Treasury an Governent). Table shows also that Aucklan an ellington are slightly better enowe with social scientists than the other universities. By an large, those subjects that have been in existence for soe tie, e. g. eucation, econoics, geography, ten to have ore high status personnel than those that have only recently eerge as separate isciplines such as sociology or political science. Course offerings: ithin each social science subject there is a range of iniviual subject offerings that stuents can choose between to achieve creits for their B.A. (unergrauate) egrees. The pattern is as follows. Stuents choose a subject, sociologyfpsychology, for exaple, which norally has soe copulsory requireents, e. g. theory an ethos or statistics, an the stuent then chooses fro a range of substantive options. The stuent takes these subjects for a whole acaeic year (25 weeks) an sits an exaination at the en of each year. ew Zealan, each university has slightly ifferent arrangeents, but essentially a stuent has to o nine units or 18 creits (eight units or 96 points for a B. Sc. in econoics, geography or psychology at Canterbury), or 'XI nubers of papers across a nuber of subjects to coplete his unergrauate egree. The B.A. egree norally takes three years to coplete an each year is suppose to represent an avance on the first one. sociology at Canterbury University, for exaple, the stuent Table Actual ubers of Full-tie Staff, Junior Lecturer an Above Eploye in Each Subject, at Each University(l) Anthropology Business ainistration Econoics Eucation Geography Political science Psychology Sociology A.U..U. M.U. V.U.. C.U. O.U Total Total Percentage (2) (1) (16) (22) (15) (12) (1) Calculate fro ibi. 58

58 Table 5 Staff: Stuent Ratios 1975(l) Anthropology Business ainistration Econoics Eucation Geography Political science Psychology Sociology Aucklan Canterbury Massey* Otago Victoria aikato 1:167 1: 9 1:7 1:17 1: 52 1: 7 1: 92 1:8 1: 86 1: 85 1:151 1:133 1:18 1:69 1: 77 1: 85 1: 112 1: 77 1:21 1:62 1:lOO 1: 216 1: 93 1: 55 1: 92 1:2 1: 36 1: 85 1: 1 1: 1 1: 1:17 1: 57 1:113 1: 77 1:15 1:55 1: 81 1 : 19 1:13 1: 87 1:15 1: 78 1: 13 *Both internal an extra-ural stuents are inclue in this figure. takes a general introuction to sociology in his/her University. Victoria University also has an usfirst year, an in the secon year oes a copul- trial Relations Centre an an stitute of Criinolsory theory paper an soe substantive options, OgY. finishing off in the thir year with a series of ore avance courses in theory/ethos an other spe- Faculty/stuent ratios cialist areas. These courses are norally cobine with other social science subjects, e. g. poli- It is extraorinarily ifficult to give precise staff/ tical science, econoics or psychology. At the stuent ratios as there is no national agreeent on post-grauate level, ew Zealan social science the weighting that shoul be given to stuents at stuents can take the following egrees: B.A. ifferent levels in their courses. A first-year stu- (Hons. 1, Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Philo- ent, for exaple, ay be less eaning on a sopy (M. Phil.) Aucklan, Massey an aikato faculty eber's tie than a M.A. stuent. The Universities only, Master of Social Science M.A. stuent, therefore, shoul receive soe a- (M. Soc. Sci.) aikato University only, an the itional weighting for the aitional tie - if soe Ph. D. 196 the Professor of Psychology at vali inication of faculty loas is to be evelope. Canterbury University propose the evelopent Since there are no statistics on facultyjstuent raof post-grauate schools in orer to ake ore ef- tios, the figures in Table 5 were copile as folfective use of all the available social science re- lows: The annual statistical returns of all universources, (2) but apart fro this appeal there has sities to the University Grants Coittee were been no oveent towars setting up either a sep- analyse to iscover the total nuber of stuent arate post-grauate school serving all six univer- enrolents in all courses offere by social science sities or separate post-grauate schools within epartents. These figures were then ivie by each university. The specific kin of post-grauate faculty ebers in each subject at each university eucation offere is in the final analysis the res- to arrive at relative facultylstuent ratios within ponsibility of iniviual epartents so the quality all subjects. The easure is an inaequate one but tens to vary soewhat - although attepts are oes provie a reasonable inication of subjects ae to ensure unifority through external exai- that have staff /stuent ratios which ay negatively nations etc. The noral pattern for the M.A., affect the quality of teaching an research. It ust M. Soc. Sci an M. Phil. egrees is for stuents to be reiterate, however, that the easure sipiy sit a series of avance courses an write a thesis, provies a tentative basis for coparison of faculalthough the M. Phil. egree in ew Zealan is tylstuent ratios. exactly the sae as in Englan, a research egree This table eonstrates quite a bit of interwith no foral courses, grante on the copletion subject an inter-university variation in social an acceptance of a thesis. A consierable aount of soun social science research is coplete in fulfilling the requireents for the M.A. an Ph. D. (1) Ms Lina Gilow assiste in the copilation of egrees. these tables fro the Statistical Returns of the ew Zealan oes not have any separate gra- Universities of Aucklan, aikato, Massey, uate schools in the social sciences, although there Victoria, Canterbury an Otago 1975 to the are professional Social ork an Social Ainis- University Grants Coittee. tration courses at the Universities of Aucklan, (2) Alan Crowther, "Chairan's Aress", Pro- Massey, Victoria an Canterbury, an Public A- ceeings of the Royal Society of ew Zealan, inistration is taught within the School of Political Vol. 89, Part 1, inth Congress Report, April, Science an Public Ainistration at Victoria 1961, p

59 science stafflstuent ratios. Overall, ost subjects have low stafflstuent ratios which o place consierable constraints on the ability of staff to o justice to both teaching an research. Most acaeics choose to ephasize one task to the etrient of the other. If an iniviual faculty eber, for exaple, tries to serve his/her stuents well in teaching, then research often gets relegate to a relatively inor position. If, on the other han, research receives ost attention then teaching often suffers. If the stafflstuent ratios were iprove, it ight be possible to evote ore aequate aounts of tie to both teaching an research. There are soe staff ebers who anage to cobine teaching an research happily an each reinforces the other. But overall, one or the other activity tens to assue priority. Proportion of social science stuents to the total stuent boy ew Zealan, a stuent oes not becoe a stuent of econoics an sit a whole egree in that subject as is the case in the Unite Kingo. Rather, stuents take a nuber of subjects at ifferent levels of sophistication. Because there are no aggregate figures on stuents in each epartent for each university, the table on proportions of social science stuents to the total stuent boy has been worke out on a basis of enrolent in each social science subject. The figures therefore relate to enrolent an not particular people, but they o give a general inication of the relative popularity of social science as oppose to non-social science subjects. The interesting feature of this table is that the newer universities of aikato an Massey have a far higher proportion of social science stuents than the oler universities. This is because the new universities have ore course offerings in the social sciences, but it also reflects the fact that these universities inclue social science subjects as integral parts of the entire university prograe, whereas in the oler universities - Victoria University exclue - the social sciences have by an large been grafte on to existing prograes in the huanities. At aikato an Massey social science subjects receive as uch encourageent as soe of the principal sciences or oler huanities. Once again, these figures provie relative an general proportions - there are no statistical returns which enable analysts to be any ore precise. Res ear ch Organization an location There have been three recent reports on social science research in ew Zealan(1). General inforation fro these reports has been incorporrate into this section. Reaers wanting a etaile account of research activities an organizations in Table 6 Enrolents 1975(2) Social sci- on- ence enrol- Social social ents as science science. Total percentage enrol- enrol- enrol- of total enents ents ents rolents Aucklan 12, , 955 5, Canterbury 6, 16 2,81 26, Massey 12,378 17,31 29,9 2.8* Otago 3,97 17,22 2, Victoria 9,832 15,239 25, ai ka t o 7, , *clues extra-ural stuents ew Zealan, particularly governent an governent-supporte agencies like the ew Zealan Council for Eucational Research, shoul consult these stuies for specific etails. The Social Developent Council ientifies three ain sectors responsible for social research in ew Zealan. These are: universities, governent epartents incluing the D. S. I. R., an the private sector(3). This section will follow the Social Developent Council's tripartite classification. Universities Apart fro the ustrial Relations Centre an the stitute of Criinology at Victoria University, there are no social science research institutes attache to ew Zealan universities. The ew Zealan Council for Eucational Research has close ties with Eucation epartents in all universities as oes the stitute of Econoic Research with econoics epartents. Both are, however, copletely inepenent, an foune inirectly fro (1) These are: (1) R.E. Gibson, A Survey of Research Services in ew Zealan, ational Research an Avisory Council, ellington, ew Zealan (Mieo.), 197, p. 97. (2) Social Developent Council, ProDos - ;als for the Organization of Social Science Research, Social Developent Council, ellington, - ew, (Mieo.), April 1975, p. 12. (3) I. J. D. MacKay "The Organization of Social Research in Governent Agencies", unpublishe paper presente to the ew Zealan stitute of Public Ainistration, seinar on the probles of social policy, 197. Table copile fro the Statistical Returns of all universities to the University Grants Coittee (See Table 5) S. D. C., Proposals for the Organization of Social Science Research, April, 1975, p. 5. 6

60 governent through annual grants. the absence of university research units, social research at the tertiary level is conucte principally by M.A. or Ph. D. research stuents an iniviual ebers of staff. Social research, therefore, tens to reflect the iniviual interests / concerns of particular faculty ebers an stuents an often appears unco-orinate an unsysteatic. Recently, sociologists, econoists an political scientists have trie to establish priority areas to guie stafffstuent social research in orer to ake the ost effective use of existing resources. Sociologists, for exaple, iscusse research priorities at a Conference on Social Policy (. Z. S.A. Conference, Aucklan, oveber 1971, an ost recently (May 1976 at a Political Stuies Conference. ellington), sociologists, poli - tical scientists an econoists worke out soe ways an eans of rationalizing research into ifferent aspects of ew Zealan's political econoy. These are two recent exaples of attepts to eliinate soe of the ranoness of uch ew Zealan social research an evelop a boy of knowlege that is reasonably coherent. ew Zealan universities o not, by an large, encourage collective or tea research an as elsewhere universities proote an rewar acaeics on a basis of iniviual research an publications. Because of this the quality of research work epens very heavily on the quality of iniviual researchers an the support that they get fro colleagues within the university an elsewhere. The research one by M.A. or Ph.D. thesis stuents is frequently unsatisfactory because the stuent has to fulfill egree requireents which often o not enable the exploration of areas essential to the evelopent of ata bases necessary for an aequate analysis of ew Zealan society. Stuent research also suffers fro inexperience researchers applying liite research skills to coplex probles. spite of these caveats, however, unpublishe M.A. an Ph. D. theses bring together a consierable aount of useful priary an seconary ata. Staff research, on the other han, suffers because it tens to be part-tie research. Teaching obligations take priority over research obligations although acaeic recognition in ew Zealan, as entione above, is norally given for publication an research work rather than teaching. The pasttie nature of staff research eans that research projects ten to be very liite in scale an consequently rather superficial an unhelpful to policyakers wanting useful inforation to assist their eliberations. Because university researchers are pushe for tie there is little incentive to prouce useful ata for everyone. Research becoes narrowly focusse to serve the iniviual interests of the particular analyst. As soe effort is ae to co-orinate research activities within an between isciplines, it is likely that social research will yiel ore systeatic, an ore coprehensive inforation on the social, econoic an political nees of ew Zealan. Governent epartents Successive ew Zealan governents have been conscious of thenecessity for basic social ata ever since the i-1 93s. ee, uner the first Labour Governent ( ) the Hon. D.G. Sullivan, Minister in charge of the D. S. I. R., announce the foration of the Bureau of Social Research. As he put it: I 1 ' The work of the new bureau will inclue the co- orinating of theactivities of research boies or iniviuals working in the fiels of the Social Sciences so that the utost benefit will be realize for their efforts, the siilarities of interest in the Social Sciences, the evelopent in the counity of an appreciation of their significance, an the unertaking of investigations by the bureau itself to assist Governent by proviing the necessary factual basis for policy easures of a social nature. ''(1) The Bureau ha a nuber of very iportant objectives an if it ha been allowe to evelop woul have unoubtely establishe soli founations for well-groune governent social research. Unfortunately, after publishing results of a survey on the stanar of living of airy farers, the results of which raise soe oubts about the efficacy of Labour Party policies, the Prie Minister, Peter Fraser, forbae publication of coplete but unpublishe surveys on boot an shoe operatives, an traway eployees, an took steps to see that the Social Science Research Bureau was abolishe. (2) This rather inauspicious beginning to the evelopent of a governent social research institute eant that iniviual governent epartents requiring social/econoic ata for policy foration ha to gather the on an iniviual epartental basis. the absence of a co-orinating bureau, ost governent epartents establishe separate statistical units in the 19s an 195s to provie the with ata on their own operations an on those parts of society affecte by the. These units suppleente the work of the Departent of Statistics which collecte, an still collects, official statistics on all spheres of social life on a basis of fiveyearly censuses. The research units of each governent epartent graually acquire social research functions in the 196s an ove away fro the collection of routine statistics an preparation of annual reports, an answers to inisterial questions. (3) Since April 197 all Governent research units with the exception of the Departent of Health, are fune out of one central science buget. Each governent epartent, however, (1) Appenix to the Journal, House of Representatives, D. S. I. R., H. 3, 1937, p.. Quote in R. H. T. Thopson, 1967, ibi., p. 55. (2) R.H.T. Thopson, ibi., p. 5. (3) I. J. D. MacKay, ibi, iscusses this in soe etail. 61

61 ainisters its own unit separately. Departental research units account for just uner 2 per cent of governent anpower eploye in scientific activities an spen 1.6 per cent of the total Science Buget. There are research units in ost governent epartents. The ones engage in active social science research woul inclue the Departents of Statistics, Eucation, Justice, Labour, Trae an ustry, Health, Social elfare, Maori Affairs, the Housing Corporation an the Ministry of orks an Developent. As one woul expect, the range of stuies unertaken by these units reflects the nees of each epartent rather ore than the nees of social scientists. Apart fro econoic research, ost epartental research has a very heavy social welfare coponent an tens to be escriptive an irecte towars the solution or analysis of particular kins of epartental probles. The Justice Departent, for exaple, is involve in work on subjects like ivorce, rug offeners, an pre-release institutions, an the Departent of Social elfare is looking at such issues as aoption trens, ill-treatent of chilren an the incience of broken hoes aong juvenile offeners. Governent research units are able to raw on the services of the Applie Matheatics Division of the D. S. I. R. for technical assistance in the analysis of ata an this enables the to analyse coplex ata in a reasonably sophisticate fashion. Because of their concern to evelop coprehensive national statistics, groups like the Social Survey Section of the Statistics Departent have prouce very useful ata on things like househol incoes, housing stock, etc. that are funaental to any basic social research. A lot of "public" social research takes place at the local governent level, This research is priarily relate to regional an urban planning an although the research is soeties rather narrow, by an large town an regional planners are beginning to use ore sophisticate research tools in their analyses of urban growth, an patterns of settleent. A quasi-governental boy now receiving 92 per cent of its annual buget fro the governent (via the Departent of Eucation an the ational Research Avisory Council), is the ew Zealan Council for Eucational Research (ZCER) which sponsors an irectly initiates a large nuber of stuies on ew Zealan eucation. The research output of the ZCER is of a consistently high stanar an it has establishe an international reputation for the valuable nature of its research. Private sector Social science research in the private sector is priarily concerne with gathering ata useful for inustry, business an labour. The ew Zealan Bankers' Association, for exaple, eploys a research econoist to provie econoic, onetary an banking inforation for the five ajor traing banks. Siilarly, the Feeration of Labour has a sall research tea to provie inforation on awars, wage rates, labour relations. Manufacturers' associations an interest groups like the Feerate Farers as well as ajor copanies an arketing boars have their own econoic an legal research teas. aition to research groups within coercial copanies, therearean increasing nuber of arket research organizations such as the ational Research Bureau, Heylen an Associates, which provie ata on arkets an o quite a lot of opinion polling. Private sector research is constraine priarily by the necessity to eonstrate its coercial utility an by the very specific short-ter nees of clients an organizations that are paying for the res ear ch. The only voluntary research group that oes not have these constraints is the Society for Research on oen (a group of woen who research woen's issues), which has been well enowe with untie funs fro the Science Buget. Most private sector research (the Society for Research on oen exclue) contr.ibutes little in the way of long-ter, in-epth stuies of the econoy, the society, or the polity. Most social science research within universities can be classifie along isciplinary lines an in ters of the requireents of scholastic publications. Research within governent an in the private sector is uch ore aequately classifie in ters of its fiel of application, e. g. health research, social welfare research. Finance an sponsorship It is extraorinarily ifficult to give a coprehensive account of the various sources of finance for social research. R.E. Gibson notes that: "Since this fiel of investent is so highly fragente the copilation of such statistics woul be a coplex exercise, an the calculation of the proportionate costs of various salaries, of part-tie research workers, secretarial an other fors of assistance woul probably require a goo eal of inventive arithetic. The Carnegie Corporation of ew York has provie the great bulk of foreign private assistance to social research, but the exact aount of such assistance is ifficult to obtain. The ajor inigenous private benefactor of social research has been the J.R. McKenzie Trust, which allocates thirteen per cent of its annual grant to eical an eucational research. But apart fro these two ajor sources of private assistance ost social research is fune by governent through two ajor channels: (1) the Science Buget, (ainistere by the ational Research Avisory Council); qn (2) the University Grants Coittee (Research Coittee). (1) See the Annual Report of the ational Research Avisory Council, 197, (2) R.E. Gibson, 197, ibi., p

62 ~ ~~ 1. The Science Buget Table 7 - Actual Science Buget Expeniture for Year Ene 31 March 197 by Departent(l) (Corresponing expeniture for year ene 31 March 1973 in parentheses) Departental Departent Expeniture Grants Total $ () $ () $ () Agriculture an Fisheries 1,7 ( 8,65) 75 ( 399) 1,712 ( 9,) Defence 1,23 ( 73) 3.( 12) 1,26 ( 72) Eucation 7 ( 5) 935 ( 832) 1,5 ( 877) Electricity 5 ( 1) 7 ( 9) 12 ( 1) Forest Service 3,312 ( 2,82) 21 ( 3) 3, 333 ( 2, 858) ternal Affairs 335 ( 25) 335 ( 25) Justice 28 ( 29) 28 ( 29) Labour 176 ( 159) 7 ( 8) 183 ( 167) Lans an Survey 15 ( 15) 15 ( 15) Maori an Islan Affairs 2 ( ) 2 ( ) D. S. I. R. 16, 75 (1,36) 2,219 (2,118) 18, 92 (16,15) Social elfare 73 ( 58) 77 ( 58) State Services Coission 3 ( 2) 3 ( 2) Transport, 68 ( 3, 55) 26 ( 2),9 ( 3,57) orks an Developent 1, 925 ( 1,57) 18 ( 155) 2,15 ( 1,72) Total: 37, 77 (31, 831),12 (3,628) 1, 89 (35,59) Table 8 Actual Science Buget Expeniture for Year Ene 31 March 197 by Activity(l) (Corresponing expeniture for year ene 31 March 1973 in parentheses) Departental Activity Expeniture Grants Total $ () $ () $ () Agriculture 16,16 (13, 372) 2,129 (1, 812) 18, 289 (15, 18) Forestry 3, 858 ( 3,36) 25 ( 37) 3, 883 ( 3,397) Fisheries 1,15 ( 1,18) 17 ( 23) 1,32 ( 1,27) Minerals 1,198 ( 1,6) 19 ( 155) 1,37 ( 1,21) Manufacturing 2,15 ( 1, 829) 11 ( 128) 2, 26 ( 1, 957) Builing an Construction 952 ( 76) 251 ( 2) 1, 23 ( 96) Transport 777 ( 81) 53 ( 65) 83 ( 879) atural Environent 9,679 ( 7, 817) 352 ( 299) 1,31 ( 8,116) Social Sciences 11 ( 336) 26 ( 22) 675 ( 538) Huan Health 661 ( 58) 16 ( 13) 677 ( 593) Funaental Research 11 ( ) 11 ( ) 22 ( 8) Other Scientific Services 898 ( 729) 77 ( 686) 1,65 ( 1,15) Total 37, 77 (31, 831), 12 (3,638) 1, 89 (35,59) (1) Tables 7 an 8 rawn fro the.r.a.c. Annual Report 31 March 197, 6. 2 Appenices to the Journal of the House of Representatives. 63

63 Table 9 Suary of Awars Mae by the Research Coittee in 197(l) Discipline Auck- ai- Vict- Cant- Lin- Massey lan kat oria erbury coln Otago Total 1 Agriculture 2,7 25,19 Anthropology* 1,6 Architecture, Biocheistry, 81.2 Biology 33, 572 Botany,796 5, Botany an Zoology 1,3 Zoology 8, 827 9, 725 Cheistry 3, ,15 9,69 3,76 28, 95 Earth Science 2,79 9,512 1,3 Eucation* 19,61 5,, Econoics* Engin e er ing - Civil 37,71 Cheical 2,11 Electrical 6,3 Mechanical 6,155 6, Foo Technology 2, Geography* 3, Geology,23 1, 89 Law 1,5 6 Marine Research,99 utrition PoliticaI/Social Science* 2,1 98 Psychology*, Physical Eucation Philosophy Physics 3, 896, 1 22, 99 18, Raio Research 1,65 School of Science 15,29 Veterinary Science 3,5 Dental an Meical Science 7,7 1, 865 2,7 1,395 3, 3,5 2, 2,7 32,13 1, 27, 89 1,6, 16,511 33,572 9,796 1,3 29,17 21, ,732 28,61 1,395 37,71 2,11 6,3 52,155 2, 3, 15,3 2,1 7,99 3, 5 3,8 8, 59 2,7 81,116 1,65 15, , $17,56 67, 1 97, , , 96 39,62 93, ,786 Awars ae 1973 $(158, 286) (62, 363) (86, 2) (112, 86) (125,33) (7,2) ( ) (691 56) * Social science subjects - the grants have alost all been given for equipent purchases, an in the case of Geography, ost of the allocation was ae to natural rather than social geography. (1) University Grants Coittee, Report of the Research Coittee for the year 197, p. 6. 6

64 Tables 7 an 8, "Departental expeniture" refers to expeniture on the research units entione above - it ivies into salaries /aintenance an operating/capital costs (other than builings). "Grants" refer to sus pai out to other agencies by a particular epartent, or sus use for specific non-renewable projects or oney pai to organizations such as the Society for Research on oen. (l) These figures are rather ifficult to interpret precisely, since a lot of what passes for social science research in governent is in fact just the collection of routine ata for epartental. purposes. But as Gibson points out, "the figures can be taken as inicative of the relative staning of the social sciences". (2) hat is clear is that governent spens approxiately 1.6 per cent of the total Science Buget on social research an 98. per cent on non-social scientific research. The University Grants Coittee (U.G. C.) The U.G. C. provies each university with a block grant to cover virtually everything. ith very few exceptions, the U. G. C. oes not specify how this grant ust be spent. Though it often states that the grant contains sus to cover certain kins of activities, it virtually never ientifies these sus as particular aounts. (3) These block grants are aware on the assuption that teaching an research are the noral activities of university staff. Thus, the great bulk of the U.G. C. Is block grant is spent on staff salaries. o university epzrtent receives funs specifically for research out of this block grant, but in constructing the grant to a particular university, funs for research are inclue although the actual aounts allocate are confiential to the U.G. C. Funs are allocate to iniviual epartents by university councils, which ay, an often o, give specific sus for research an relate activities - to epartents in Science faculties. "The non-science epartents (which inclue the social sciences) receive very sall grants an can ake only very inor contributions to research activities, such as buying sall ites of equipent". () hat this eans is that ost social research within universities is carrie out with a iniu of expeniture an the costs are conceale within epartents, staff using available epartental resources. ew Zealan, as in ost countries, acaeic staff are eploye priarily to teach, but staff are expecte to engage in research whenever tie perits. The costs of such research are et by each university through oney allocate to research an leave coittees by the ifferent university councils, while iniviuals an epartents ay also apply irectly to the U.G.C. Research Coittee for aitional assistance. This coittee istributes a sall grant alost entirely for costly pieces of equipent with soe travel assistance. It will not norally ake grants for the payent of research assistants an they have to be pai for by university research an leave coittees out of the U.G. C. block grant. As the universities are operating on rather tight bugets, the total allocation for research assistants tens to be sall an is carefully onitore by the iniviual research coittees. As research assistants an interviewing personnel are ajor coponents of a lot of social science research, this restriction soeties circuscribes the type of research that can or cannot be unertaken by iniviual aeahics. Most university social research tens to be liite to work that can be perfore by acaeics working alone. The above table gives soe inication of the awars ae to social scientists through the U.G. C. Research Coittee. As can be seen, the great bulk of the awars were given to har physical sciences requiring a lot of expensive equipent, which explains why soe people feel that the U.G. C. Research Coittee ais at aking ew Zealan universities fit for cheists, but not so conucive to noncheists! The U.G. C. block grant to universities in 1975 out of which all acaeic an ainistrative staff salaries, libraries, research an operating costs were et, are outline in Table 1-. There is no way of fining out precisely how uch of these grants was spent on Social Science salaries, but salaries account for the largest single ite of university expeniture. Table 1 Block Grants to Universities, 1975(5) Z $ University of Aucklan 1, 87, University of aikato 3,557, Massey University 7,353, Victoria University of ellington 7, 883, University of Canterbury 1,55, University of Otago 12,236, hen each university ivies its grant, soe social science an arts epartents feel relatively isavantage vis-a-vis oler natural science subjects which ten to b'e costlier than ost subjects in the social sciences an huanities. There is no (1) See Gibson, ibi., pp for a ore etaile iscussion of this buget. Gibson, ibi., p. 82. J. H. Robb an A. Crowther ae helpful coents on these points in the first raft - soe of which are inclue here. Gibson. ibi.. D I Reports of the University Grants Coittee an University stitutions for the year 197, ellington, p.. 65

65 way of fining out how uch basis there is for this eployentftype of occupation. These are the ost "feeling" of relative eprivation, as universities o accurate figures available but they are a little enot prepare etaile public balance sheets. The fective in ters of ouble counting etc. Grauates fact that the feeling exists, however, inicates were questione about their eployent after the soething of the relative econoic position an bar- final exaination results becae known to the. gaining power of the natural sciences. Of the total nuber of 6,5 grauates in (1, 922 of who were feale), only 5. per cent Social science anpower were still seeking work at the tie of the survey, 32. per cent were continuing their stuies (either Detaile national figures on traine anpower in at university, teaching training college or technical the social sciences are not available before institutes) an.1 per cent entere peranent Fro that tie, grauate eployent officers in eployent. (l) The reaining 18.1 per cent of all univ'ersities starte copiling nationwie figures grauates were either overseas stuents returning available as the ationwie Survey of Grauate E- hoe, ew Zealan stuents going abroa, or peoployent , which is a collection of largely ple not wishing to enter the labour arket. Of the unanalyse ata looking at the total supply of, an 6,5 grauates , 22. per cent or 1,356 ean for, grauates an their eventual places of were social science grauates. Subject Table 11(2) Social Science Grauates by Sex an Subject Table inclues B.A., B.A. (Hons.), M.A., M. Phil. an Ph. D. Degrees* Percentage Male Feale Total of all grauates by subject 7 % 7 7 Anthropology 53 (5) 6 (55) 117 (1) 9 Business ain. 7 (96) 2 ( ) 9 (1) E u ca ti on 16 (5) 197 (55) 357 (1) 26 Econoics 117 (76) 36 (2) 153 (1) 11 Geography 158 (61) 1 (39) 258 (1) 19 Psychology 13 (5) 15 (5) 28 (1) 15 Political science 89 (72) 35 (28) 12 (1) 9 Public ain. 6 (86) 1 (1) 7 (1) 1 Sociology 9 (59) 3 (1) 83 (1) 6 Total 782 (58) 57 (2) 1,356 (1) 1 * These figures ay be a little isleaing for psychology an geography since these subjects inclue a fair proportion of natural scientists, but they o inicate overall trens. The proportions of M.A. an Ph. D. grauates are insignificant in ters of total figures. 197, for exaple, there were 9 M.A. grauates in Anthropology an no Ph. D. grauates. This was only 1. 8 per cent of the total nuber of Anthropology grauates. There is soe variation inevitably; soe subjects, e. g. geography, prouce ore M.A. 's an Ph. D. 's than others, but by an large ost social science grauates terinate at the Bachelors level. As the figures eonstrate, 58 per cent of all social science grauates are en an 2 per cent are woen. These figures copare with a total of 68 per cent ale an 32 per cent feale grauates for all university subjects in The ore establishe social sciences of eucation, geography, an psychology, account for 61 per cent of all grauates. This is explicable in two ways: first these subjects have been establishe longer than the newer social sciences such as sociology, business ainistration, an political science. Seconly, these subjects ten to be in reasonably high ean by prospective eployers. Geography, for exaple, is a ajor subject within seconary schools an since 6.7 per cent of all Arts grauates enter the teaching profession, stuying geography has ieiate occupational benefit as a teaching subject. Siilarly, eucation has ieiate vocational payoffs, whereas subjects like sociology an political science are rather less easily accooate by schools an eucation boars. Presuably, when these subjects are taught ore wiely within the schools, they will becoe ore attractive to stuents also. (1) See P. C. Roanovsky, "Grauate Supply an Dean", pp , Conference of ew Zealan Universities, August, 197, ew Zealan. Vice- Chancellors 'Coittee, ellington, p. 22. (2) Table copile fro raw ata extracte fro Survey on Grauate Eployent hel by the ew Zealan Vice-Chancellors' Coittee. 66

66 Table 12(l) Eployent of Social Science Grauates Continuing Subject eployent Fulltie stuy Other Totals 7 Yo 7 % Anthropology 5 (3) 36 (31) 31 (26) 117 (1) Business ain. 18 (37) 6 (12) 25 (51) 9 (1) Eucation 212 (59) 93 (26) 52 (15) 357 (1) Econoics 72 (7) 2 (28) 39 (25) 153 (1). Geography 7 (29) 121 (7) 63 (2) 258 (1) Psychology 7 (3) 7 (35) 6 (31) 28 (1) Political science 2 (3) 7 (38) 35 (28) 12 (1) Public ain. 3 (3) 2 (28.5) 2 (28.5) 7 (1) Sociology 26 (31) 27 (33) 3 (36) 83 (1) Total 567 (2) 8 (33) 351 (25) 1,356 (1) Table 13 (2) ubers of Grauates in Eployent by Subject an Sector Local an Private ational Govt. Eucation, sector Ainistra- Health an Totals tion elfare 7 % 7 7 Anthropology 16 (32) (8) 3 (6) 5 (1) Business ain. 18 (1) 18 (1) Eucation 6 (3) 9 () 197 (93) 212 (1) Econoics (56) 19 (2) 13 (18) 72 (1) Geography 23 (31) 6 (8) 5 (61) 7 (1) Psychology 15 (21.) 1 (2) 1 (58.6) 7 (1) Political science 17 (.) 13 (31.) 12 (29.5) 2 (1) Public ain. 3 (1.) 3 (1) Sociology (15) 7 (27) 15 (58) 26 (1) Total 1 (25) 72 (13) 353 (62) (Table copile fro ationwie Survey of Grauate Eployent, ) 567 (1) Table 12 eonstrates that 75 per cent of all the 197 social science grauates were either absorbe into the labour force or continuing their fulltie eucation. (There is soe variation between subjects which woul nee to be explaine in ters of opportunities available for ifferent subject areas in 197. ) Overall, this table shows that slightly ore social science grauates went into peranent eployent than i non-social science grauates. The relevant figures are as follows: 32. per cent of all grauates in 197 were in eployent an.1 per cent continue full-tie stuies. The slightly lower proportion of social science grauates continuing their eucation is partly a reflection of perceive iinishe returns for university qualifications past the Bachelors level. (Teachers, for exaple, while reware for higher qualifications, o not nee qualifications beyon the B.A. in orer to get prootion or eucational recognition. ) But it ay also reflect liite opportunities for post-grauate stuy in the social sciences within ew Zealan. hat it oes inicate is that eployers by an large are happy to hire social science grauates without avance training. The overall quality of research in ew Zealan will unoubtely iprove when eployers offering (1) Table copile fro raw ata extracte fro Survey on Grauate Eployent hel by the ew Zealan Vice-Chancellors' Coittee. (2) ibi. 67

67 research positions insist on research egrees -. either at the M. A. or Ph. D. level. Social science grauates are eploye in the following areas. These tables were evelope by collapsing the Grauate Eployent Survey's classification of spheres of eployent into three: (1) Private Sector (which inclues anufacturing, finance, transport, wholesale/retail trae, business services, etc.), (2) local an national governent ainistration, incluing scientific research, an (3) eucation, health an welfare services. Social science grauates were then locate in one of these areas. Table 13 eonstrates the ajor significance of eucational, health an welfare institutions an central an local governent in the eployent of social science grauates. The private sector absorbe 25 per cent of the total nuber of grauates, but this figure is relatively insignificant in relation to the 75 per cent eploye in the public, eucational qn service sectors. This suggests that the continue absorportion Gf social science grauates into the labour arket will epen to a large extent on bouyant econoic conitions an continue ean for grauates within governent, euca - tion, health an welfare institutions. If there is a ecline in vacancies for traine teachers, for exaple, it then sees likely that ore social science grauates will join the lists of those looking for suitable eployent. It is unlikely that the private sector will expan its eployent of social scientists until it is persuae of the utility of eploying grauate social scientists. Many opportunities for governent /university social science research were lost in the past because of insufficient traine anpower. It now appears that ew Zealan universities are proucing an aequate supply of social science grauates. The ajor proble is guaranteeing continue governent an eucational ean for social science skills. Another proble which is likely to becoe ore acute as ore grauates enter the job arket with sophisticate research an ethoological skills will be the uner-utilization of their training. This is alreay occurring to a sall extent. For exaple, soe anthropology grauates in 197 gaine eployent as basic clerks, coercial artists an library assistants, where their anthropological skills were of little value. If the ean for sophisticate skills eclines raatically, ew Zealan ay be face with a situation where traine personnel are unereploye with skills not being utilize to their best avantage. At the oent, woen social science grauates have a greater tenency to settle for positions where their skills are unervalue an unereploye an ten to bunch uch ore in eucation an welfare services than their ale counterparts. (l) The only professional training in the social sciences, epart fro post-grauate university research, is the training of social workers (entione above) an the training of public ainistrators in the School of Political Science an Public Ainistration, Victoria University. There is also an stitute of Statistics an Operational Research at Victoria University which offers a post-grauate iploa. There are no non-university facilities for the professional training of social scientists. There is no institute of social research, for exaple, where a social science grauate coul go an receive soe avance professional training in statistics or ethoology. Professional associations ew Zealan professional associations can be classifie either in ters of a particular acaeic iscipline or in ters of particular occupations. evitably, there is quite a bit of overlap an any professional boies can be efine both in ters of iscipline an occupation. For exaple, the ew Zealan Association of Social Anthropologists was foune in 1975 an exists to provie a link between university social anthropologists, support for research an the prootion of the iscipline, Mebership is confine to teachers of social anthropology. The other ajor professional boy for ew Zealan anthropologists is the ew Zealan Polynesian Society, foune in It ais to proot e ethnographic stuies of Polynesian, Melanesians an Micronesians an publishes a journal. It has 1, 5 ebers within ew Zealan an overseas. Business ainistrators o not have any specific professional association nor o eucationalists, although the latter can affiliate theselves to the ew Zealan Council for Eucational Research which acts as a clearing house for research an inforation on eucational atters an publishes annual reports an a biannual newsletter. ew Zealan econoists have two professional organizations, the ew Zealan Association of Econoists (c.), foune in 1963, which publishes ew Zealan Econoic Papers, an the Econoic Society of Australia an ew Zealan, which publishes The Econoic Recor. The ore active organization - is the ew Zealan Association of Econoists which has national eetings twice yearly for the presentation of scholarly papers. Geographers are serve by the ew Zealan Geographical Society, foune in 19. It has 1,3 ebers in ew Zealan an 63 ebers overseas. It publishes The ew Zealan Geographer an The ew Zealan Journal of Geography. (1) The figures on social science grauates an ean for their services is unavailable at the oent but will be available later fro Mr. P. C. Roanovsky, Secretary of the Careers Avisory Boar, Vice-Chancellors' Coittee, ellington, ew Zealan. 68

68 The ew Zealan Psychological Society (foune 198) is the ajor association for ew Zealan psychologists. It publishes The ew Zealan Psychologist an a bulletin. It has ebers an acts both as a learne society an a professional boy. egotiations are currently being hel on the registration an professionalisation of ew Zealan psychologists. Political scientists are linke by the ew Zealan Political Stuies Association (foune in 19751, which publishes a newsletter an the journal, w- tical Science. It has 3 ebers. The ew Zealan stitute of Public Ainistration (foune in 193) is an iportant professional association for acaeic political scientists /public ainistrators an civil servants. It publishes The Journal of Public Ainistration an an annual book on ifferent aspects of public life in ew Zealan. The Sociological Association of Australia an ew Zealan (foune in 1963) has about 7 ebers in Australia an ew Zealan an publishes a newsletter an The Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociology. It convenes annual conferences in both Australia an ew Zealan an a cobine conference every two years. An organization for social workers, the ew Zealan Association of Social orkers, foune in 196, publishes sei-annually the journal ew Zealan Social orker. aition to the national associations, any ew Zealan acaeic social scientists belong to international professional organizations MAJOR ISSUES AD PERSPECTIVES FOR THE DEVELOPMET OF THE SOCML SCIECES I E ZEALAD Since the unfortunate eise of the Bureau of Social Research in 1938, there has been no central boy capable of co-orinating the efforts of social researchers within universities an in governent. Because of this, ajor national research projects have been few in nuber, liite in scale, uneven an patchy in quality. There have been no national consultations on research priorities an research finings therefore ten to reflect: (i) The research interests of iniviual researchers (e.g. H. C. D. Soerset's interest in rural counities le to his classic onograph, 197, Littleene: Patterns of Change, ZCER, ellington, ew Zealan, an R. H. T. Thopson's interest in race relations has resulte in a large nuber of articles as well as Y onographs like, 1963, Race Relations in ew Zea- - lan, CC, Christchurch, ew Zealan, an 1975, Retreat fro Aparthei: ew Zealan's Sporting Contacts with South Africa,. U. P., ellington, ew Zealan. Siilarly, anthropologists have sustaine an interest in Maori an Polynesian society. For exaple, Joan Metge, 1967, The Maoris of ew Zealan, Lonon, Routlege an Kegan Paul, is a noteworthy illustration of anthropological scholarship. (ii) Very specific an epheeral responses to governent an/or counity requests for inforation. (e. g. the Sociology Departent at the University of Canterbury has recently coplete a Survey on Rural oen for the oen's Division of the Feerate Farers. ) Siilarly, the School of Social Science at Victoria University i a nuber of surveys for governent an counity groups; e. g. J. R. McCreary, 1955, Oler People of Christchurch: a Survey ReporLDepartent of Health, ellington, ew Zealan, an J.R. Me- Creary, 1956, Housing an elfare ees of Islaners in Aucklan, Governent Printer, ellington, ew Zealan. These stuies an a host of others like the constitute the basis upon which ew Zealan social science has to evelop. The ajor proble is that each stuy tens to be fragentary an there are few inigenous or exotic theoretical or epirical thees that unify the iverse stuies into a coherent whole. The Marxist probleatic, for exaple, is only now beginning to be taken seriously by ew Zealan social scientists. Many of the oler ew Zealan social researchers assue that European/orth Aerican theories were aequate to explain ew Zealan social behaviour an social evelopent. Thus, a nuber of stuies have siply replicate overseas stuies (e. g. the, 1963 Voting Survey one by the Departent of Political Science at Victoria University). There has not been a great eal of concern to evelop a theoretical traition that raws on the best fro the orthern Heisphere an then evelops soething unique to ew Zealan. Most university social scientists, especially those who i their postgrauate training abroa, siply apply British or orth Aerican perspectives to the ew Zealan situation. This has tene to ipee the evelopent of a istinctively ew Zealan social science because it has resulte in iitative thinking. Epirical research also tens to have teporary significance - especially social surveys cois - sione for specific purposes by ifferent counity or governental groups. It woul be unrealistic to expect theoretical evelopent on even sounly base epirical research without the evelopent of institutions that have this as their priary objective. The eise of the Bureau of Social Research in the 193s put an en to the evelopent of one kin of support structure an this unoubtely ha a etriental effect on the evelopent of ew Zealan social science research as a whole. the last six years, however, both governent an university social scientists have begun looking at ifferent ways in which ore useful social research coul be facilitate. The first initiatives in this regar cae fro the governent. It wante to have etaile inforation on social research facilities, research output an research nees. The Eucation, Training an Research Coittee of the ational Developent Council (in 1969) recoene that the 69

69 ational Research Avisory Council o a survey of social science resources an ake recoenations for subissions to overnent. This resulte in the Gibson report( fi. This was the first official attept to iscover existing facilities for social research, what research was being conucte an how it was foune. As a result of this report the ational Research Avisory Council (which ainisters the Science Buget) appointe a Social Sciences orking Party to help it eterine priorities for social research an suggest ways in which social research coul best be coorinate an organize. At the sae tie the Social Developent Council of the ational Developent Council prepare a report to assist the orking Party which conclue that it was urgent to establish a ew Zealan stitute for Social Research to act as the principal co-orinator of research activities. This was incorporate into the orking Party's subission to Governent, but the only suggestion accepte an ipleente by the Minister of Science an the. R.A. C. was that the Applie Matheatics Division of the D. S. I. R. be strengthene to provie social researchers with ore statistical ex ertise for the analysis of social science ata. (2 P The orking Party's proposal to a two social scientists to the.r.a.c. was rejecte an the suggeste evelopent of an inepenent institute of social research was postpone. The ost recent subissions to the Minister of Science on social research were the Proposals for the Organization of Social Research April , prepare by the Social Developent Council. These proposals were forware to the then Minister of Science who in turn calle for coent fro the ational Research Avisory Council. Although there were iscussions between the Ministers of Science an Social elfare, at the oent the,social Developent Council has receive no official reaction to its subission. (3) The Social Developent Council prepare these proposals because it felt that governent was in the best position to take soe initiative in relation to the co-orination of social research. particular, while the Social Developent Council welcoe the governent's ecision to strengthen the Applie Matheatics Division of the D. S. I. R. to assist in sophisticate ata analysis, it i not feel that this woul result in the prouction an useful eployent of welltraine social scientists. It therefore reiterate the proposal for an inepenent ew Zealan institute for social research an suggeste the evelopent of a ew Zealan social research council to assist the prootion, integration an rationalization of research activities. So far, however, neither the last Labour Governent nor the present ational Governent has inicate a willingness to accept either or both of these proposals. The.R.A. C. (governent's ajor source of avice on all research) views social research in a rather restrictive welfare sense while the Social Developent Council tens towar a uch broaer an inclusive conception of what constitutes goo research. This ifference in ephasis ay have resulte in soe counication between the two avisory boies being at cross purposes. The ost recent inication of the.r.a. C. 's views on social science research is inclue in its 1975 Annual Report where it asserts that: "The Council is conscious of the very real nee to provie a focus for social science research. The iportance of research in this fiel cannot be enie particularly when it is borne in in that the governent spens vast aounts of oney on social welfare with relatively little expert research support. The Council has accoringly recoene that the Minister of Science shoul initially explore the esirability an feasibility of establishing a Social Science unit in the D. S. I. R. (separate fro the Applie Matheatics Division) char'ge with stiulating the evelopent an co-orination of social research within specifie ters of reference, an on the unerstaning that the unit woul eventually be transferre to the Departent of Social elfare. "() The last Labour ainistration i not ipleent the recoenation which has two interesting features. (1) Social research is,seen alost exclusively in ters of social welfare research, an (2) there is soe unwillingness to allow the evelopent of a social science institute outsie of the D. S. I. R. The evelopent of a research institute within governent, however, even if it were locate on or ajacent to a university, woul present a nuber of probles for social scientists in ters of research freeo, staffing, accountability an ability to be critical. The experience of the Bureau of Social Research in the 193s provies a strong arguent for an inepenent institute. Another iplication of the. R.A. C. 's recoenation to have social sciences establishe within the D. S. I. R. is that natural science criteria for funing an organization woul presuably apply to the social science section an provie the oel for the support of social scientific work. It is ifficult to know where leaership initiatives an policies for the integration of social scientific activity will coe fro. On the one han, they have to coe fro particular econoists, sociologists, geographers, aking eans on governent an the counity for resources an assistance, but, on the other han, ore aequate (1).R. Gibson, op. cit. (2) S. D. ilson, Senior Ainistrative Officer.R.A. C., letter to author (3) Dr. J.R. Robson, Chairan of the Social Developent Council, letter to author (). R.A. C. Annual Report for the Year Ene 31 March 1975, 6.2 Appenices to the House of Representatives, quote in J. R. Robson ibi. 7

70 I co-orinating an funing initiatives have to begin at the political an governental level. Obviously it is not an either governent or social scientist alternative, (successful initiatives will only occur when governent an social scientists work together), but soe renewe willingness for raical reorganization has to be expresse by governent if social scientists are to evelop into a ore viable cohesive an useful group. One of the ajor probles with the evelopent of social science resources is that by an large social scientists tgeselves have not ha a clear or coherent iea of what they want to achieve an frequently the interests of particular isciplines, or particular universities, have le to contraictory goals an objectives. The recoenations of the Social Developent Council for the foration of a social research institute were vociferously attacke by soe university social scienlists who were concerne that resources which woul otherwise flow into the universities ight be iverte into a non-university institute. As long as social scientists have ifficulty efining their interests, governents will have a har tie working out what social scientists really nee in orer to prouce high quality social research. One of the ajor probles facing both political parties (ational (conservative) an Labour (eocratic socialist)) is that social research is often seen as an optional extra when bugets are evise. There is obviously soe tension between the governent an acaeic view of the utility of social science research. Governent social scientists ten to see their r6le priarily in ters of the evelopent of ata useful for the foration of social policy. Soe acaeic social scientists also see their r61e in this way, but they are confronte by the aitional nee to respon to the eans of isciplines an the acaeic counity an this frequently results in ifferent nees being expresse. the absence of agree priorities :-o social scientists, the two political parties have in ifferent ways trie to work out soe specific policies for social research. Although the Labour Party's 1975 Election Manifesto oes not contain any specific proposals, the Labour Party Policy Stuy Group prouce a wiely accepte onograph entitle Ainistration an Research for Counity Developent, April 1972, which ae five specific proposals. (i) That a social science research council be set up alongsie the.r.a.c., to ainister funs ae available by governent for prooting, facilitating an co-orinating social research. (ii) That an inepenent social research institute be establishe to have priary responsibility for eveloping new eans of social accounting in ew Zealan. (iii) That social research in governent epartents be given a new ipetus by expaning research staff an enabling. the to evaluate policy outcoes an evelop new prograes. (iv) That universities be encourage to unertake ore research by establishing full tie research positions. (v) That the propose social research council be encourage to sponsor research by private groups an iniviuals - in orer to use counity skills ore effectively. (1) All of these proposals involve increasing governent expeniture an none were ipleente uring the three years of the last Labour Governent ( ). The ational Party's policies on social research are containe in the 1975 Election Manifesto. "ational, recognizing the pressure on a oern an affluent ulti-racial society, will strengthen the Social (Developent) Council of the ational Developent Council, expan research facilities an spee up sociological research as a basis for action to eet our social probles, ajust to change an iprove the quality of life. This is a fairly explicit inication of the iportance the ational Party attaches to social research, but it avois the prior question about how such research will in fact provie the necessary bases for political/social action. The ational Party wants soe rationalization an co-orination of all scientific resources an also propose the establishent of a Ministry of Science an Technology to "anage the nation's scientific efforts, to coorinate the Science Buget an provie avisory services to the Governent an appoint scientific avisors to lay inistries. "(3) The ational Party also reaffire support for science-base councils, such as the Social Developent Council, but in relation to social research the ational Party announce siply that it attaches "great iportance to the social iplications of econoic an technological growth, especially in the fiels of law an orer, social welfare, inustrial relations, town planning an the environent an lays great stress on the financing of social science res earch. "() This an an announceent that ational will give priority to rural social research, into "ownership patterns, age structure, nees of rural woen, rural social services, housing an stanars of living an counity life. "(5) (1) Policy Stuy Group, ellin~on,. Z. Labour Party Monograph 3, Ainistration an Research for Counity Developent, May 1972, ellington, pp ational Party 1975 Election Policy, ellington,. Z. ational Party, 1975, Policy 32, paragraph 2. ational Party, ibi., Policy 9, paragraph 1. ational Party, ibi., Policy 9, paragraph 3. ational Party, ibi., Policy 1, paragraph 5. 71

71 are the only specific references to social research or the evelopent of social sciences. hat the ational Party will o now that it is the governent reains to be, seen. Its Election Manifesto assues that extra finance will prouce usable social research. Apart fro the fact that econoic conitions entail reuctions in governent expeniture, there is no guarantee that increase funing alone iproves the quality an aount of social research unertaken. iviual social scientists in universities an governent have in their own way prouce a variety of reports, onographs, surveys, etc. on ifferent aspects of ew Zealan's social, econoic an political life. If these are to for the basis for the qualitative an quantiative evelopent of a ore coherent an istinctive ew Zealan social science then institutional facilities have to be evelope to co-orinate an facilitate higher quality research. As entione above, ew Zealan social scieotists work principally in governent, universities an the private sector. The great ajority of traine social scientists (persons with avance qualifications at the M. A. or Ph. D. level) are in the universities, an yet past stateents, e. g. the.r.a. C. Is report for 1975, inicate that preference will be given to social research units within rather than outsie of governent. If the present ational Governent accepts the.r.a.c.'s proposal to evelop a separate social research unit in the D. S. I. R., this is likely to result in ore fragentation of effort an a continuation of the split that exists between acaeic an governent social scientists. ew Zealan social science evelopent is at a critical threshol at the oent. ithin universities, ost social science epartents are fully staffe (soething unusual for ew Zealan universities, create by the increase nubers of ew Zealan social science grauates an a tight university job arket overseas), an governent research units have been given uch ore official recognition than ever before an are expaning their view of what is or is not social research (given the noral constraints of governent epartents). It sees an ieal opportunity, therefore, for governent to work out ways in which it ight facilitate a CO- orination of governental/non-governental research activities, establish clear priority areas for research an provie the necessary enabling support for the useful eployent of anpower rather than equipent. hile it is clear that social scientists in governent an in the counity nee substantial increases in their overall share of the Science Buget, an the UniverPity Grants Coittee (Research Coittee) nees to aintain its allocations to social research (especially for research assistants, an interviewers), increase funing alone as entione before will not guarantee overall iproveent in the organization of research or the quality of research output. hat is neee are soe basic structural innovations that will provie a focus for research activities an hopefully ensure that ore funaental social research is unertaken; that soe national research priorities are negotiate by social scientists within an between their prof es sional as s ociations; that inter isciplinary t ea research is encourage at the national level; an that soe coherent theoretical thees infor an eerge fro the research. Although the last Labour Governent i not give the Social Developent Council any official response to its April 1975 recoenations that the Governent establish (i) a Social Science Research Council, an (ii) a ew Zealan stitute for Social Research(11, it is to be hope that when the S.D.C. urges approval this year(2) the present governent will accept the suggestions. Both of these proposals woul go a very long way towars reeying soe of the current eficiencies in the organization an prootion of social research, an both woul result in a ore rational evelopent of existing resources. (3) The specific proposals are as follows: Social Science Research Council: It woul have as one of its ain functions stiulating, coorinating an funing research in all social science isciplines... by (encouraging) a high stanar of social science research an reports on research projects; (encouraging) CO- operation aongst all units concerne with research in the social sciences, incluing universities' staff an research stuents; governent epartents, their officers an institutions; research institutes; voluntary ~~ S.D.C. Proposals for the Organization of Social Research, op. cit. Suggestions for an stitute were iscusse in soe etail by sociologists in an resulte in the following article: G. I. Fougere an J. Orbell, "A Proposal to Establish a Centre for the Stuy of ew Zealan Society", pp , Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociolopy, Vol. 1, o. 3, October 197 an M. Shiels, "Social Research for a Dynaic Society", pp , ibi., an F. Thopson, "A Coent on the Two Proposals", pp , ibi. Dr. J.R. Robson. op. cit. The. 2. ational Coission for Unesco after consieration of the S. D. C. suggestions enorse: "the urgent nee for the establishent of inepenent facilities for planning an unertaking social research... in the for of a Social Science Research Council an a ew Zealan stitute for Social Science Research". (Mieo., Coents of the. Z. ational Coission for Unesco on the S. D. C. 's proposals for the organization of Social Science research, August 1975, p. 2). 72

72 agencies an private institutions an organizations; (establishing) priorities for financial support of research in the social sciences; (prooting an stiulating) social science research which inclues fostering recognition of the nee for research in the evelopent of social policy; (fostering) the stuy of the research into atters relate to the social sciences, an to prepare an publish such reports on these atters as ay in its opinion be necessary or of value to social scientists, social ainistrators or other persons; (furnishing) inforation, avice an assistance to persons an organizations concerne with social science research, social policy an other siilar atters. "(l) The Social Developent Council woul like such a boy to be as wiely base as possible SO that governent, university an private sector social scientists are able to regar it as the ajor facilitator of iniviual an collaborative research. Such a council woul certainly go a long way towars integrating the efforts of social scientists in all sectors an the benefits to the ew Zealan social science counity woul be both ieiate an long ter. The Social Science Research Council, rather like the. R.A. C. now, woul not actually conuct any research projects itself. Research woul continue in the universities an in governent, but receive a special focus in the propose ew Zealan stitute for Social Research. The special concern of this institute woul be research irecte towars the foration of social policy. The ore specific functions of this institute woul be: "(a) to unertake, irectly or by contract, research projects on areas of social concern which cannot be aequately carrte out by existing research facilities; (b) to ake objective an inepenent research reports on atters relating to areas of social concern; (c) to unertake particular research in relation to social policy; () to aintain contact with an provie inforrnation. avice an assistance to persons an organizations involve in research outsie the institute; (e) to provie the use of the facilities of the institute for persons an organizations involve in research outsie the institute; (f) to provie ata on request to persons an organizations outsie the institute; (g) to publish reports of the research projects carrie out by the institute or by others uner its auspices; (h) to collect, istribute an publish inforation an ata relating to current research in the social sciences, incluing the results of (i) social research being carrie out overseas; to provie training opportunities for research workers through participation in research work of the institute. The necessity for such an institute is apparent fro the inforation presente in Chapter 2. ew Zealan social scientists have now reache a point where the existing arrangeents for support an organization of research o not allow any ore unco-orinate a hoc evelopent. Unless the stitute for Social Research is establishe, it is likely that iniviual social scientists will be able to eet the governental, counity an acaeic eans for research services an skills. The establishent of an stitute for Social Research stressing social policy research woul provie a very convenient entry point to governent for those wishing to blur the ivision between theoretical an applie research an it ay also guarantee that acaeic researchers becoe ore sensitive to the sorts of ata that are useful an not so useful to policy-akers. This woul certainly enable social science resources to be use ore effectively in relation to ew Zealan's econoic an social evelopent. Apart fro its unoubte benefit as a training groun for those people seeking research experience after grauation, a Social Research stitute woul provie purelapplie research opportunities for grauates who currently feel uneasy about working in Governent or who o not want the teaching responsibilities associate with university eployent. Another ieiate an long-ter benefit to social scientists woul be the establishent of a centralize ata bank. This woul provie a source of inforation that woul enable cuulative research, an facilitate the perioic reappraisal an synthesis of finings. Its ost iportant function, however, woul be to facilitate the evelopent of networks of social scientists who coul transfor the inchoate an split counity of social analysts an investigators into a viable, coherent whole. If such an institute an the Social Science Research Council are to proote useful research an a counity of coitte scholars, it is essential that the goal of creating a healthy society takes priority over the creation of a healthy profession of social science researchers. As a first step, the governent shoul ove towars accepting the Social Developent Council's recoenation for the establishent of a Social Science Research Council an this boy coul, as its first task, work out ways an eans of creating (1) S.D.C. Proposals on the Organization of Social Science Research, p. 1, op. cit. (2) Ibi., pp

73 ~~ an institute that woul result in social scientists eveloping theselves, an their iscipline, while aking a worthwhile contribution to the knowlege an growth of a creative society. IV. RECOMMEDATIOS FOR REGIOAL AD ITERATIOAL CO-OPERATIO I THE FIELD OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES The evelopent of a stronger sense of national ientity an consciousness is one of the ajar probles confronting ew Zealan an ew Zealan social scientists. It is no longer possible for thir, fourth an fifth generation ew Zealaners to think of the Unite Kingo as "hoe" an yet ew Zealan is only beginning to evelop inigenous intellectual traitions an istinctive ways of viewing the worl. ew Zealan's linguistic an cultural epenence on the Unite Kingo is reinforce by econoic, traing an political links (now altering soewhat as the ew Zealan Governent seeks alternative arkets an our econoic epenence on Australia, Japan an the Unite States increases). ew Zealan's econoic vulnerability is reflecte in a generalize "sense" of cultural vulnerability. European ew Zealaners feel uneasy about incorporating Polynesian values an custos into their Anglo-Saxon culture, but have not yet evelope a real unerstaning of what it eans to be a European ew Zealaner, locate 12, iles away fro Europe, an closer to Asia an the South Pacific than the Unite Kingo. As one perceptive observer has suggeste: "e haven't any sense of purpose. e on't know what its all about an w e are frightene to fin out. Other nations have lost their sense of purpose; we, a colony, never foun one... "(l) This purposelessness reveals itself in ifferent ways. ew Zealan acaeics, for exaple, norally copare theselves with British acaeics, an when international university coparisons are ae they are norally ae between Britain an ew Zealan. Until very recently (when ore stuents have chosen either to reain in ew Zealan or go to the Unite States), ost ew Zealan postgrauate stuy was unertaken in British universities. ew Zealan universities are well enowe with scholarships that perpetuate these links. For exaple, the Sir illia Hartley Scholarship, "shall be tenable at the choice of the scholar at any of the Universities of Oxfor, Cabrige, or Lonon, or by special recoenation of the Professorial Boar ir each case at any other European University. "(2' This pattern of post-grauate stuy, couple with the consierable eployent of British acaeic staff, often results in the application of inappropriate oels to the ew Zealan situation. If there is a proble in university ainistration, for exaple, then solutions are often sought in the experience of British universities an there is a corresponing isinclination to evelop oels that are sui -generis. Another ajor effect of the intellectual influence of foreign born an traine, or native born but foreign traine, social science staff is the frequent inability to work out what istinguishes ew Zealan society fro British or Aerican society. Because of the relative sallness of the arket for ew Zealan textbooks, ost of the texts use in ew Zealan university social science classes are either British or Aerican an ost of the exaples, illustrations an theoretical oels are, therefore, either British or Aerican. This results in stuents an staff soeties knowing ore about English or Aerican society than they o about their own an frequently applying inappropriate stuies an theories to the ew Zealan situation. hen this occurs, isconceptions about the nature an shape of ew Zealan society an the place of ew Zealan within the South Pacific an Asian regions ten to get perpetuate. ew Zealan sociologists, econoists an political scientists have got to work out - on a systeatic basis - what is istinctive about ew Zealan society. For exaple, social scientists nee to know how ew Zealan's isolation an sall population has affecte our growth, evelopent, an values. It is ifficult for ew Zealan social scientists to ask these sorts of questions an think in national, let alone regional, ters when their view of the worl is being constantly conitione by the intellectual centres of the orthern Heisphere. These pressures fro abroa not only affect universities, they are also echoe in the counity. One illustration of cultural oination in society is the aount of foreign-prouce prograes broacast by the ass eia in ew Zealan; television, for exaple, in 1975 evote 7 per cent of its broacast hours to foreign-prouce prograes, (3) although ore inigenous television prograes are being prouce with the avent of a secon national television channel. evertheless, the wiesprea prevalence of these conitioning factors eans that the average ew Zealaner an regrettably the average ew Zealan social scientist thinks of the worl in rather restrictive ters. Foreign visitors to ew Zealan can be forgiven for thinking that ew Zealaners see little or no qualitative ifference in the cultural traitions of the Unite Kingo an ew Zealan. hile there (1) Bill Pearson, Fretful Sleepers an Other Esw, Aucklan, Heineann Eucational Books, 197, p. 27. (2) University of Canterbury Calenar 1976, Christchurch, p. 53. (3) Patrick Day, "Cultural Iperialis in ew Zealan", Australian an ew Zealan Journal of Sociolopy, Vol. 11, o.2, 1975, pp

74 ay have been soe justification for this view in the past when ew Zealan was colonize by large nubers of British igrants who continue to think of Britain as "hoe" even though they were living in ew Zealan, it is now rather ore ifficult to sustain this bifurcate view of the worl an social scientists have a very real responsibility to ensure that ew Zealaners unerstan an know their own society intellectually as well as experientially. A prerequisite for creative exchanges at the international level, therefore, is a soun unerstaning of ew Zealan society, ew Zealan's resources, an ew Zealan's probles an prospects. ew Zealan social scientists attening conferences abroa or going on sabbatical leave in the Unite Kingo or the Unite States nee to have a socially scientific unerstaning of ew Zealan social structures an processes as well as the intuitive unerstaning gaine fro living in the country. All too frequently ew Zealan social scientists o not have either the inforation or the unerstaning of their own society that they have about others. ithout this the possibility for equal exchanges between scholars in ew Zealan an the Unite Kingo or the Unite States is reuce an ew Zealan scholars struggle to try an fit theselves, their work, their investigations an results into the paraigs an structures constructe by the intellectual "centres" of the worl. This is not an arguent for intellectual isolationis or a pretentious view of ew Zealan's social scientific iportance, but rather an unerscoring of the significance of knowing ew Zealan society well an knowing what it eans to be a ew Zealan social scientist. To create this sense of ientity, it is iportant that ew Zealan sociologists, econoists, an eucationalists, etc. eet an failiarize theselves with non-anglo-saxon colleagues so that they can iscover the istinctive features of the society they live in an stuy, by contrasting it with Polynesian an Asian societies an cultures. The superficial an eep ifferences that exist between the Unite Kingo an ew Zealan, for exaple, are frequently obscure because the cultural an intellectual siilarities receive ore reinforceent. Thus, stuy leave or post-grauate research within an Asian university woul alost certainly provoke a far eeper awareness of ew Zealan culture as well as other cultures an woul hopefully result in the evelopent of a greater awareness of ew Zealan's regional position. hile there is no har evience to support these contentions, there is consierable intuitive reason to believe that this analysis is accurate. Specific proposals There is no way, in the foreseeable future, that the strong acaeic links between ew Zealan an intellectual centres in the Unite Kingo an the Unite States of Aerica will be broken, an there woul be consierable intellectual isavantage if they were to cease. It is vitally iportant, however, that ore ew Zealan social scientists start weaning theselves fro the centres an becoe ore failiar with Asian, African an Latin Aerican societies an cultures, since these societies have the sae peripheral position as ew Zealan vis-a-vis estern Europe an orth Aerica. ternationally, therefore, the establishe intellectual routes favouring the etropolis, nee to be suppleente by eetings of scholars an re- search workers in the peripheries. This woul ean, for exaple, that ew Zealan an Australian scholars shoul be encourage to spen stuy leave in Asian tertiary institutions - not as visiting experts - but as colleagues. There shoul be ore regional eetings along isciplinary lines, for exaple, the Sociological Association of Australia an ew Zealan is currently planning a conference jointly with sociologists in Malaysia an Singapore. These sorts of contacts woul unoubtely create an awareness of the coon nature of any of the probles facing ew Zealan an other eveloping nations. Regional seinars, such as the 1975 Sociology an Developent Seinar at the stitute of Econoic Growth, in ew Delhi, nee to occur ore frequently so that Asian an Australasian scholars can begin gaining confience in their own iniviual an cobine resources without having to epen on or consult Unite Kingo or Unite States "experts" to assist the evelopent of their isciplines an knowlege. So that the links an contacts between Asian an Australasian scholars are as prouctive as pos- sible, it is essential that coparative ata bases are establishe. Coparative Southeast Asian/ Australasian research into "Cultural an tellectual Iperialis", for exaple, woul provie a eans of iscovering precisely how the intellectual an cultural evelopent of particular countries is inhibite or affecte by the intellectual/eia influence of the ifferent etropolitan centres. Such research can occur at present in ew Zealan only by contacts between iniviual acaeics. If there was a Council for Social Research or a ew Zealan stitute for Social Research, such research coul be facilitate uch ore rapily an systeatically on an institute-to-institute or council-tocouncil basis. the eantie if particular research areas, such as rural tenure systes, for exaple, were agree on, iniviual acaeicians coul gather ata on a nationwie basis an it coul be co-orinate in centralize regional ata banks an rawn on by all scholars in the region. Such ata banks shoul buil on existing regional facilities, such as those existing in the ocuentation ivision of ESCAP (Econoic an Social Coission for Asia an the Pacific). herever possible the existing facilities shoul be utilize to reuce costs an hopefully soe of the existing structures will be able to facilitate co-operation between countries an the siultaneous evelopent of istinctively national as well as regional social science traitions. 75

75 The iportance of international contacts to ew Zealan is critical. ew Zealan acaeics are isolate an reote an nee the stiuli of contact with other acaeics - if these coul be increase on an equal an reciprocal basis with Asian colleagues, it is y contention that ew Zealan social scientists woul unerstan theselves better, acquire a ore critical approach to their own society an be better able to contribute to the evelopent of a strong Asian an South Pacific region. 76

76 The Philippines By Gloria D. Feliciano Professor an Dean University of the Philippines stitute of Mass Counication; Chairan, Res ear ch Coittee Philippine Social Science Council trouction The increase national evelopent efforts in the Philippines in the seventies have corresponingly provie the social sciences with increase responsibilities in the area of evelopent-oriente research, to serve as a basis for goal-setting, prograe planning an execution, an effectiveness in evaluation. Historically, the focus of the behavioural sciences has been on acaeic research, but there has been a growing awareness of those in governent that their goals are attainable only within the perspective of huan evelopent. This recognition of the potential contribution of the social sciences to the evelopent effort is reflecte in the expane tasks assigne to the by the country's central science boy, the ational Science Developent Boar (SDB) which increase expenitures in social science research by ore than 2 per cent fro Fiscal Year (FYI to (FY) in view of the "growing awareness of the governent of the essential r6le that social science research plays in laying out the funaental basis for a ynaic forulation an ipleentation of national evelopent plans. "(1) The SDB inicate that the thrust of the prograe for social science research shoul be to ientify the social an cultural factors that hasten or elay the aoption of oern techniques in essential sectors of huan eneavour, an to provie a better unerstaning of the sources an tenencies of Filipino behavioural patterns fro the sociological, political, econoic an psychological points of view, taking into account the varie aspects of Filipino culture which affect the oernization of society. evitably, the question arises of how aequately the social sciences can respon to this challenge of increase responsibilities. hat is the status an extent of prepareness of the behavioural sciences in the Philippines toay? Unoubtely, the social sciences isciplines are not all at the sae level of evelopent toay. Soe are better off than others in regar to available expertise, research facilities, training capabilities, an agnitue of relevant evelopent research alreay conucte. I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUD OF THE SOClAL SCIECES (a) Pre-orl ar I1 phase The evelopent of the social sciences in the Philippines ay be trace to the political evelopent of the country, which went through three ajor stages: the Spanish colonial perio ( ); the Aerican colonial perio ( ); an the perio of the Philippine Republic (196 to the present). Unerstanably, history was the first core iscipline to get into the Philippine behavioural scices strea. The Spanish chroniclers wrote accounts of their iscoveries in the Pacific for the inforation of their countryen, an introuce history into the school curricula to give Filipinos a new perspective an better appreciation of their benefactors. Thus, history was taught in local universities alongsie of languages, theology, philosophy, the physical sciences an atheatics in courses leaing to the Bachiller en Artes egrees as early as the 17th Century. (2) Anthropology eerge in the Aerican colonial perio. The Philippines, with its nuerous tribal groups living in scattere isolation in its hinterlans, becae an exciting venue for European an Aerican anthropologists conucting research on the origin an early life of an. As Hollnsteiner coente, before orl ar I1 (1911, far ore (1) "SDB creases Social Science Ai. I' PSSC Social Science foration, Vol. 1, o. 2, Septeber, (2) Unesco, ational Science Policy an Organization of Research in the Philippines. Paris, Unite ations Eucational, Scientific an Cultural Organization,

77 ethnographic inforation was available about these priitive Filipinos than about the oinant culture of the 98 per cent. (1) evitably, the allie iscipline of linguistics copleente these anthropological investigations. The coing of the Aericans at the turn of the century inuce a shift in acaeic orientation fro the classical stuies to the physical sciences. It also resulte in the entry of the other core social sciences - econoics, political science, psychology an sociology. The Aerican eucational syste, after which the Philippine syste was patterne, calle for the infusion of a certain aount of liberal arts grouning into the science curricula, resulting in the introuction of social science courses. The goal of eventual replaceent of the retire soliers an Aerican teachers who were iporte ieiately after the Aerican colonization of the country propte the sening of Filipinos to the Unite States for grauate stuies. This gave ipetus to the evelopent of the social sciences uner the Aerican regie. As to be expecte, econoics receive the greatest attention. As early as 1919, econoics subjects were introuce in the College of Liberal Arts of the University of the Philippines, which ha been establishe a ecae earlier. The ean for the services of econoists peake as the country prepare for inepenence subsequent to its gaining coonwealth status in A ational Econoic Council was fore to plan the country's econoic strategy in agriculture an inustry. The Philippine Econoic Association, forerunner of the present Philippine Econoic Society, was organize in 1933 to concern itself with the probles of the inepenence oveent. It authore a ocuent on the "Econoic Probles of the Philippines", which escribe the transitional changes the Philippine econoy ha to initiate as it approache inepenence. (2) Over-tie, the Sociery's prestige grew as its ebership becae a virtual "ho's ho" of en who later becae top officials of the Philippine Republic, incluing a presient of the country. The post-war perio saw the econoic iscipline gain further luster as econoic evelopent receive top priority in the national rehabilitation effort. Groups of professionals went abroa for further stuies in econoics an returne to occupy key positions in governent an private econoic planning organizations. History continue to be a principal focus of attention in the acaeic curricula uring the Aerican colonial perio. Courses on the history of the Unite States were taught in Philippine seconary schools an colleges, using Aerican-authore textbooks. Political science, which was expecte to raw consierable attention owing to the political transition of the country, receive scant attention, particularly in the research area of political systes. Perhaps this was because the systes introuce into the country by the colonizers alreay were closely patterne after their own, which were in a relatively sophisticate state of evelopent. Moreover, foreign control of the country harly create the cliate for introucing oifications to these systes, or coing up with ore appropriate alternatives to those alreay existing. Sociology was taught as early as 1919 by an Aerican issionary at Sillian University in Duaguete City, southern Philippines. Prior to the forties it also was being taught at the University of the Philippines, the State University in Manila, an at the University of San Carlos in Cebu. (3) Psychology was taught at the University of the Philippines in the 192s as part of the curriculu of the course in eucation. () It share a epartent with philosophy at the State University, but this was because there was only one qualifie professor to hanle the course, an Aerican teacher who was later to becoe the Presient of the University of the Philippines. Since 1926, psychology as a course offering becae separate fro philosophy, although the Departent of Psychology continue to reain attache to the Grauate School of Eucation. At the University of Sto. Toas (UST), a separate epartent of Experiental Psychology was establishe after orl ar 11. The UST was also the first institution to offer a,curriculu leaing to the egree of Bachelor of Science in Psychology, an grauate courses leaing to the Master's an Doctorates in that fiel. Statistics ha its beginnings in the 19OOs, when statistical units were establishe in the various governent bureaux, e.g. the Bureau of Custos to collect, tabulate an isseinate iport- export ata; at the Bureau of Agriculture to gather ata on far an livestock prouction, an at the Bureau of Eucation an Health to copile eucation an health statistics. (5) the twenties the Bureau of Coerce an ustry create a statistical ivision to serve as a clearing house for statistical inforation in the Philippines. But it was not until 19 the creation of the Bureau of Census an (1) HOLLSTEIER, MARY R. "The State of Social Science in the Philippines. I' PSSC Social Science foration, Vol. l, o. l, May SICAT, G. P. "The Early Years of the Philippine Econoic Society. '' The Philippine Econoic Journal, Vol. 8, o. 1. ELDO, PETER D. "Teaching an Research in Sociology in Southeast Asia: A Survey. 'I I" PSSC Social Science foration, Vol. PADILLA, SIFOROSO an ALDABA-LIM, ESTEFAIA. State of an Trens in Psychology in the Philippines. (Paper rea by Dr. Estefania Alaba-Li uring ational Technology eek sponsore by SDB, oveber 23, 1961). (Mieographe). PAREL, CRISTIA P. Statistical Manpower in the Philippines. (Mieographe).

78 Statistics that statistics assue the function of a national instruent for soun econoic planning an evelopent. (b) Post-orl ar 11 phase The social sciences - notably econoics, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, psychology, poli - tical science an statistics - continue to grow after orl ar 11, but ostly within acaey, except for econoics. As to be expecte, econoics continue to receive the greatest attention, as the cou'ntry pursue its rehabilitation prograe. ustrialization becae the thrust of this prograe, an stuents aspire for Bachelor of science egrees in Coerce or in Business Ainistration to prepare theselves for eployent with Philippine business concerns. A substantial nuber of scholars also went abroa, particularly to the Unite States, for grauate stuies in econoics. the fifties a Social Econoy Association was fore by these professionals to serve as a foru for iscussing a wie range of issues affecting the econoy. 1962, the Philippine Econoic Society was organize, an its official journal the Philippine Econoic Journal, was publishe. The ebership of the Society ha a tripo quality: technocrats in econoics within planning agencies in governent, those in the business sector, an those at the universities, particularly the Univer - sity of the Philippines an Ateneo University. (l) Sociology, anthropology, linguistics an, to a lesser extent, history an political science likewise receive soe growth ipetus as self-governent brought the nee for an appraisal, within the perspective of Filipino culture, of the econoic, political an social changes introuce by the foreign colonizers. Colonial influences pervae alost every facet of Filipino life, an questions were being raise in regar to their propriety, relevance an responsiveness to the nees of Filipino society. The thrust of the governent prograe towars rural evelopent, highlighte by the crea- tion of the Office of the Presiential Assistant on Counity Developent (PACD) in 1956, likewise resulte in increase social research in rural evelopent. (2) 1958, the Counity Developent Research Council (CDRC) was establishe to conuct support research projects in the rural fiel an to provie the PACD, through its research finings, with guielines for policy forulation an its operational activities in the barrio. The CDRC conucte an/or supporte a wie variety of research projects ranging fro the levels of aspirations of rural househols to peasant copetence for self-governent, an fro foo anageent practices to far an hoe evelopent projects. The fifties saw sociology, anthropology, political science, history an psychology becoe. either require or elective subjects in Bachelor's curricula in any local colleges an universities. Soe schools create social science epartents, others establishe separate epartents for each one of the social sciences, an offere Bachelor of Arts egrees specializing in a specific social science iscipline. A survey of teaching an research in sociology in Southeast Asia reveale at least eleven universities in the Philippines with separate sociology epartents. (3) The post-war search for ientity likewise establishe history as a course requireent at alost all levels of foral eucation. Foreign oination in the Philippines which resulte in subjective accounts of Philippine history by foreign writers an historians sparke awareness of the nee to "set the recor straight" in the young ins of Filipino stuents. Filipino historians have observe that the accounts written by Spanish chroniclers uring the Spanish regie ( ) were characterize by bias in favour of the colonial cultural ilieu.(l) For exaple, Rizal's annotation of Morga's Sucesos e las Islas Filipinas point to this lack of objective treatent. During the Aerican regie ( ) a nuber of Aerican writers wrote on Philippine history with siilar bias. The teaching of history suffere fro an acute lack of Filipino-authore history books on the Philippines, Asia, the Unite States, an Europe, specifically Spain. Separate epartents of psychology likewise were establishe in several colleges an universities, notablv at the Far Eastern University an the Ateneo e Manila Grauate School. Psychology as a course subject was require in the liberal arts, eucation an business ainistration curricula. A nuber of Filipino scholars worke for their octorates in philosophy or eucation ostly in the fiel of guiance an counselling uner the Fullbright an Sith-Munt scholarship prograes an the Colobo Plan. Soe Aerican psychology professors cae for brief teaching assignents to strengthen the local staff. Psychology foun application in the 195s with the ental hygiene oveent of the country, a prograe which strive for a better unerstaning of huan behaviour an the prevention of ental illness. (5) Psychologists also were active in school counselling, inustrial psychology an counity ental health eucation. Since 195, a psychologist has avise the Philippine Governent iri his (1) See, SICAT, z. g. CASTILLO, GELLA T. The Filipino Social Scientist an Rural Developent. (augural Lecture as Holer of a Professorial Chair in Rural Sociology, March 13, 197). ALIP, EUFROIO an BORLAZA, GREGORIO. The Developent, Status, an Probles of History in the Philippines. (Mieographe). COCEPCIQ, MERCEDES B. Developent, Status an Probles of Deography in the Philippines. (Mieographe). See, Pailla, op. cit. 79

79 capacity as Technical Assistant to the Office of the inustry an to use eia for eucation an evel- Presient on Mental Health atters. opent, resulte in the introuction of counica- Political science continue to reain a rela- tion courses in soe of the larger Philippine tively weak iscipline uring the perio of the schools. Philippine Republic. The anticipate surge in re- hile the social sciences have ae consiersearch on political concepts, systes an institu- able progress uring the post-war perio, they are tions critical in the transition fro colonial rule still collectively a long way off fro attaining a eto self-governent i not aterialize. ith the velopent status coensurate with the tasks they substantial aoption of the Aerican political sys - have to perfor. The shift in irection fro the te, political scientists veere towars the applie acaeic institutions to the ainstrea of societal area of public ainistration. evelopent is only now starting, an oubts exist Anthropology an the associate fiel of lin- as to whether the behavioural sciences can aeguistics foun appropriate rbles to play in the in- quately eet the challenge owing to their historicalcrease interest in unerstaning Filipino society. ly anaeic participation. The governent's efforts to consoliate the vari- Reflecting the governent's historical percepous ethnic groups coprising Philippine society, tion of the r61e of the social sciences in evelopas well as its concern for the cultural inorities ent is the share that it has allocate these iscian as sources of knowlege on the early Filipinos, plines in its research expenitures in the past. likewise stiulate interest in anthropological res ear ch. The early 195s also arke the establishent of a statistical training centre uner an RU Classifying social science research as "Basic research", average governent expenitures in this area for an eight-year perio ( ) aounte to only 3.2 per cent of the total. (3) Basic agreeent. (l) This centre was charge principally with the function of conucting research Per cent Basic research to iprove the organization, coprehension, an Physical sciences quality of Philippine statistics, an to train selec- 2.1 te governent personnel engage in statistical Life sciences 6. work. 195, the acaeic prograe of the Social sciences 3.2 Statistical Centre was launche uner the grauate Applie research school of the University of the Philippines, an ustrial research 12.2 grauate courses were offere in statistics. Agricultural research 8. 9 Towar the i-sixties, two new social sci- Meical research 6. ence isciplines - eography an ass couni- Others 21.3 cation - eerge in response to governent prograes requiring research inputs an staff exper- The SDB survey also reveale that governtise in these areas. Their relevance to specific ent expenitures for social science research national evelopent prograes was proptly never went past the illion peso ark until 1965 recognize. when it increase five-fol fro that of the preceing year: The population explosion calle for eographic stuies to assess the socio-econoic iplications of this phenoenon. It spurre the creation in 196 of the University of the Philippines Popula- Total Governent Social Science Expeniture (IOOO) Research (') tion stitute to train eographers an initiate a , research prograe on population atters ipor , tant for planning an ainistration. Since 1965, ,113 5 the stitute has been ainistering a training pro , grae in population stuies leaing to a Master , of Arts egree in Deography, an offering special ,82 2 workshops to provie personnel in governent an , 73 1,23 schools with an overview of population ata an ,128 1,79 ethos an of the interrelation of population an econoic evelopent. (2) Mass counications, on the other han, sprang fro the recognition that national evelopent can procee only as rapily as people involve can be unifie, integrate an ae to actively participate in the evelopent process. The increase in the level of eia activity (particularly broacast) an the increase interest it has generate in stuents, couple with the efforts of soe eia organizations an learning institutions to raise the professional stanars of the The increases in 1965 an 1966 were ue to the activities of the newly create Joint Legislative Executive Tax Coission, the ational Co-orinating Centre for the Stuy an Developent of (1) See, Parel, op. cit. (2) See, Concepcion, op. cit. (3) See, Unesco, op. cit. 8

80 Filipino Chilren an Youth, an the Presiential Econoic Staff. Percentage-wise, the institutions of higher eucation allocate a higher proportion of their research (R) an evelopent (D) buget to the social sciences. The allocation for the social sciences an huanities aounte to 26.5 per cent, secon to the life sciences (67 per cent) an higher than the physical sciences (3. 8 per cent) an the engineering sciences (2. 7 per cent). absolute ters, however, this expeniture was harly significant. Out of the 527 schools of higher eucation, only 38 reporte R an D expenitures aounting to illion, an of the total of the utilize aount, only one institution, the University of the Philippines, expene 77 per cent of the total. The istribution of enrolent in the various courses in higher eucation for the acaeic year showe the social sciences an huanities ranking fourth aong the various isciplines. Per cent Disciplines Enrolent of total atural Sciences, incluing atheatics, Technology 62, Meical sciences, Agricultural sciences 7, Social sciences an huanities 69, Business an coerce 119, Eucation 25, Hoe econoics 6, Law, jurispruence 1, an criinology - Total: 527, ters of percentage to total, interest in the social sciences has reaine constant fro to , although it was a relatively high 17 per cent in The social sciences (with huanities) le the other isciplines in nuber of holers of octorate egrees, as shown below: Aware Ph.D's in the Aware Ph.D's in the Philippines Unite States Fiel of stuies ) ( ) atural sciences 2 12 Technology 2 Meical sciences 12 7 Agricultural sciences 27 Social sciences an huanities Eucation Others 25 3 The SDB survey inicate that a total of 81,6 scientists an engineers were eploye in the Philippines in 1965, istribute by broa subject-fiel as follows: Engineers, Life scientists 15,1 Physical scientists 13,1 Social scientists 9, 9 About per cent of the social scientists were eploye by higher eucational institutions; in contrast, the engineers an physical scientists were ostly eploye by private inustry. The preceing ata woul see to inicate that, in the 195s an 196s the social sciences continue to evelop in an unspectacular anner but one which was not characterize by coplete neglect an suborination to the other science isciplines. There was soe stuent interest in the behavioural sciences, an the isciplines ha their share of avance egree holers. The social sciences have been weak in the research area, however, principally as a result of governent ephasis on the physical an life sciences (as is naturally expecte in a eveloping country). Social science research reaine largely confine to the higher institutions of learning, an in subject areas which in the earlier post-war years were preoinantly theoretical. the 197s, the social sciences can be expecte to unergo further evelopent as they take an increasingly involve part in the national evelopent effort which is now being pursue with a greater sense of purpose an vigour than at any tie in the perio of the Philippine Republic. aition to the increase activities in the econoic sector, the current thrusts of the governent strategy inclue the areas of rural evelopent, agrarian refor, social welfare, huan settleents, population control, the national integration of the country's ethnic ebership, an political evelopent. Eviently, work in these areas will have to be tackle significantly fro a behavioural perspective inasuch as it involves effecting attituinal changes towars specific concepts an ieas. Consequently, the social scientists are being calle upon to provie the basis for the evelopent of action prograes responsive to the people's nees an aspirations. The various social sciences each appear to have specific r6le.s to play in these governent prograes. Unoubtely, econoics will continue to be in the lielight because the focus of evelopent in any eveloping country is base on the esire to raise the people's living stanars an because econoics is the prerequisite to the econoic, social an political evelopent of a country. ustrial evelopent has long been a consuing preoccupation of the Philippine governent, an it continues to be the focus of attention as it fins its evelopental efforts grappling with the negative effects of rapi population growth. 81

81 The efforts towars econoic evelopent have inevitably brought into focus the nee to obilize the rural areas which coprise soe 7 per cent of the country. Governent strategists are iscovering, however, that rural evelopent is quite ifferent fro urban evelopent, as it involves a population whose values, otives an philosophies affect their econoic behaviour in a anner that efies establishe econoic concepts. The rawing boar experts are beginning to recognize that, to be able to effect change at the village level, the prograes they introuce ust be base on a thorough unerstaning of the rural population, how it behaves an reacts, an why it behaves an reacts this way. Siilarly, the issues of social welfare, agrarian refor, huan settleents, population control will have to be approache fro both the econoic an social perspectives. This has brought to fore the nee for behavioural scientists to participate actively in rural evelopent principally through research to serve as a basis for eveloping prograe approaches, guiing their ipleentation, an evaluating their ipact. Principally, sociology is being calle upon to help ientify the factors that affect the aoption of specific prograes. Other isciplines concerne with unerstaning huan behaviour - anthropology, linguistics, psychology, history, likewise have their supportive an copleentary rles to play. Anthropology an linguistics also continue to be useful in stuies of priitive tribes living in isolation in the reote jungles of the country. The latest of these "iscoveries", the Tasaay tribesen, has elicite worl-wie anthropological attention. Anthropological an linguistic research have likewise been consiere iportant to unerstan the ulti-racial an ethnic profile of the country especially in view of the governent's unity-iniversity political approach workable only through utual unerstaning aong the any groups which constitute the nation. Sociology has siilarly foun application in the governent's population control prograe, as have the other behavioural sciences, in support of the official resolve to reuce the population growth rate fro the current 3. 2 per cent, one of the highest in the worl. Besies sociology, eography an ass counication have becoe necessary instruents in ipleenting the natiohal policy on population control. These two isciplines are expecte to provie significant research inputs on population atters necessary for prograe planning an ipleentation. Their potential contributions are eee to be particularly significant in view of expecte rural resistance to the concept, an the urgency of achieving efinitive results. The acceptance of faily planning is a people-proble, an the strategies for its aoption will have to be evelope within the perspective of the population's behavioural patterns. There is therefore the nee for research in such areas as the reasons for the resistance to the concept an the otivations that woul be ost effective in breaking own this resistance. The nee to bring own the growth rate quickly before it negates econoic evelopental efforts harly leaves any roo for errors. It likewise requires a capaign intensity that necessarily raws upon all the instruents of ass counication. The country's search for national ientity, eee critical against the backrop of over three centuries of foreign colonization, focuses on the historian's iportant responsibility of putting Philippine history in its proper perspective. The nee for a truly objective history of the country to erase the isconceptions of accounts written by foreign historians continues to be felt. The governent's foreign policy which calls for a close alliance with the Southeast Asian nations suggests a stuy of the country's early links with the rest of the Malay worl - "with Thais, Burese, Vietnaese, an other Asians who share so any of the sae eleent of village society an culture, of ecology an econoy, of colonial experience an frustrations of nation builing an neo-colonialis. (l) There has also been observe the nee for the current tren towars local history; the nee for stuies of specialize segents of Philippine society in specific perios of tie, not just the Spanish regie which has been the ajor thrust of historical research so far, but also the twentieth century Philippines; an not just the urban Plite, but also the peasants in the rural areas. aition to its contributions in socio-psychological research towars eveloping a better unerstaning of huan behaviour as it ipinges on the country's socio- econoic an political evelopent, psychology will continue to reain popular in the areas of inustrial psychology, guiance an counselling, an ental health prograes. Political science is gaining increase interest as the country's political syste goes through a perio of evelopent in preparation for the shift fro presiential to parliaentary governent as require by the revise constitution. The esire to evelop a syste ore responsive to the requireents of the people than the estern oel aopte in the post-war perio has becoe apparent with the observe eficiencies of the syste which le to the establishent of a artial law governent early in the 197s. There is presently an ongoing political experient base significantly on the country's inigenous political syste which existe long before the foreigners set foot on Philippine soil. This "eocratic revolution" as the governent has calle it, offers a fertile research area for political scientists. (1) OE, ORMA G. "Trens an Directions of Research on Philippine History: an inforal essay. " Asian Stuies, Vol. 12, os. 2 an 3, August-Deceber,

82 ith this general shift of the social sciences fro basic to evelopent-oriente research, the question coes to in as to whether the various isciplines can respon aequately to this new responsibility an challenge. 11. ISTITUTIOAL FRAMEORK OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES Current Status of Social Sciences As inicate earlier, partly because of the varying ates of entry of the social sciences into the acaeic fiel, the various isciplines are presently at iffering levels of evelopent, with soe being ore avance than others. The iscussion which follows assesses the status of the social sciences in the areas of staff availability, personnel training, facilities aequacy, research an research organizations, funing, research isseination an professional assbciations. The inforation containe herein was ostly culle fro status an irection papers prepare by leaing social scientists in their respective behavioural fiels, interviews with soe establishe professionals in the social science worl, an survey ata fro various sources, principally the Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC). Staff availability As one scans the lists of establishe social science professionals on acaeic faculty rosters, with research institutions, an in private inustry, it is easy to conclue that there is a earth of personnel in the various behavioural isciplines who are neee to cope with the requireents of the acaeic, research an work worl. This is true of both holers of Bachelor's avance egrees, particularly uch ore so with the latter. The earlier cite figure of 69,95 enrolle in the "social sciences an huanities" is rather eceptive because of the large nuber of isciplines covere by this ajor ouble-barrelle category. A ore tgpical picture woul be that presente in a report base on a national survey of history coplete soe five years ago. This report inicate that uring the four-year perio fro school year to , only 29 stuents (or 62 stuents a year) were enrolle for history as ajor at the unerqrauate level in the entire country, an uring the sae perio, only 3 or 8 stuents a year were grauate. The situation was ore acute at the grauate level (28 stuents in the fouryear perio) where only eight or two stuents a year, were grauate. There were no grauates at the post-grauate (octorate) level. their survey, the authors learne that the country's largest university i not offer any grauate courses in history, an that it grauate only about stuents a year. The situation woul not be any significantly ifferent in the other social sciences. For instance, only fourteen out of 61 colleges an universities offer courses in counication, twelve with unergrauate prograes an two with both unergrauate an grauate prograes. (l) These institutions have grauate only 1, 157 stuents since the start of their respective prograes. (2) Evience likewise of the earth of social scientists woul be the results of the initial inventory by the Philippine Social Science Council of Philippine social scientists "base on the accoplishe irectory fors sent back to the PSSC an fro ata ae available to the council by eucational an research centres. (3) hile the list is by no eans exhaustive, the initial response an its coverage of those in research institutions (an hence, in teaching as well), which represent a substantial nuber, provies hints on the shallowness of the pool of social scientists. The inventory liste 6 scientists in anthropology,,1 in counication, 139 in econoics, 3 in eography, 73 in history, 92 in political science, 37 in psychology, 28 in public ainistration, 32 in social work, 18 in sociology, an 37 in statistics. The ajority of those liste were holers of grauate an post-grauate egrees, an were either on the acaeic faculty or in research centres. The list is obviously incoplete; harly inclue, for instance, are the social scientists in private inustry, ost of the in the fiels of psychology, statistics, ass counication an econoics. But it oes give soe inications that professional social scientists re - present a sall group in a country of over illion people. terest in the behavioural sciences as a career has not been strong aong Filipino stuents because of their ieiate eployent goal an the lack of opportunities in the social sciences for satisfying this goal. Bachelor's egrees in the social sciences such as anthropology, political science, sociology an history o not offer as attractive prospects of ieiate work as, for instance, the physical sciences. either o they offer excellent opportunities for aterial success. They therefore o not satisfy any a Filipino stuent's otives for a college eucation - to fin work to help support the faily, which typically belongs to the ile-an lower-incoe brackets, to sen the brothers an sisters through school, an to prepare for eventual arriage an a faily of his own. This (1) MERCADO, CESAR I. The Probles an Prospects of Upgraing Teaching an Training Mass Counication in the Philippines. (Paper rea in a Sub-Regional Seinar in Upgraing Counication Teaching an Training, Bali, onesia, May 1-6, 1972). (2) FELICIAO, GLORIA D. The Status of Mass Counication Eucation in the Philippines. (Mieographe). (3) PSSC. "itial ventory of Social Scientists. 'I PSC SOC ial Science foration, Vol. 2, o. 2 an 3, February an October,

83 explains stuent preference for eucation, business. an coerce, technology an the eical sciences. It also explains why the stuents boun for college in , when aske of their probable occupations, place the social sciences close to the botto of the list (Appenix Table 1). Social science grauates often en up either withacaeic careers (teaching an research) or in non-anageent positions in public offices or private inustry. a stuy of the percentage istribution of eploye egree holers in the ost coonly reporte occupations, the social science grauates ha the lowest percentage of professionals an the highest percentage of clerical workers (Table 2). Eployent in the acaeic fiel requires an excellent scholastic recor, an a eiocre acaeic perforance woul ost likely relegate the stuent to the uneploye sector or to unenviable clerical positions in business. Many of the stuents pursue the Bachelor's egree in one of the social science isciplines not as a eans of aking a career of it but as a preparation for other courses such as law. Staff evelopent Stuent exposure to the social sciences starts as early as the eleentary graes, with the teaching of history, social stuies an political science. Econoics, sociology an journalis are usually ae in high school. Courses in these isciplines likewise are require at the unergrauate level, together with sociology. Anthropology an linguis - tics soeties are offere at the college level, but often as electives. the larger colleges an universities, a liberal arts course with ajor concentration in a social science iscipline is not a rarity in their acaeic offerings. Soe institutions likewise offer grauate prograes in the social sciences, an a few offer octoral prograes. Mass counication is a relatively new fiel having been introuce in However, courses in one of its coponents, journalis, was taught as early as by the University of the Philippines. As entione earlier, unergrauate_prograes in ass counication eucation L journalis (press), broacasting (raio an television) fil, photograph& avertising, public relations, speech an raa_/ are offere in soe fourteen schools, all of the locate in Metropolitan Manila except for one (Sillian University) which is in Duaguete City in southern Philippines. The subject-fiel of counication research was introuce in However, only one school, the U. P., (in Dilian an at Los Baiios) now offers grauate prograes in counication. Statistics is taught in any institutions as part of various curricula (e. g., business courses) but it was not offere as a specialize fiel of stuy until in 1953 when the Statistical Training Center was establishe uner an RU Basic Agreeent. June, 195, the acaeic prograe of the centre was launche, an bachelor's an aster's prograes were offere. (1) The U. P. Population stitute was establishe in 196 to ainister a training prograe in population stuies leaing to a Master of Arts egree in Deography, an to offer special workshops to provie personnel in governent an in schools with an overview of population ata an ethos an of the interrelation of population an econoic evelopent. It is the only school in the country offering a grauate egree in eography. (2) hile ost schools teach social science subjects an a nuber even offer egrees with one of the social sciences as an area of concentration, not enough professional social scientists possesse with the expertise neee to cope with the responsibilities they are expecte to perfor are being prouce. Many of the college grauates in the social sciences, for instance, woul probably not qualify to unertake the necessary fiel research tasks escribe earlier in this paper. For the fact is, teaching at the unergrauate level generally is not of the scope nor o the stanar neee to prouce copetent social scientists, hapere as it is by a lack of qualifie teachers, reaing aterials, an other training resources an facilities. regar to the social science instructors, Hollnsteiner has note that Few hol even a aster's egree in the social science they teach. The lack of well-traine teachers is rationalize by the belief of any ainistrators that teachers with a few social science courses taken in their unergrauate years will suffice for getting stuents through the seester; worse still is the conviction in low quality colleges that any person who can rea social science text can teach its contents; all that one has to o is keep ahea of the class by a few chapters. Thus, all too often, lawyers with free tie on their hans pla at the re1e of sociologists or political scientists. 6) Even if the ainistrators recognize the nee for, an wante to hire, qualifie staff, they woul fin that this is not easy to o owing to the earth of such personnel. Social scientists with grauate egrees are few in nuber, an those with octorates are fewer still. As inicate earlier, ost of the schools of higher eucation go only as far as the unergrauate prograes in the social sciences; the grauate courses often are confine to the state university an a few of the larger, ore reputable schools. The nuber of stuents aware Master's egrees is norally pitifully sall, an woul represent only a sall fraction of the total require to fill the positions in the any seconary (1) See, Parel, 9. &. (2) See, Concepcion, 9. z. (3) See, Hollnsteiner, 9. c. 8

84 an collegiate schools of the country. Alip an Borlaza(1) illustrate this gap in the case of history by pointing out that, assuing only two teachers per seconary school, aroun 8, history teachers are neee at the high school level. This nuber woul consierably increase by 25 annually (base on enrolent increases; the given figure was copute fro ata on enrolent increases. ) ith the institutions of higher learning, assuing just one teacher per school, there woul be over 7 history teachers eploye - ost of who woul have to be replace with Master's egree-holers, which in five years will be the iniu acaeic requireent set by the Departent of Eucation an Culture for teaching eligibility at the unergrauate level. HO coul these requireents be et when the estiate nuber of M.A. in History grauates is twenty a year? The sae scientists pointe out that the situation is worse in the grauate schools. hile ieally these shoul have professors with octorates on their staff, not a single Ph. D. in history was grauate uring the four -year perio covere by the statistics copile by the ational Boar of Eucation. The proble is copoune by the copetition pose by other organizations (e. g., private business) for the services of the qualifie social scientists, or the possibility of the social scientist being "lost" to soe other cause. The U. P. Population stitute, for instance, trace its twelve I. A. grauates in eography, as follows:(2) orking abroa in population relate 2 activities orking in provincial governent agency - 1 as eographer orking in provincial private agency as 1 eographer U. P. Population stitute faculty 2 Other U. P. unit faculty 3 Enrolle in grauate stuies abroa 2 Housewife (abroa) 1 Thus, less than half of the grauates pursue acaeic careers. Fortunately for the social-science fiel, the post-war perio saw a nuber of Filipinos going abroa, ostly to the Unite States, for avance stuies in their respective isciplines. As inicate earlier, the nuber of Filipino scholars who obtaine their octorate egrees abroa fro (15) far exceee those who receive local Ph.D. 's (21). a survey of sociology teaching an research in Southeast Asia, the eight responing schools fro the Philippines inicate that they ha on their staff fifteen Ph. D's, thirteen of who got their egrees fro the Unite States an two fro Europe, an 36 with Master's egrees, 21 fro the Unite States an 15 fro local schoolsl3) The bulk of these avance egree holers have assue key positions ostly in acaeic institutions an soe in research centres an private inustry. These professionals, because they were relatively few in nuber, foun theselves in ainistrative positions as eans, epartent heas, research irectors, etc., an evote only a sall part of their tie to teaching. hile they have no oubt contribute heavily to the evelopent of the school curricula, they have harly ae a ent in the proble of lack of qualifie teachers because of their sall nuber an the very large requireents of the various learning institutions. Likewise, inigenous teaching aterials, fro textbooks to reference works, are sorely lacking for teaching the social sciences. There are soe local textbooks, but these are often liite to a few per iscipline, an are not regularly upate for lack of tie on the part of the author, who, typically, is a note social scientist with an extreely heavy workloa, an for lack of funs to finance the revision. Reference aterials are likewise scarce, an often pertain to specific areas of stuy which are not irectly relevant to the course curriculu. the absence of local aterials, any schools have continue to use estern textbooks, soeties with liite usefulness within the context of the Philippine environent. This is particularly true in regar to social research, where estern research ethoologies an fiel work proceures often cannot be fully aopte because of the highly ifferent local conitions e. g. lack of ata for eveloping the sapling esign, geographic or language inaccessibility of responents, etc. Local social scientists recognize the gravity of this situation, an their association, the Philippine Social Science Council, has ae one of its initial projects, the evelopent of anuals on the conuct of social survey research. () Aong the social sciences, econoics expectely stans out in regar to the availability of local reaing aterials. The early recognition of its iportance in national evelopent, the pr e- sence of outstaning business schools in the country (the University of the Philippines, Ateneo e Manila University, De la Salle University, an the Asian stitute of Manageent), the large nuber of foreign-traine professionals, an the availability of econoic publications have all contribute to the evelopent of local reaings in econoics. The other social sciences are ore or less siilarly in nee of inigenous literature. Political science probably suffers ost in this area; library visits reveale an alost total absence of local reaing aterials on the iscipline, although the libraries were well-stacke with foreign books an literature on the subject. Psychology likewise relies heavily on foreign teaching aterials. History is a little ore fortunate, a6 locally authore (1) See, Alip, z. & (2) See, Concepcion, z. tit. (3) See, elon, 9. cit. () PSSC. "hat is the PSSC? 'I PSSC Social Science foration, Vol.1, o. 1, May,

85 books have been slowly getting into print. the eantie, however, foreign-authore aterials with all their liitations in their reporting of Philippine history continue to be use in the absence of other aterials. Coprehensive an scholarly volues on Philippine history have yet to be written, as are Filipino-authore history books on Asia, the Unite States, Europe (especially Spain) an the worl. "There also is a earth of publishe historical works of Filipino authorship even in such liite areas as the history of Philippine provinces, cities, towns, an institutions such as uni-. versities, hospitals, orphanages, an the like, although the ational Library in Manila, as well as soe iniviual writers has alreay taken soe initial steps since before orl ar I1 to collect aterials on these local histories. (1) Sociology lacks textbooks, but it has been fortunate in the availability of reference aterials borne out of the governent prograe on rural evelopent. Mass counication likewise suffers fro a lack of local instructional aterials. Ateneo University an Sillian University feel that this is a serious proble, as oes the U.P. stitute of Mass Counication. A training centre for raio an television personnel also coplaine about the lack of textbooks for training purposes. (2) hy is there a earth of Filipino-authore textbooks an other reaing aterials in the social sciences? A nuber of factors contribute to the situation. The social sciences, while they generally have been introuce for soe tie now, are presently still in their evelopent stages, as is therefore the subject aterial for these textbooks. There is still a lot ore to know about before it can be written about. The availability of estern instructional aterials likewise has lessene the urgency for the evelopent of inigenous aterials for whil'e these aterials only have liite applicability, they o serve a purpose. The lack of authoritative social scientists who can author such publications has likewise been a ajor proble. Each iscipline can count on only a hanful of well-establishe scientists, an usually are alreay too overburene with ultiple responsibilities resulting fro a cobination of ainistrative, teaching, an research work - for the to take on the aitional tie-consuing task of writing a textbook. Local publications likewise suffer fro a lack of a lucrative arket that woul allow the author to go on leave fro his work an erive a coensurate incoe fro his writing effort. Unless his aterial is aopte as a textbook, chances are that the project will not be a paying proposition. fact, he ay even stan to lose, since printing an other costs inciental to book publishing are high. Many of the inigenous aterials now in print have been evelope an publishe through subsiy (grants, incentives) arrangeents. R es ear c h The extent of the current social science research in the Philippines is reflecte by the nuber of research organizations in the country. Lynch's 1971 listing of non-coercial an/or huanities research organizations was subsequently expane by Hollnsteiner in 1973(3) an this was use in turn as a take-off point by cast ill^(^) in listing research organizations engage irectly or inirectly in rural evelopent research. The PSSC has been aing to the list in its Social Science foration ewsletter. Table 3 presents a coposite picture fro these various sources. As inicate in the table, there are a total of 3 research centres, epartents, institutes within the University of the Philippines Syste, at least 33 privately supporte acaernic institutions, at least 1 non-acaeic privately supporte agencies, an also about 9 governent an other agencies supporte by public funs. terestingly, although there are about 72 institutions of higher eucation in the Philippines toay, only a hanful are engage in research activities beyon the thesis an acaeic papers category. An only two, the U. P. Syste an Ateneo University, oinate the fiel in regar to the agnitue of involveent. The U. P., being the national university, is coitte to assisting the country in evelopent work, an the research agencies within its fol engage in evelopent-oriente research in support of various governent prograes. The rural evelopent effort of the governent, for instance, has propte the U. P. Agricultural College in Los Baiios to establish strong research coponents within their structural set -up. Ateneo University has strong epartents of sociology an anthropology, an its stitute of Philippine Culture has been active in research relevant to any national evelopent prograes. Most of the research organizations are base in Manila, although a few are locate in the provinces - Sillian University in egros Oriental, the University of San Carlos in Cebu, Xavier University in Cagayan e Oro City; the Central Philippine University in Iloilo, the otre Daa University in Cotabato, an St. Louis University in Baguio City. Besies the University of the Philippines, various public agencies conuct research to provie vital inputs to the governent's evelopental plan- ning an ipleentation work. The ational Econoic an Developent Authority (EDA), the (1) GUZMA 11, ALFOSO DE. Social Science Publishing in the Philippines. (Paper subitte to the conference of University Presses in Asia an the Pacific Area, Tokyo, oveber 1-2, 1972). (Mieographe). (2) See, Mercao, op. cit. (3) See, Hollnsteiner, 9. () See, Castillo, 9. & 86

86 governent's central planning boy, itself gathers soe of the research inputs use as bases for its planning work, or seeks research assistance fro other organizations, such as the U. P. School of Econoics. The Bureau of Census an Statistics, the Departent of Econoic Research of the Central Bank, an the Bureau of Agricultural Econoics perfor ata- an inforation-gathering functions critical to prograe planning as well as research esign evelopent. on-acaeic privately- supporte research organizations likewise contribute to the country's research output. The Philippine Business for Social Progress (PBSP), for instance, which is financially supporte by private business copanies, unertakes social evelopent projects whose planing an ipleentation require research activities for guiance an evaluation purposes. The Econoic Developent Founation (EDF), a joint R US initiate organization, conucts research in the areas of econoics an business anageent priarily for private inustry, but lately has shifte its ephasis towars evelopent-oriente research coissione by governent agencies an lening institutions. The Philippine Rural Reconstruction Moveent (PRRM) an the ternational stitute of Rural Reconstruction (IIRR), both privately fune, engage in rural sociology research to support their rural iproveent objectives. There also exist private coercial agencies which perfor research functions ostly for private inustry an organizations, principally in the areas of econoic an arketing research. The ore establishe aong these inclue the anageent services group of Sycip, Gorres, Velayo an Co., an auiting fir; the Asia Research Organization, the ternational Research Associates, Konsulta Philippines, Consuer Pulse, an the Manageent vestent an Developent Associates. The non-coercial social science an/or huanities research centres have perhaw the largest concentration of social scientists w h avance egrees than any other category of inititutions. They have a core staff any of who have avance egrees, an they continue to sen their people abroa for grauate an post-grauate stuies. This has le Castillo(l) to observe that the available research anpower is probably as copetent as can be foun anywhere in the worl in their respective fiels... an precisely because of this recognition, there are any copeting eans place on the copetent staff by various national, regional, an international evelopent prograes. The relatively sall nuber of these social scientists, however, has tene to isperse their efforts into so any responsibilities that perhaps inevitably, their perforance in all of the woul suffer. The ajority of the liste research centres are priarily teaching units of learning institutions, an the staff are oblige to share in this training responsibility. aition to teaching an research, the heas an other key staff of these centres are also sale with ainistrative responsibilities, not to ention such other professional uties as participating in local an international conferences an acting as consultants in a variety of organizations an as coittee ebers for various functions within an outsie of their hoe institutions. eeless to say, the research involveent of these leaing scientists woul be boun to suffer, if not in a saller nuber of research output, in the lowering of the quality of the stuy ue, for instance, to overepenence on a neophyte research staff. Lack of funs for research has been a perrenial proble, although it has been ease soewhat lately with the growing recognition by the sponsoring organizations of the value of social science research in specific areas of eneavour. There are several sources of funs: bugets provie by the other institution, contract research with governent an other coissioning organizations (e.g., SDB, Unesco, PBSP, etc. grants an gifts fro local or foreign founations or other benefactors, sales fro publications,. an fees fro stuents. The research centres generally o not rely on just one source of funs, but resort to a cobination of the above. At an avantage, of course, are those centres given bugetary allocations by their other institutions, such as the various organizations within the U. P. syste. These are suppleente by contract research or grants fro various institutions, which in the case of ost of the private non-coercial research outfits, is their principal source of funs. Publications The results of social science research are isseinate through journals, books, onographs, an soeties popular publications. The ain outlet continues to be the professional journals, usually publishe by the professional associations or by the research institutions theselves. Each of the ajor social isciplines, except political science an eography, has a professional association one of whose ajor activities is the publication of a journal. The proucts of eographic research usually get into print in the Philippine Review (as o anthropology an sociology), while those of political science are publishe in the Philippine Journal of Public Ainistration, Lynch has liste these journals together with their sponsoring associations or institutions, an these are shown in Table. Most of the journals are publishe either quarterly (1 of the 22 liste) or seiannually (7); one is publishe onthly, two printe three ties a year, two coe out annually, an one is publishe bi-annually. Occasionally, books an onographs on ajor social science research projects are publishe. (1) See, Castillo, 2. tit. 7

87 an are circulate to the social scientists in the research an acaeic counities an to intereste stuents. A few whose results are of public interest becoe the subject of feature articles in popular agazines. The current avenues for social science research, isseination are far fro satisfactory, an a researaher or user woul be likely to iss soe useful aterials in his literature search. the first place, the journals o not coe out frequently, an therefore cannot accooate all of the proucts of research in the particular iscipline. Soe research aterials thus get no further than the ieographe for, which are istribute rather haphazarly to colleagues. Soe stuies get into print but in a rastically suarize for, so that iportant inforation is likely to reain burie in the scientist's shelves. Others have to wait in line, so that when they finally get publishe, the inforation has lost soe of its significance. The scientists also have to reckon with the probles facing the journal itself - i. e., not being able to coe out on tie, or not being able to coe out at all. The forer has been ore the rule than the exception, an it is coon to fin journals not just one or two issues behin, but as uch as a year or two. This coul be attribute to several factors: lack of funs (which also has been ainly responsible for soe journals cessing publication for inefinite perios), too long processing tie, an elays in printing. The availability of aterials to fill up the journal issues has never been a ajor proble. As a journal eitor coente: "There has never been any serious ifficulty regaring the availability of aterials for publications in the Philippine social science journals. The ore active research centres subit preliinary an final reports to their parent institutions or to the organizations contracting their services; a nuber of those reports are eventually publishe as articles or special onographic nubers of the various journals. It is also a practice aong certain universities an research firs to inclue in their research contracts clauses proviing options to publish reports. There is a earth of publishe works, but efinitely plenty of publishable ones. "(1) Lack of funs appears to be the principal proble plaguing professional journals. Publications costs are usually efraye fro the ebership contributions to the association which usually is not sufficient because of the sall nuber of ebers an the high printing costs. This proble was stresse by Sicat, as he narrate his expe.-ience as eitor of the Philippine Econoic Journal: "The Journal ha a oest beginning an a oest buget; its publication epen so uch on the financial fortunes of the [Philippine Econoig Society. the early years, the PEJ. in fact, raine the society's finances. At one tie, the elay in the release of two issues fro the press was prolonge siply because there was not enough oney in the treasury. "itially, a roun-robin approach to soliciting contributions was unertaken whereby institutions an copanies were aske to finance parts of an issue every tie an issue was ue. An to acknowlege the contributions, the back pages of the first issues liste various institutions such as the Developent Bank, the Central Bank, any coercial banks, oil refineries, an an anonyous eber of the Manila Stock Exchange as 'Friens of the Society'. "To finance the Journal on a ore peranent basis, we cae up with a set of tricks. First, uring y eitorialship, negotiations for funing were fire up. I was able to arrange for a p25. onation fro the U. S. Agency for ternational Developent an the ational Econoic Council to assist the Journal. Then a breakthrough in funing fro the For Founation le to a grant of p19,ooo. " aition, a syste was evise whereby persons or institutions ay becoe "Friens of the Society'' with a onation of not less than PI,. A lifetie ebership to the Society, acquire by a specific su just once, was also initia- :.iy2) Proceual an technical probles also contribute to elaye journal issues. The processing of aterials for publications often takes tie because the journal eitor, norally chosen because he is one of the ost respecte an in the fiel, is too busy with his other higher priority responsbilities, an is often ignorant of anuscript preparation an printing press proceures. Professional eitors are a rarity, partly because there are only a few aroun, partly because soe authors believe that it takes a social scientist to eit another social scientist an partly because journal eitors usually work without any copensation. The printing process has been foun to be highlytie consuing, what with the journal eitor having to copete with the other clients of the printer for priority, with hi often losing out to the larger, usually better-paying coercial jobs; with the printer's antiquate achines which often result in substanar typesetting; with the eitor's lack of failiarity with typesetting an proofreaing arks an sybols; an with the printer's often inifferent personnel. As e Guzan observe(3), any are prouce by the letterpress process, slow an taxing especially in the early stage of proofing. It takes about three sets of galleys an another three sets of page proofs over a perio of six to eight weeks (1) SeeGuzan, op. cit. (2) See, Sicat, =. cit. (3) See, Guzan, z. g. aa

88 before a given volue is approve for printing The usual substanar typesetting (new typographical errors, wrong fonts, an broken types inevitably show up in every set of proofs) characterizes the coposition, but substanar esign, usually the printer's current preilection, is traceable to an eitor or anaging eitor untraine or inexperience in printing techniques. ThePSSC has recognize the gravity of the situation, an has ebarke on a prograe to iprove publishing for the social sciences. It has initiate a special publications prograe whereby it provies funs for upating uch-elaye journals, a grauate publications prograe whereby it subsiizes the publication of a journal for a perio of five years, an a central subscription syste with a full-tie professional sales staff to solicit subscriptions an irect sales, an negotiates istribution an prootion arrangeents for social science journals publishe in the Philippines an abroa. The Philippine Social Science Council (PSSC) Probably the ost significant evelopent in the Philippine social science fiel was the establishent in 1968 of the Philippine Social Science Council, a non-stock, non-profit private organization which intens above all to consoliate the resources of local social scientists by proviing the leaership likely to enhance their ipact on the evelopent of their nation an to forulate appropriate policies, prograes an projects to achieve this en. The PSSC has seven professional association ebers, an its Executive Boar is copose of twelve ebers representing the social science isciplines which it officially recognizes: anthropology, counication, eography, econoics, history, linguistics, political science, pscyhology, public ainistration, social work, sociology an statistics. The PSSC hopes to strengthen the various social sciences an increase the quality an relevance of their output to national evelopent. Fro 1971 to the present tie, it has been trying to achieve this through the following special prograes : the publications prograes (iscusse earlier), thesis assistance grants, grauate assistantship grants, a research training prograe, a national survey research prograe, a research integration prograe, social science awars an a evelopent- oriente r es ear ch prograe. Only in its early years of operation, it alreay has starte to have an ipact on the social science fiel not only through its pursuit of the aboveentione special prograes, but also by proviing the co-orinating echanis for the various social sciences which heretofore have been isolate fro, an have worke inepenently of one another, 111. MAJOR ISSUES AD PERSPECTIVES The foregoing iscussion woul see to inicate that, generally, the social sciences in the Philippines, in their present state, are in a position to ake significant, but liite contributions to the national evelopent of the country. The nee, as well as the expertise to satisfy this nee, exists, but it has to be further evelope quantitatively as well as qualitatively to optiize social science contributions. There is unoubtely a nee to strengthen the social science isciplines. hile each has a core of scientists whose copetence can copare with scientists anywhere in the worl, their nuber is sall. Consequently, their efforts are isperse into too any responsibilities, which it coul be presue inevitably results in a reuction in their overall effectiveness. the eantie, the training of scientists to join this professional pool procees at a painfully slow pace for lack of stuent enthusias, lack of grauate schools, lack of teachers, lack of facilities, an lack of funs. spite of soe of the social sciences being require subjects in the seconary an college level sources, the social science isciplines fail to attract a substantial nuber of stuents. Perhaps this is because a social science egree is not usually perceive as one career which offers the proise of ieiate an rewaring eployent. The stock of Bachelor of Arts courses has gone own consierably in the past ecae relative to other careers, especially the natural sciences. A nuber of stuents take up the course erely as a prerequisite to other courses such as law. This naturally iinishes the pool of potential scholars fro which the social sciences can raw their staff, an ipees their further evelopent in arketoriente schools. Despite the existence of ore than 7 institutions of higher learning in the country, grauate schools for the social sciences are few. The larger private schools concentrate their eforts on such ore "attractive" fiels as eicine, law, business ainistration, an engineering, while the social sciences are left to ore evelopentcoitte schools such as the State University an institutions run by religious orers. But then, even if ore schools wante to offer stuies at the grauate level, it woul be ifficult to evelop excellent prograes in the social sciences ue to the previously-cite constraints. As entione earlier, it is very har to recruit a strong faculty because of their non-availability. Even the alreay establishe schools suffer fro this eficiency because their top social scientists are too occupie-with other atters to accept heavy teaching loas. The local grauates are also hapere by inaequate facilities for teaching. Books an other training aterials are inaequate, particularly those of local authorship which woul be ore 89

89 relevant an oriente towars the Philippine environent. To this ay, especially in soe of the social sciences, foreign literature oinates the textbooks an reference aterials scene, in spite of their biases an inapplicability to the local situation. Facilities for training are likewise sorely eficient. Obviously there are no easy solutions to these probles. Stuent interest in the social sciences, for instance, will have to be evelope over tie, with the upgraing of social science teaching at the seconary an college levels where any isci-, plines are either require subjects or electives, couple with a eonstration of the career attractiveness of the social sciences. Since it woul be ifficult to open up ore grauate schools in the existing schools of higher eucation, the ore appropriate course woul be to upgrae the existing schools in ters of the quality of instruction an their capacity to absorb ore stuents without sacrificing stanars. This coul be achieve by, aong other things, strengthening their faculty an increasing their training facilities. The sening of scholars abroa for avance stuies, which has tapere off after a strong start uring the early post-war perio, shoul continue to suppleent.fhe local grauates, as well as to a to the training an research force. At the sae tie, there shoul be eliberate efforts to keep the professional scientists within the acaeic an research fiels instea of losing an unreasonable nuber to inustry, to the socalle brain-rain, an to fiels other than in their areas of specialization. This coul be one through a prograe of incentives ranging fro ore attractive copensation to ore challenging an rewaring responsibilities. It can be presue that the current heavy workloa of the leaing social scientists is both the result of responsibilities thrust upon the an the benefits that go with such aitional responsibilities. There also appears to be a strong nee to evelop a pool of young social scientists who can act as the workhorses for the research projects being irecte by their senior colleagues. This shoul enable these senior scientists to evote ore tie to teaching as well as research, an to spen tie in the evelopent of teaching aterials which only they, by virtue of their expertise, can evelop. the efforts to strengthen the social sciences, special ephasis shoul be place on the weak isciplines although evelopent criteria such as the r61e they play in the country s evelopent effort shoul be establishe. The evelopent of the social sciences in the Philippines has, to a significant extent, taken on a rather spontaneous character, rather than following a eliberate, well-irecte process. Each iscipline experience a growth which was ore or less inepenent of the others, an the rate of growth was ictate not just functionally, but by the varying interests an coitents of such entities as the learning institutions, foreign governents, funing agencies, an the social scientists theselves. For instance, the isciplines ore favoure by financing organizations grew faster because they concentrate their assistance prograes, such as foreign scholarships, on these sciences. The ore active associations workeharer to get research contracts which le to the faster evelopent of their fiel. eeless to say, such inequities can have negative repercussions, such as, for instance, as regars research engageents which often woul require an interisciplinary approach. The establishent of the PSSC represents a step towars nationalizing this growth tren. More than just a clearing house, it woul assess the status of the various isciplines an gear its assistance prograes towars strengthening the weaker fiels. The irection of social science research in the past has likewise followe a rather iniviualistic path with its theoretical orientation, but it has lately taken a ore purposeful approach in view of its evelopent orientation. However, there continues to exist a certain lack of irection an total approach to the evelopent tasks in which it is to participate. Each fiel appears to be holing an irnportant piece of the research pie, but when these pieces are put together, they o not ake up one whole pie. There are overlaps as well as gaps. The various governent prograes o not appear to be getting their coensurate share of the social science research activities neee to guie an support the. To be sure, any factors account for this; for instance, soe prograe planners feel the nee for social research inputs to carry out their jobs, soe have no bugets for research, an soe coul not fin the necessary personnel for his coponent of the prograe. But principally, it appears that there has not been any concerte effort by the social sciences to present any kin of integrate research prograe aapte to the governent s requireents. On the other sie of the fence, there have not been attepts by the governent an the funing agencies to ientify an integrate their social research nees, allocate responsibilities an resources in accorance with these nees, an contract for the services of research organizations such that all these nees are satisfie. The result is that the governent, the other funing agencies, an the research outfits iniviually seek each other out. tie, perhaps an organization such as the PSSC can step in an provie the necessary irection an co-orination to optiize the contribution of social science research to the national evelopent effort. Be that as it ay, there shoul be a continuing effort by the social sciences to strengthen theselves not only in the area of staff copleent, but also in facilities an in builing up the boy of knowlege in the conuct of research, particularly in the atter of research esign, fiel work, an evaluation techniques. 9

90 IV. REGIOAL AD ITER-REGIOAL CO- OPERATIO The level of evelopent of the social sciences in Southeast Asia toay is such that generally, by theselves, they cannot be expecte to ake a significant ipact in their efforts to contribute to national evelopent. The Philippines, for all its eficiencies an probles in the behavioural fiel, appears to be well-off in respect to its neighbours, perhaps because it ha a heastart owing to its colonial heritage particularly fro the Aericans whose interest in the social sciences le to their introuction an evelopent in the country. All countries, however, continue to suffer growing pains, cause by very siilar probles. The finings of a previously entione survey on the status of sociology in Southeast Asia in regar to the ipeients to its evelopent ay well apply to all social science fiels in the region: lack of traine teaching personnel, eployent opportunities, appreciation by governent of their usefulness, teaching aterials, funs, equipent an co-orination, heavy teaching loa, an few local grauate training prograes. As inicate earlier, the solutions to these probles cannot be expecte to coe about easily. the eantie, their growth continues at a snail s pace, unable to cope with the responsibilities they will nee to shouler as part of the crash, total evelopent efforts of the eber countries of the Southeast Asian counity. One area suggesting a partial solution to soe of these probles, but which as yet has harly been explore, is that of co-operative arrangeents aong the Southeast Asian countries, an between the an the other regions of the worl, particularly those of the evelope countries. Up to this tie, each country appears to be left pretty uch to itself in eveloping its social sciences, although there are any areas of co-operation an collaboration which woul have the effect of expeiting the growth of the social sciences in the participating countries an throughout Southeast Asia. Priarily, the co-operative relationship woul be in the nature of sharing the iperatives for social science evelopent - staff, knowlege, facilities, an funs. There shoul be an exchange of inforation on the social sciences - theories, principles an applications, acaeic curricula, training ethos an aterials, research activities an experiences, research finings, etc. - aong the countries for the utual enrichent of their knowlege about the isciplines. The ultiate goal shoul be a Southeast Asian ata bank, but even at this tie, the process of learning fro the activities an experiences of others woul substantially enrich the social sciences in the various countries without going through the teious, tie consuing an expensive epirical route theselves. The apparent usefulness of the PSSC in the Philippines ay well serve as a oel for a siilar centralize echanis in the other countries. Such an organization can go a long way towars the aterial evelopent of the social sciences, as well as towars serving as an effective linkage instruent with the external social science counities. The liite capabilities of the various coun- tries coul be poole in joint teaching or research efforts the results of which woul be eaningful to the co-operating countries. This has in fact been resorte to in a few cases where research was conucte in specific subject areas using the cobine expertise an resources of the participating countries. The nee for contacts an counication aong the social scientists in Southeast Asia, an with their colleagues in other regions cannot be over - ephasize uner the inforation- sharing schee. This coul be achieve through a nuber of strategies varying fro regional an international conferences to exchange professor prograes to the evelopent of publications for circulation in the Southeast Asian counity. The organization of a Southeast Asian Social Science Council, which in fact, is currently being encourage by Unesco, coul give the social sciences in Southeast Asia - in the iniviual countries as well as in the whole region - the ipetus to evelop at a faster pace than heretofore. 91

91 Frequency an percentage istribution by ost probable occupation of college-boun stuents Occupation uber Per cent Occupation uber Per cent urse, iwife, laboratory technician Engin e er Solier, avy, Air Force Eucation Doqtor, physician Technician, echanic Accountant, auitor Cashier, accounting clerk Clerk, office achine operator Meical technologist, therapist utritionist, ietician Farer, fisheran, hunter Social worker Architect Business proprietor Pharacist Businessan, salesan, buyer Business executive Service worker Diploat, foreign service Governent official Lawyer, juge 51, 39 32,93 22,377 1,11 8,95 8,77 6, 95 5, 966 5,382 5, 19,791,55,53.21,7 3,75 3,738 3,599 2, 92 2,179 2,175 2, Factory worker Priest, inister Artist Dentist Far owner, rancher Scientist Raio-TV announcer Veterinarian rit er, journalist Detective, security guar Librarian Carpenter, pluber, ason Decorator, esigner Transport worker Police, firean Agent, appraiser, exainer Musician Labour er Show business Coputer worker Social scientist Contractor labourer Optoetrist Researcher, statistician Craftsan Coal etal ining worker 2,7 2,5 1,911 1,728 1,66 1, 569 1,59 1,9 1,26 1,23 1,253 1,222 1,112 1,28 1, Source: Verack, Grace E. "Occupational Choices of College-Boun Filipino Stuents", FAPE Review, 197. Funs for Assistance to Private Eucation, Makati, Rizal. 92

92 Table 2 Percentage istribution of eploye egree-holers in ost coonly reporte occupation by fiel of specialization, May 1968 OCCUPATIOS Fiel of Specialization Proprietors Clerical Crafts- Professional Managers, etc. orkers Farers en Others Engineering an technology atural, physical an relate sciences Meical an paraeical sciences Liberal arts, huanities, social sciences, business an eucation All fiels Source: Rayuno, C. G. The Twin Proble of Uneployent an Unereployent. How They Affect the Philippine Professional Manpower, U. P. Population stitute, January Table 3 Selecte on-coercial Social an/or Huanities Research Centres in the Philippines Dilian, Capus ithin the University of the Philippines Syste Los Bafios Asian Labor Eucation Center Counity Developent Research Council Departent of Anthropology Departent of Sociology stitute of Econoic Developent an Research stitute of Mass Counication stitute of Planning stitute of Social ork an Counity Developent Philippine Center for Avance Stuies ational Developent Research Center Social Science Research Council ational Research Council of the Philippines stitute for Sall-scale ustries, Manila Capus College of Public Ainistration Local Governent Center Population stitute Faily Planning Evaluation Office, Population stitute Statistical Center College of Public Ainistration Philippine Center for Econoic Developent stitute of Language Teaching UP at Baguio Center for Research Agrarian Refor stitute Departent of Agricultural Eucation Departent of Agricultural Counication University Extension Center Departent of Hoe Technology Agricultural Creit an Cooperatives stitute (ACCI) 93

93 Table 3 (continue) Counity Developent Center Departent of Forestry Extension Departent of Social Sciences Southeast Asia Regional Center for Research an Grauate Stuy in Agriculture (SEARCA) 33. Philippine Council for Agricultural Research 3. Departent of Agricultural Econoics. Privately Suporte Acaeic stitutions Social Science Research Unit Central Philippine University (Iloilo) Departent of Econoics University of San Carlos (Cebu City) Research Center Iaculate Conc epcion College stitute of Social Orer (Manila) Socio-Econoic Research Center otre Dae University (Cotabato) Research Center, Philippine Christian College (Manila) Research an Developent Center Research Office Ateneo e Davao Office for Research St. Paul College (Tuguegarao) 1. Sillian University Social Science Research (Duaguete) 11. University Research Center Sillian University 12. Office for Social Research University of San Carlos 13. Asian Social stitute (Manila) 1. Center for Research an Counication (Manila) 15. Co-orinate vestigation of Sulu Culture otre Dae of Jolo College Departent of Anthropology University of San Carlos Research stitute for Minanao Culture Xavier University (Cagayan e Oro) stitute of Philippine Culture Ateneo e Manila Grauate School of Arts an Sciences Saint Louis University (Baguio City) Departent of Sociology an Anthropology Ateneo e Manila Ateneo Language Center East Asian Pastoral stitute Research stitute for Minanao Culture Departent of Econoics, University of San Carlos Linguistics Stuies Progra, University of San Carlos Socio-Econoic Research Center, otre Dae University Research an Service Center, Ateneo e aga Sillian University Social Science Research Anthropology Museu, Sillian University Aquinas University Research Bureau Ateneo e Zaboanga Social Research Office Divine or College Research Division Palawan Teachers College Research Center Governent an Other Agencies Supporte by Public Funs 1. Bureau of the Census an Statistics 6. Departent of Econoic Research, 2. Bureau of Agricultural Econoics, Depart- Central Bank ent of Agriculture an atural Resources 7. ational Science Developent Boar 3. ational Econoic an Developent Authority 8. Developent Acaey of the Philippines. ational Manpower an Youth Council 9. atural Museu, Anthropology Division 5. ational Tax Research Center on -Acaeic Privately Supporte Agencies 1. Philippine Business for Social Progress, Philippine Rural Reconstruction Moveent 2. ational Secretariat for Social Action 5. Progra Planning Research Evaluation Office, 3. ternational stitute for Rural Reconstruc- Faily Planning Organization of the Philiption pines 9

94 Table 3 (continue) 6. Davao Action foration Center 1.. Chil Youth an Stuy Center 7. Suna stitute of Linguistics 11, ternational Rice Research stitute 8.. ational Co-orinating Center for the Stuy 12. Otto Jols Scheerer Research Center for an Developent of Filipino Chilren an Philippine Languages Youth 13. Population Center Founation 9. Philippine Center for Language Stuy 1. Philippine Center for Avance Stuies Sources: 1. Hollnsteiner, Mary. "The State of Social Science in the Philippines", PSSC Social Science foration, Vol. 1, o. 1, May, Castillo, Gelia T. The Filipino Social Scientist an Rural Developent. augural Lecture as Holer of a Professorial Chair in Rural Sociology, March 13, PSSC Social Science foration. Vol. 2, os. 1 an 2, Septeber 1973 an August 197. Table Philippine Social Science Journals an Other Journals Publishing Social Science Articles an their Publishers (February, 1972) ae of journal Publisher A. Professional associations Philippine Econoic Journal Philippine Journal of History Philippine Journal of Linguistics Philippine Journal of Psychology Philippine Sociological Review Philippine Statistician Social ork Philippine Econoic Society, Philippine ational Historical Society Linguistic Society of the Philippines Psychological Association of the Philippines Philippine Sociological Society Philippine Statistical Associates Philippine Association of Social orkers B. stitutions engage in social science research Asian Stuies Asian Center, U. P. IPC Papers stitute of Philippine Culture Philippine Stuies Ateneo e Manila University Lipunan (Society) Asian Center, U. P. Philippine Journal of Counication Stuies stitute of Mass Counication, U. P. Philippine Planning Journal Philippine Society of Environental Planners an stitute of Planning, U. P. Sulu Stuies Co-orinate vestigation of Sulu Culture, otre Dae of Jolo College C. University journals (contents general: social science articles occasionally inclue) Dialogue otre Dae Journal Philippine Social Sciences an Huanities St. Louis Quarterly Saar Leyte Stuies Sillian Journal Veritas De la Salle University otre Dae University College of Arts an Sciences, U. P. St. Louis University Divine or University Sillian University University of Sto. Toas 95

95 D. Popular journals Soliarity Soliaria Publishing House Source: Hollnsteiner, Mary. "The State of Social Science in the Philippines, I' PSSC Social Science foration, Vol. 1, o. 1, May,

96 Singapore By Ong Jin Hui University of Singapore I. HISTORICAL BACKGROUD OF THE SOCIAL SCIECES Singapore the evelopent of the social sciences ay best be escribe as being a rather pieceeal affair. The various isciplines within the social sciences cae to be introuce into the eucational prograe uner such isparate circustances that it is ipossible to iscern any coon pattern of expansion. At best, it ay be sai that the introuction of these various social science isciplines have been on the basis of a felt nee which ay be generally labelle as utilitarian. This otivating force, if it can be calle that, has increasingly seee to be a basis for the expansion of the r61e of the social sciences in Singapore. A survey of the isciplines introuce early into the seconary an tertiary eucational prograes will perhaps clarify our point. the early phase of the evelopent of the two universities in Singapore, the notion of a social sciences grouping was never evient in the faculty an epartental organizational structure. At this stage, isciplines which are now recognize as being in the social sciences were inclue priarily in the Faculty of Arts at the University of Singapore an in the College of Arts an also the College of Coerce at anyang University. At the seconary level of eucation, only econoics an geography (incluing eleents of huan geography but ainly physical in orientation) were taught. History was also taught at this level, but it was treate as part of an arts curriculu. Thus, until the early sixties, the social sciences were harly to be viewe as significant eleents of Singapore's eucational prograe. The social sciences that were incorporate into the tertiary institutions were basically one so uner the rubrics of a wie liberal eucation - as part of a package. For exaple, econoics was taught as part an parcel of business anageent, accountancy an banking in the College of Coerce at anyang University. At the University of Singapore, econoics an geography were, like history, part of our arts curriculu in the early phase. The basic reason for this structuring of the arts prograe probably stes fro the fact that these were also the subjects eee suitable in the English universities (on which the University of Singapore was oelle after). Another reason was the nee for seconary school teachers to teach in schools, the curriculu of which, were also inspire by those in the English schools. Thus, prior to 1966, no basis for the separate evelopent of the social sciences was evient. 1966, however, the possibility of a separate evelopent of isciplines in the social sciences seee assure with the foration of the Faculty of Social Sciences at the university of Singapore. At this tie sociology was first offere, together with econoics an political science which were alreay well establishe at the University. Social stuies (later, the Departent of Social ork an Social Ainistration) was also incorporate within this new Faculty. However, this tren towars a istinct evelopent of the social sciences was shortlive a reorganization of two faculties create the Faculty of Arts an Social Sciences. Since that perio, no new isciplines within the social sciences has been ae other than the creation of a sub-departent of Statistics as an ajunct to the Departent of Econoics. This last was ore an ainistrative reorganization than a curricular change. Statistics, prior to this, +as taught by several epartents an it is presue that the creation of the sei-autonoous Departent of Statistics was to provie for centralize instruction. At anyang University, the social sciences continue to be taught within the two colleges. At no tie was a separate faculty fore. ith the eergence of the new Faculty of Arts an Social Sciences, the evelopent of the social sciences was place on a ifferent footing. A perio of ifficulties followe for the social sciences (with the exception of econoics) which seee to ste ainly fro utual isunerstaning of the intentions of both the governent leaers an the 97

97 social scientists. I think a less parochial perspective ight have seen this perio as being less one of governent intervention into scholarly work in the social sciences than one in which eucationas a whole was seen by governent as a contributive eleent in national evelopent. As such the interest in, an the expectations of, the social sciences were no ore unwarrante than an interest say in the eical sciences an their output. Be that as it ay, it nevertheless foreshaowe the future in the expectations that the social sciences (an other isciplines) be ore pragatic an re-. levant in their teaching an research. Currently, the social sciences enjoy varying egrees of acceptance. The future ay very' uch epen on the various social sciences being able to eet the 'relevance' criterion of the governent as uch as that of scholastic stanars. the process it ay be necessary for both sies to recognize that liitations an constraints exist in their expectations of each other. At present, the efinition of the social sciences varies soewhat between social scientists. The University of Singapore efines social sciences to inclue the following: econoics, political science, an sociology. (l) As such it ay see to be a inute selection of the list of core an peripheral social science liste in the Unesco guielines. However, this list shoul be seen in the light of the following: (i) (ii) (iii) Social anthropology, social psychology, eography, criinology an the stuy of religion are taught within the Departent of Sociology. Statistics is taught within the Departent of Econoics. Public ainistration, international relations are taught within the Departent of Political Science. As such, the three isciplines cover a large portion of the core, an soe eleents of the peripheral social sciences on the Unesco list. ters of the unerstaning of what is covere by the ter, "social sciences", general consensus sees to centre on the following as being without question - social sciences. They are: econoics; eography; political science; social anthropology; social psychology; an sociology. About two-thirs of those polle thought that the following areas shoul also be inclue in the social sciences. These were: social statistics; criinology; huan geography; public ainistration; social ainistration an international relations. It will be note that except for huan geography an social ainistration ost of this secon list are part of the curricula in the three ajor social science epartents at the University of Singapore. Other than these areas, only law, history an linguistics receive soe support for inclusion as social sciences. The rest of the areas liste by Unesco were not consiere by any of those polle to be in the real of the social sciences. However, there is one area of social stuy which has not been liste which exist in Singapore which eserves consieration as a social science - social eicine. This epartent has been central in the stuy of the relationships between social variables an eical phenoena. It ay be seen then that, if we take the areas generally consiere to be in the social sciences, the Singapore situation sees to be well in line with the Unesco-liste areas of social sciences. Only law is exclue an this is probably ue to the fact that, in Singapore, the instruction in it tens to the legalistic aspects rather than the sociolegal. Aong those polle, the social sciences see as likely to be consiere as separate isciplines as parts of a whole. They were split own the ile in asserting either situation. The reason ay be that although there is coonality in the isciplines in that they all eal with social behaviour, there is little interisciplinary work being carrie out an also, because counication of research finings between isciplines is inconsequential. The trens seen for the future see to favour the integration of the social sciences as a coon grouping. The future enhanceent of the social sciences ay epen very uch on social scientists being able to eonstrate the benefits of an integrate approach. The interrelationships between isciplines ay best be eonstrate through proble-oriente research. This will at once satisfy the 'relevance' criteria entione earlier as well as eonstrate the ifferential contributions of each iscipline to the unerstaning of social process es. Given the local conception an expectations of the social sciences, the notion of social engineering is not alien to this perspective. For the reason, I think that the lack of well co-orinate interisciplinary research has been a stubling block in the social sciences' contributions to evelopent. Because each iscipline can only provie a liite perspective, a lone-wolf approach to social science research an training cannot result in fruitful work. The nee for co-orination of the research effort is especially crucial when it is note that research funs are liite. As such, eclectic an pieceeal efforts on the periphery of interisciplinary work ay be counterprouctive. Further, even research within a iscipline shoul, to a certain extent, be irecte so that overlaps are inial an funs an anpower are effectively utilize. The evelopent of the social sciences has thus far been ainly on an iniviual basis. Little (1) These are the subjects in which stuents ajor uring the Honours Year (th). See Chapter I1 for ore etails of the egree structure. 98

98 effort has been spent in integration of the interrelate fiels. The future cannot be left to chance if the social sciences are to be effective contributors to Singapore's social an econoic evelopent. 11. ISTITUTIOAL FRAMEORK OF TEACH- IG AD RESEARCH T eachinq ithin the two universities, the social sciences are taught in conjunction with other isciplines at the unergrauate level. As note previously, at anyang they are foun as epartents within the Colleges of Arts an of Coerce (reclassifie Faculties since 1975). At anyang, the subject groupings offere at the First Year level is presente below to eonstrate the structure of teaching at this level an the social sciences currently offere. Group I. Arts: Chinese language an literature Geography Governent an public ainistration History Mass counications Psychology an sociology Group 11. Coerce: Banking an finance Econoics ustrial an business anageent Statistics Group 111. Science: Biology Cheistry Coputer sciences Environental stuies Physical sciences Physics. The first year unergrauate at anyang generally selects three subjects fro s of the three groups an a fourth subject fro one of the two reaining groups. the secon year he continues with these four subjects. the thir year he can opt for any two subjects in the ain group. the Honours Year (th) he ajors in one of these two subjects. It will be note that if a stuent SO wishes, he can select four subjects entirely within the "core" social science isciplines liste by Unesco. There is no separate faculty grouping for a social science specialization as such at anyang. There is also no possibility of obtaining a egree such as the Bachelor of Social Sciences. The Faculty of Arts an Social Sciences at the University of Singapore, espite its soewhat coplex structure, provies basically the sae kin of choice to the unergrauate. Despite the istinction ae between Artsan Social Sciences, the first egree at this faculty is a Bachelor of Arts - even if the grauate has unergone a ainly social sciences curriculu in the three-year perio. o general egree such as a Bachelor of Social Sciences is offere. This egree of Bachelor of Social Sciences is offere only after an honours year (th prograe - i. e. if the subject ajore in that year is in Econoics, Political Science or Sociology. Thus, the unergrauate prograe in the Faculty of Arts an Social Sciences is structure as follows: Bachelor of Arts: 3 years - cobination of Arts an/or Social Science subjects. Bachelor of Social Sciences (Hons): 1 year -ajoring in a Social Science. The Arts an Social Science unergrauate prograe is selecte by the stuent fro the following subjects: Category A Econoics Philosophy Political science Social work Sociology Statistics Category B Chinese stuies English Geography History or history an politics Malay Matheatics The stuents' curriculu is base on a selection of two principal subjects an a inor in a thir fro the two categories of subjects liste above with the proviso that at least one subject ust be taken fro each category. General science is require of all stuents in the faculty. Thus, it ay be seen that the stuent can opt for subjects which are 'core' isciplines in the social sciences by appropriate choices in Category A. Of the four subjects selecte, all are require courses in year one an two. the thir year, three of the four selecte subjects only are require. This three-year prograe leas to the Bachelor of Arts egree which for ost stuents, is their first an only egree. A Bachelor of Social Science (Hons) is only possible for those who are invite to o an Honours Year in the three social sciences available. this fourth year the stuent receives intensive training in either sociology, political science or econoics. (As a parallel to this, those stuents oing a fourth year in Arts subjects receive a Bachelor of Arts (Hons) on copletion of their honours year). So it ay be seen that the social sciences only receive ephasis in teaching/training in the Honours year, by which tie the stuent nubers are extreely sall. The Bachelor of Arts course provies for what is consiere a well-roune eucation. The eleents of social sciences in this curriculu proviing, it is hope, balance an a rooting of the stuents' perspective in social reality. At both universities, the social science isciplines provie basic conceptual an theoretical backgroun as well as training of a ore practical nature through fielwork an acaeic exercises which require rather intensive research work. 99

99 The social sciences can thus play a rather iportant r6le in the universities given the curricucountry's evelopent because of its holistic approach. However, Singapore's social sciences are lu. However, in the survey returns, only about still far fro achieving this stage. a thir thought of the social sciences as being very Going fro unergrauate eucation in the soiportant within the institutions. The rest consiere the social sciences to be less iportant than cia1 sciences to training at the grauate level, we enter an area of greater specialization. At anothers. The question as, to why this isparity of yang University, post-grauate work is conucte views exists is intriguing. The coents ae on within the College of Grauate Stuies which conthe subject see to inicate that there is a perceiv- sists of: e isparity of treatent on the various isciplines stitute of Asian Stuies which ay explain the variance in responses. Eco- stitute of Matheatics noics is seen as receiving extreely favourable ephasis both within the faculty as well as outsie stitute of atural Sciences the university. The other two isciplines, sociol- stitute of Business Stuies ogy an political science, are overshaowe by this It ay be seen that no irect social science classiephasis. Thus, those interviewe felt it ifficult fication is available although post-grauate work to give an overall assessent. ot unexpectely, relate to the social sciences ay be possible withthose in econoics were ore likely to consier in the stitutes of Asian an Business Stuies. At the social sciences as an iportant eleent in the the University of Singapore, however, it is possiuniversities. ble to o post-grauate work leaing irectly to a Given the evelopent orientation of Singapore, M. Soc. Sci. an then a Doctor of Philosophy. ork the ephasis of econoics ay be unerstanable at this level is uner the irection of the Boar of an, whether justifiable or not, the reality is such. Post - grauat e Stuies. y opinion, the question of whether the ephasis Generally, the grauate prograe envisages on an ean for training in econoics is ue to a two-step process fro Masters to Doctorate. evelopental exigencies or governental policies both universities, however, it is possible to conoes not arise because in Singapore, evelopent vert fro Masters to Doctorate on the approval of is practically synonyous with the notion of govern- the proper authorities. At anyang, the Master of ent. fact, it is only within this frae of refer- Arts is aware for a grauate specializing in one ence that an unerstaning of evelopent of the of the social science isciplines. At the Universisocial sciences is possible. ty of Singapore a ore specific egree - Master of The iportance of the social sciences epens Social Sciences - is offere. hile both universiultiately on the overall planning strategy. At the ties offer a Ph. D. prograe, the University of oent econoics is oinant priarily because Singapore has been the ain institution where work it is a key factor in planne evelopent. Other is one at this level in the social sciences. The social phenoena that are associate with evelop- grauate prograe varies between epartents ent, but unplanne for (an often, seeingly un- an universities. However, the ain portion of expecte) becoe the subject of concern for its sis- work at either Masters or Doctorate level is the ter isciplines. Thus, sociology coes to be per- thesis. Course work ay be inclue, but generalceive as a possible source of ai in unerstaning ly are reaing courses uner the supervision of the an resolving a social proble like rug abuse supervisor or specialist in the area. As a whole, which have been associate with the rapi evelop- the post-grauate prograe is patterne after ent. The expectations of sociology in this pers- the British syste with its ephasis on the thesis pective is reflective of the utilitarian concept of as a ajor coponent of the training. tertiary eucation. It is expecte that training in o professional schools relate to the social sociology will prouce anpower an research sciences exist in Singapore. Given the current finings which can be utilize in prograe iple- structure of ean for traine personnel, an exentation an the policy-aking processes of gov- pansion of the School of Business Ainistration ernent. This ephasis on social probles woul an Accountancy is not unlikely. Further, the enot be etriental if the so-calle "non-relevant" phasis on econoics ay proote expansions in areas were not also relate to proble areas but, this area also. This ight lea to lopsie evelas social scientists are painfully aware, the notion opent of the social sciences acaeically, but, of a segente social process is an ipossibili- as note previously, the exigencies of evelopent ty. (1) The anger of highlighting only specific a- has been the prie otivational force in the ereas for stuy lies in the liiting of perspective. velopent of the social sciences, an it is not A situation which ay be counterprouctive in likely to ecrease in the ieiate future. ters of contribution to solutions for the probles at han. The various isciplines shoul be allowe to evelop all coponents an to train the stuent for breath in perspectives. this context, an in- (1) 'Relevance' in training an research in the tegrate social science perspective woul probably local context tens to be efine in ters of ake an even ore significant contribution to the the existence of a social proble orientation. 1

100 ~~~~~~~~~~~ ~ ~~ ~ Table 1 university of Singapore Social Science Manpower Acaeic Year o. of B. Soc. Sci. grauates * Total Stuent population Faculty size of the whole university a o. of Stuents reaing sociology o. of stuents reaing political science o. of stuents reaing econoics *uber now in Honours year of Social Sciences. Social science anpower The stuent population in the social sciences is a ifficult figure to present accurately. Data on stuent enrolent exist, of course, but the structure of social science epartents in the two universities prevents a clear earcation. As note earlier, the social science epartents at anyang University are locate in the Faculty of Arts an of Coerce. Stuents take a cobination of SOcia1 science subjects plus arts or coercial subjects. Siilarly, at the University of Singapore for the first three years uner the Bechelor of Arts prograe, there is no ifferentiation between social sciences an arts, although, it is possible for unergrauates to specialize in social sciences is - ciplines. Because of the cobination of subjects possible, the University of Singapore registers stuents by faculty rather than by subjects specialize in. As a result, social science an arts stuents are lupe together in one category. anyang University stuents were registere by principal epartents until This forat peritte easier assessent of social science anpower output until 1975, but create probles of its own for the following reasons. First of all, recors kept by the Registrars of the two universities are thus not useful irectly, but perit only relative coparisons. Seconly, although stuent enrolent in the social sciences at the University of Singapore ay be obtaine for each epartent, these figures cannot be totalle (because of the overlaps in subjects taken) for coparisons against the entire stuent population, as for exaple, when a ratio is sought. ithin the liits of these constraints, available ata for both Universities are given in the accopanying tables. General coents will be ae regaring the trens an relative. ifferences by epartents etc. taking each university in turn. Estiates of anpower output will be base on these tables. The starting year of 1969 was chosen because the Faculty of Arts an Social Sciences was establishe that year at the University of Singapore. It was also the first an last year in which the egree of Bachelor of Socia Science (with& without honours) was offere. (13 This together with the structure of the faculties ar,e ajor factors in aking coparisons an assessent of anpower output ifficult. The perio stuie was a perio of stabilization with no ajor changes in acaeic prograe or faculty structure. The anyang figures cover the sae perio for coparison purposes. For the perio prior to 1969, other eans for estiating anpower are consiere later. Taking the University of Singapore first in Table 1, it ay be seen that for the perio there has been an increase in stuent intake of approxiately 2,. (A 56 per cent increase over the stuent population). the Departents of Sociology an Econoics, a siilar or larger proportional increase has taken place. The (1) Refer to Chapter I for etails of the Faculty structure changes between 1966 an 1969 in the University of Singapore. 11

101 Departent of Political Science has however seen a 8 per cent rop in its enrolent over the sae perio. The faculty size for the whole university has fluctuate treenously uring the perio an we are now only slightly above the 1969 figure. The current ( ) faculty to stuent ratios for each epartent are as follows: Econoics 1 :38 Sociology 1 :7 Political science 1:18 Table I1 shows the istribution by year of stuy for each of the isciplines over the perio an also eonstrates the relative interest in the various social sciences. The fluctuating nuber of grauates with a Bachelor of Social Sciences egree (in Tables 1 an 2) nees soe brief coents. As note earlier, the Faculty of Arts an Social Science was fore in 1969 an cae into operation in the session. this new faculty structure, the first three years lea to a Bachelor of Arts egree. Only when a fourth year (Honours) is coplete within the three social sciences is a Bachelor of Social Sciences aware. Thus, 1972 is the first year of this awar. The years also ha Bachelors of Social Sciences, but these were on the ol threeyear unergrauate prograe in effect uring the perio when a Faculty of Social Sciences existe. During this perio, the curriculu was only a three-year prograe. An honours egree was aware to those who i very well in these threeyear courses. Thus, the suen rop in social science egree holers in 1972 ust be consiere within this frae of reference. The figures for the perio inclue general egree holers who were nevertheless Bachelor of Social Science holers. After 1971, only those who have one an honours year (th) in the social science will be aware a Bachelor of Social Sciences. Honours stuents are generally liite in nubers, no ore than a fourth of the grauating thir year stuents - thus the treenous 'rop' in output seen in the first row of Table 1. These changes contribute to aking coparison an estiations a very coplex one. Totalling the figures fro Table 1 for grauates with a Bachelor of social Science (with or without Honours) for the perio , the output of social science grauates is thus approxiately 7 in nuber. However, before an after 1972, the nuber of stuents who have ha training in at least one of the three social sciences - sociology, econoics an political science - uner the Bache- lor of Arts prograe is very large an cannot be easily estiate. Absolute totals cannot be given but the nuber of stuents reaing any one of these subjects is very large, an inclues practically all the stuents in Arts an Social Sciences faculty in each year. this context, it shoul be note the ost favoure cobination of principal subjects in the Faculty of Arts an Social Science is econoics an sociology. aition, prior to 1968, there were any traine in econoics an political science. An estiate of stuents with soe or coplete, training in the social sciences prior to the perio uner stuy is ifficult given the coplexity of the faculty changes that have taken place. Acaeic Year Sociology Yr. I Pol. Science Econoics Sociology Yr. I1 Pol. Science Econoics Sociology Yr. I11 Pol. Science Econoics Sociology Honours Pol. Science Econoics

102 Table 3 anyang University Social Science Manpower Social science* stuent population registere Acaeic Year st Year n Year r Year Honours Total in Soc. Sci. Total stuent population *Social Science - inclues governent an. public ainistration; ass counication, psychology an sociology an econoics. Unoubtely, training in econoics ust have been oinate because of its early inclusion in the Arts curriculu. Data on stuent enrolent in social science subjects in anyang University is given in Table 3. ote that the social sciences have been efine to inclue governent an public ainistration; psychology an sociology an econoics an ass counications. The figures for anyang's social science enrolent is available by Major epartent of the stuents until the session. this last session, aission was by 5rculty. so only Arts or Coerce or Science fa: ty totals were available. As such the figure for s-uents in the First Year of the session has been exclue because it woul inclue subjects in the Arts/Coerce faculties which are not uner stuy. The other figures in Table 3 are those for enrolent by year of stuy an stage in the prograe. Each cell represents the nuber of stuents ajork i n the social sciences - inors are not inclue in these counts. As such, the figures perit us to ake coparisons between social science stuents an the others. Over the perio , there has been a fluctuating social science enrolent. As ay be seen, the output of Honours an thir year general egree holers is sall in coparison to siilar output for the University of Singapor e. Fro the available ata on stuent enrolent, an estiate of traine anpower in the social sciences is alost ipossible. The ifficulty here is one of efining the level of training that can be consier e sufficient. Seconly, the ultiplicity of curricula ix that the stuent can select an the structure of the faculties akes it ifficult to ifferentiate an Arts fro a Social Science stuent. If the efinition of "traine anpower in socialsciences" is liite pnly to those whose whole acaeic work centre only on the social sciences (so efine for each university) a conservative estiate of the social science anpower ight be in the region of 2, uring the years of analysis. The aition of a 5 per cent estiate for the years prior to this perio for the two universities woul only increase the anpower level in the social sciences to about 3,. (1) Of these, it is estiate that anyang contribute approxiately 1, to the pool of social science grauates. Given that this estiate of the anpower ay be in error by as uch as 2 per cent, the following shoul be taken with ore than a pinch of salt. First of all the University of Singapore (University of Malaya until 1962) prouce soe 28, (1) These estiates are base on the thir year figures for anyang University. For Singapore University, the perio of ha social science only grauate. These are use as averages for projections. As ay be expecte no reliable figures exist for overseas traine social science anpower - so this eleent is not inclue in the estiates above. 13

103 grauates fro 199 till The estiate 2, social science grauates is only 7 per cent of the output of University of Singapore. This fining shoul, however, be consiere in the light of the fact that the social sciences only becae ore establishe in the late sixties. the perio , anyang University prouce soe 8, grauates. The estiate nuber of social science grauates is thus approxiately 13 per cent of its output. However, it shoul be note that anyang's social science epartents were establishe fro its inception. Also, anyang has fewer epartents than the University of Singapore. On the whole, an estiate of 1 per cent social science grauates in the total output fro the two universities is probably not unwarrante. As regars utilization of social science anpower, the following suarizes the finings fro a nuber of unpublishe reports on job opportunities for University of Singapore social science grauates. Their experiences probably reflect that a uch better picture of grauate eployent exists for the than for grauates of anyang University. A ajor reason for this ifference being that the egrees conferre by anyang University were not recognize by the Singapore Governent until May general, ost of the social science grauates fro the University of Singapore have foun jobs for which their training has been relevant. One of the stuies inicate that a ajor portion of those polle estiate a 7 per cent or higher job relevance in relation to their eucational training. The social science grauates cannot, of course, be copare to say, pharacy or ental grauates, where it can be expecte that all of the will fin 1 per cent job relevance with regar to training receive! ters of opportunities for eployent ost, of the grauates have foun eployent within six onths (ost of the in three onths). Those grauates with an Honours egree fare better in ters of obtaining quicker eployent. ters of average incoe, there is an initial incoe avantage for the Honours grauate, but there appears to be a quick closing of the gap by general egree holers in later years. The social science output tens to be quite well sprea out in ters of eployent. hile in any one year the tenency is that two out of three grauates are taken up by the public sector - the ratio for social science grauates ten to be about one in three. The rest are eploye in the private sector. Copare to Arts an Science grauates, the social science grauates ten less to epen on entering the teaching prcfessions (governent) for eployent. Those who o enter governent service see ore likely to be absorbe into research units or ainistrative post where the incoe is uch above the average. Thus, on the whole, the social science grauates are holing their own on the job arket.. Further training ight help the, but this is only possible where the eploying institutions have career avanceent prograes. Thus, grauates in soe Statutory Boars ay be sent abroa for training after a perio of eployent an these constitute, at present, the only eans of expansion of their capabllities. However, a source of 'training' which shoul be note is on-the-job training by expatriate experts. These are experts brought in by any public boies to help with evelopent plans (also one by private inustries although here involving technological aspects) an as such provie highly specialize training for grauates within such boies. Asie fro the training provie by the universities on-the-job or abroa, the other sources of social science activity are liite. These ainly take the for of various societies with liite stuent eberships such as the econoics, sociology an political science societies within the universities. These are unergrauate organizations which are partly social an partly acaeic in nature. Soe of the o publish annual agazine] bulletins which inclue aterial on the social scienc es. At the professional level, the nuber of organizations of relevance to social scientists are few. As Cheng(1) has note previously, the following sees to be the only existing boies: (1) Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society (2) South Seas Society (3) Singapore ational Acaey of Sciences () Econoic Society of Singapore. A ove has been ae recently for a professional organization for sociology an it is expecte that registration of the boy will be applie for in the next year or so. The Royal Asiatic Society is in a sense a legacy inherite fro the colonial perio. The South Seas Society, foune by Chinese intellectuals, has,been an iportant organization concerning itself with the huanities an social sciences for soe two ecaes. It has publishe journals an reviews. The Singapore ational Acaey of Sciences is open to all sciences incluing the social sciences. Except for these boies, only the Econoic Society of Singapore exists as a specialize organization. It pub- lishes the Malayan Econoic Review...? The existence of such boies can ai in the expansion of social science activities, but it oes epen on the interest in ebership. At present, ost of the interest is expresse by acaeics an very little fro outsie of this circle. The inclusion of ebers of governental an statutory bo- ies in such organizations woul serve to give the a practical orientation. The possibility of such (1) Cheng, Siok Hwa, "Singapore" in Atal, Yogesh (e. Social Sciences in Asia, ew Dehli, S. M. Abhinav, p. 1

104 organizations acting as a foru for exchanges between practitioners an acaeics is soething which shoul be carefully consiere. Currently, inistries or statutory boies ay prouce inhouse publications relate to the social sciences, but these are never wiely circulate to perit the cross -fertilization of ieas an opinions. Seconly, while the setting up of specialize professional boies for econoics an sociology are useful at soe point, consieration shoul be given to the avantages of affiliation of these boies uner an integrate Social Science Association. This woul perit better co-orination an provie a ore effective eans for contributions to society. hile the nuber of professional boies is liite, the nuber of publications through which acaeic exchange can be ae is quite large. The following is a list of the available publications in the fiel of social sciences which are publishe in Singapore. Journals : Econoic Developent Boar - Annual Reports Econoic icator s, Singapor e Journal of Tropical Geography Journal of S.E. Asian History Supersee by Bulletin of S. E. Asian History Supersee by Journal of S. E. Asian Stuies Journal of South Seas Society Malayan Econoic Review anyang Quarterly anyang University Journal Singapore Bulletin Singapore ternational Chaber of Coerce Econoic Bulletin. Singapore stitute of Manageent Bulletin Singapore Manager (Official Journal of the Singapore stitute of Manageent) Singapore Statistical Bulletin South East Asian Journal of Sock Sciences South East Asian Journal of Socioiogy Suara University Journal aition, working papers are publishe quite regularly by the Sociology Departent at the University of Singapore, the stitute of Southeast Asian Stuies an the Econoic Research Centre. Such working papers are preliinary rafts eant for iscussion before being finalize for publication. (') Thus there exist nuerous channels for exchanges of ieas an research finings espite the lack of professional organizations. ee, the statutory boars an epartents are taking the place of associations in co-orinating an publishing papers an organizing seinars. Thus the lack of professional boies has not been as consequential as it otherwise ight have been. However, Unesco an other agencies coul assist in the setting up of such professional organizations which woul probably be ore efficient in these activities since they woul not have to be concerne with research an teaching uties as are the staff ebers of the various institutions. Also Unesco or siilar boies coul encourage exchanges between practitioners an acaeics to tap, what I consier, an iportant source of energy for future growth. Research The conuct of social science research is carrie out by nuerous boies in Singapore. They consitute, however, a rather loosely-knit network, an there is no co-orinate research prograe. A survey of the various research units suggests the following classifications of types. 1. University-base units Departental, an ulti-epartental re - search 2. University-relate units Statutory boars : (a) Econoics Research Centre (b) stitute of Southeast Asian Stuies (c) Regional stitute of Higher Eucation an Developent () Asian Mass Counication Research an foration Centre 3. Governental units Research units within (a) Ministries (b) Departents within inistries such as CID; Social elfare, etc. (c) Statutory boars such as: Econoic Developent Boar Faily Planning an Population Boar Housing an Developent Boar stitute for Eucation Jurong Town Corporation ational Statistical Coission People's Association Tourist Prootion Boar. Coercial research units Mainly in arketing research, but quite often tie to research projects conucte by university an governent-relate consultants. clues the following: Applie Research Corporation Asia Research (Pte) Lt Consensus Consuer Research S.E.A. Frank Sall an Associates IMS Asia. (Pte.) Lt. Market Research (Pte. Lt. Spectru Singapore Lt Survey Research Singapore (Pte) Lt Survey Services (SI Pte' Lt Trans Market Research (1) 7 to 8 per cent of these are generally publishe in professional journals at a later ate. 15

105 ters of university basefrelate research (i. e. categories 1 an 2). the work generally one is by researchers who are theselves priarily intereste in the area uner stuy. The epartental research an that in the stitute of Southeast Asian Stuies is priarily scholarly in nature. The Econoic Research Centre (ERC) tens to o ore research an collation work with policy iplications being closely associate with governental units an boies. Thus, in ters of ipact of social science research, the ERC is probably in the ost favourable position to contribute to national evel-. opent.' There is no specific university-wie institution to proote integrate social science research at this tie. Category 3, we have the governental research units. As is usual, ost inistries an epartents have statistical units to keep track of recors. Tie to these units are often research units of varying egrees of sophistication. Priarily, work is one in the for of collation of aterials, i. e. seconary analysis of atafstatistics collecte in the noral functioning of the epartents/inistries/boars. these epartents, we see an increasing nuber of social science traine personnel an a growing use of such anpower in survey research, as well as in evaluation prograes of the areas within the province of these epartents/inistries/boars. Such research work, which goes beyon the collecting of routine ata, has provie an increasing inforational base on isparate subjects ranging fro crie an elinquency to ajustent to new housing estates. It is in such units that the contribution of social scientists can ake itself felt irectly in ters of provision of ata an unerstaning of social phenoena. The research work in such units is highly specialize an, unfortunately, often classifie. AIthough basic research ay be carrie out at ties, the tenency is towars action research. category, the coercial research units are generally arket-oriente. Although the large organizations have ha fiel work fare out to the, their work has not ha a great eal of ipact on the evelopent of the social sciences. They are, of course, a source of eployent for social science grauates, but essentially they are no ore than research technicians in such organizations. A note shoul be ae regaring the Applie Research Corporation at this point. It is not a arket research firas such but a non-profit organization. Its work ranges fro inustrial consultancies to projection of future nees for various agencies. It is a quasi-governental boy with the express purpose of bringing local expertise to work on evelopental nees an probles. Many of its consultants are fro the tertiary institutions in Singapore. Thus, the ARC ay be a channel through which social scientists ay ake contributions to the various aspects of inustrialization an urbanization. social science research in Singapore, ost of the work one in the university epartents is basic research although the call for 'relevance' has le to an ephasis of work on such proble areas as housing, rug subcultures, eucation an other siilar topics. As such, the ata gathere an the conclusion reache ay thus for an epirical base which ight contribute to future policy ecisions. As note previously, the Econoic Research Centre is probably ost action-oriente in its research of the various university research units. The governental units are ainly concerne with collation of ata for prograe an policy ecisions an is ainly action-oriente. Soe of the work is at the operational level however. The lack of wiesprea publications on this work by the various governental units has liite possible contributions by other social scientists, who ight have foun useful ata in the. Thus, on the whole, the ivision of research orientation between governent an non-governent boies is rather arke. Of the acaeicians interviewe, the tenency in research sees to be within a single iscipline an even within a sub-specialization of their iscipline. As questionnaire returns were incoplete, it is ipossible to give figures for research by iscipline, or by fiel of application. A ajor obstacle for social science research in Singapore is the question of funing. Although ost of those surveye receive funs, etails given were very sketchy. The aount of the funs receive will not be provie here because of incoplete inforation. The priary sources of funing are as follows: Asian Mass Counication Research an foration Centre (Singapore) Asia Founation (Singapore) Econoic Research Centre (Singapore University) Faily Planning an Population Boar (Singapore) For Founation (Bangkok) Frierich-Ebert-Stiftung (Singapore) Har var - Y enching stitute stitute of Huanities an Social Science (anyang University) stitute of South East Asian Stuies (Singapore University) ternational Developent Res ear ch Centre (Singapor e) ternational Labour Organization (Geneva) Lee Founation (Singapore) anyang University Regional stitute for Higher Eucation an Developent (Singapore University) Rockefeller Founation (USA) Shaw Founation (Singapore) Singapore Governent Ministries /Boars Singapor e University U Agencies The above list of ajor organizations proviing funs for social science research inicates the wie range of sources. However, it shoul be 16

106 note that soe of these sources have restrictions on the research areas to which their funs ay be applie. Most of these sources of financial support evelope uring the last ecae. The larger founations such as the For, Asia, Rockefeller an the Frierich-Ebert-Stiftung have provie the ain external sources of support. Locally, the Shaw an the Lee Founations have been the ajor contributors. Soe of the funs fro the larger founations ay also be channelle through local institutions - for exaple, the Asian Mass Counication Research an foration Centre is essentially supporte by Frierich-Ebert-Stiftung. The other various statutory boar such as the stitute of South-East Asian Stuies are partly supporte by governent funs an partly through private contributions. Most of these institutes were establishe because of the nee to fill in the gaps of inforation an unerstaning of social processes in Singapore an in the region LAJOR ISSUES AD PERSPECTIVES Chapter I, the notion of national evelopental nees for a pragatic an relevant eucational curricula was first broache. this chapter, this issue will be expane upon as a central thee. However, it shoul be reiterate that this frae of reference is equally applicable to the evelopent of other eucational areas in Singapore. ith that caveat expresse, we can now procee to suarize the present position of the social sciences SO that future trens ay be ore easily relate to the present. The present position ay be best suarize in a nuber of stateents: (1) The social sciences have contribute to Singapore society in both teaching an research, but the areas are liite rather than wie-ranging. (2) The percentage of anpower traine has not been large but has been, in general, effectivelyuse. (3) Econoics has been in a ore favourable position than the other social sciences. () The evelopent of the social sciences in the two universities ay be constraine by the fact that they are incorporate within large faculties an not groupe together as an inepenent social science faculty. (5) Training at the unergrauate level is sufficient an well-hanle, but the probles are ifferent for grauate training. The proble here is one of absorption of the post-grauate output in a sall country such as Singapore. (6) Research has been wie-ranging although constraine by the nee for relevance. general, the research which is fune by non-governental agencies tens ore towars basic research. (7) terisciplinary research is liite at this tie. (8) Funs, although liite, have not copletely rie up espite the econoic ifficulties. (9) Social science research has been utilize, or has influence policy-akers to quite a large egree. (1) The present position of the social sciences is reasonably soun. Given the proper evelopent, ore use coul be ae of the social sciences. ithin this context of social science achieveent, we can look into the several questions raise about the ajor issues an perspectives for its evelopent in Singapor e. sofar as a governental "policy" for the social sciences can be iscerne, it is basically one of prooting effective contributions to national evelopent. The ajority of those polle sees not to have perceive nothing ore specific than that. A nuber entione the general tenency of the governent to expect ieiate returns in training an research work. This stipulation of a practical orientation in research is possibly the only guielines offere an perceive by the social scientists. Relate to these notions of practicality in eucation is the singling out of econoics as an iportant iscipline in national evehpent an thus accounting for its current ore favoure position. However, the utility of the various social sciences (as is acknowlege) sees to be easure in ters of their actual, rather than potential contributions. At issue then is whether the expectations of the social sciences an the assessent of their capabilities are base on a soun unerstaning of these isciplines. AS is usual in such cases, the liitations in the perspectives of those on both sies of the fence have contribute to a further confusion of the issue relating the worth an effectiveness of the social sciences an those traine in its isciplines. Fro the vantage point gaine uring the course of this survey, I think it fair to say that the contributions of each of the social sciences is generally recognize an their utility accepte. Those who have been involve in consultancies with governental units can testify to that. However, although the social sciences are efinitely not seen as ccpletely beyon the pale, neither are their contributions quite at the level of social engineering that sees to be eane of the. or is there unquestione acceptance of their conclusions. The future of the social sciences woul therefore epen partially on the breaking own of the existing counication probles between the acaeics an the practitioners. This ay be accoplishe by fostering an unerstaning of the liits of social science capabilities as well as the areas of copetence. A eans by which exchanges ight be effecte through the organization of seinars which woul be attene by acaeics, public an private sector ecisionakers in orer to ientify proble areas, an the solutions require. Research finings coul be reporte an iscusse at these seinars. The governent's provisions for the social sciences are not istinguishe fro those ae for the natural science. As note earlier, anpower 17

107 training shoul be seen in the light of the general national evelopent nees. The entire eucational syste is geare towars this en. However, within this frae of reference, it is true that priorities are set which influences the final aounts provie for various eucational an vocational areas. ters of the country's nees for social science anpower, the provisions see aequate. Given the evelopental nees, a case ay be ae, however, for expansion for training in econoics. The current institutional structure coul, of course, be rearrange to group the various isciplines within a single faculty which woul perit a ore focuse evelopent of the social sciences. But this ove shoul be consiere in the light of Singapore's size an potential. hile increases in social science anpower, an better training facilities ight be encourage by such restructuring, there is also the proble of quick saturation of the arket. the light of this factor, I think the present base for teaching is aequate. Research, although sufficiently fune, woul be significantly enhance by an injection of funs. Given the present priorities, it is likely that such funs woul have to coe fro external sources. The final issue to be iscusse is the utilization of research. Tie to this is the question of whether social scientists are able to play a part in the country's general econoic an social evelopent. The research which is ore likely to be utilize is of course that coissione by governent agencies. As such, these ten to be probleoriente research. These contributions by social sciences is ainly through the provision of an epirical basis for policy ecisions. hile any of these reports-generally inclue also recoenations base on the finings, the political frae of reference ay be an overriing factor. As such, the ajority of the social scientists contribute through a liite for of evaluation research. Basic research, insofar as funs are obtainable, has not often been perceive as being,irectly relevant to evelopental nees. the survey three questions were pose: (a) Are the institutional provisions for the utilization of social science research aequate? (b) Assuing no obstacles exist, to what extent can the social scientist contribute to Singapore's general econoic an social evelopent? (c) Epirically, to what extent has the social scientist contribute to this evelopent? Most of those interviewe thought that utilization of social research is inial; that the soc!al scientists can contribute greatly to evelopent, but that they have actually only ae a oest contribution. The few who see a very bright picture see to have been those actively involve in governent consultancies. The reality is probably soewhere in between these two perceptions. If the proble-oriente research of the "in-house" social scientsts are taken in consieration, it can be sai that both social science teaching an research have contribute in wie-ranging areas to the social process in Singapore. Those who feel they have ae no irect contribution shoul consier their inirect input through those they have traine. If the ain contribution of the social sciences can be ost effectively seen in evaluation research an proble clarification, so be it. evertheless, basic research shoul not be neglecte. It requires, however, a ore iaginative approach to incorporate basic research eleents into "relevant" research. consiering the future of the social sciences, it is necessary to take into account the requireents an expectations place on it by a fast eveloping socio-econoic syste. A viable oel of social science activity of the future is one in which training an research are seen as cuulative in a situation where knowlege of social processes becoes a societal factor. The social sciences, if they are to expan in Singapore, ust provie the basis for the expansion of this howlege. The social science oel of the future is, therefore, base on a treenous expansion of its current activities. The configuration which woul ost efficiently provie for this lies in interisciplinary work in evaluative research, proble of clarification an ientification. Such a oel woul require the existence an co-orination of a social science institution which is base on the assuption that it is an integrate whole an not iniviualistic isciplines. this context, it ay be that the biggest obstacles to the social sciences ight be the social scientists theselves. Their training has been overly specialize even within their own fiels. This has le to the usual counication ifficulties between stuents of social processes. The fact that the ean for the output of the various social sciences has been lopsie was further coplicate by enlarging the breach. A sall country such as Singapore has a very unique requireent of its social scientists - that they be not specialists but general practitioners. The reason for this arguent is siple - social probles are never single iensione but always ulti-facete. a sall country, interaction between these various facets is likely to be even ore intricate an ifficult to unravel. Siply put, we o not have any hoogenous socio-econoic areas on which the specialist can concentrate. The social scientist in Singapore has to be capable of hanling all aspects of the proble. The capability to aapt an unerstan varie probles quickly requires soeone whose perspective is not constraine by overspecialization. part, the lack of contributions ay be ue to this wish to reain within the reals of one's specialization, an to work only with what is failiar. 18

108 There are several transitional steps to be taken between the present an the future oel of social science activity. The first ight be a reconsieration of an inepenent faculty of social sciences. This is not absolutely necessary, because uner the present structure it is possible for a stuent to specialize in social science fro his first year of stuies. It is suggeste priarily because the existence of special training prograes woul lea to a ore well-roune grauate. Uner the present structure, the stuent's tie ay be too uch taken up by non-social sciences requireents thus liiting the courses he can take. ith an inepenent faculty, it woul be possible to evelop special courses such as the use of coputers in social ata analysis; arranging for practical sessions within outsie research units; an siilar training prograes. But this is only possible if ore tie is available so that ore courses can be given. Uner the present structure, the liitations on the nuber of specialize courses are as uch the result of a lack of anpower as of the liite nuber of hours in a ay to scheule these classes. A secon requireent for the future is the expansion of the training of social science stuents to ake the proficient an knowlegeable in research an other practical work. Uner the present StrUCture, only honours year stuents are require to o fielwork in the for of anacaeic exercise. This ay be the earliest an only tie when they can obtain practical training. y view, the eucational prograe of social scientists can parallel those foun in engineering epartents by requiring practical training on the job. This woul groun the acaeic prograe firly in epirical reality an, at the sae tie, prepare the social scientists for their future jobs. The iea of practical training is not as new as ight be thought - the Departent of Social ork has alreay ipleente such practical prograes. The encourageent of interisciplinary work an unerstaning shoul also %e conucte at this stage. At present, unergrauates in the two universities can an ust sit in on courses in at least two isciplines. These courses are, however, taught within each iscipline's frae of reference an no interisciplinary courses are available. hile exposure to the separate an ifferent isciplines is invaluable, the stuent woul benefit ore if he coul see the iplications the ifferent perspectives offere by two or ore isciplines for each proble. If, an when well co-orinate social science courses can be offere, I think we woul quickly see a evelopent towars an integrate social science oel. conjunction with these attepts at enhancing social science capabilities, there ust be a parallel effort at counicating the liits an capabilities of the social sciences in ters of their contribution to national evelopent. Here, a anger exists in the possibility of overstateent of the capabilities in an effort to sell the package; so an inepenent agency ay best act as "cultural broker", to eploy Geertz' terinology. (1) Seinars coul provie the acaeics an practitioners with knowlege of each other's nees an capabilities. The nee for a continuing eans for interchange was felt by those who were polle. Publications are also useful, but their success epens on their reaching the right eyes an not being restricte to liite auiences. The final eterinant of a successful transition fro the present oel to one of active contribution by the social sciences is ebee in the proble of the sociology of knowlege. The social sciences are by their nature ore than a positivistic an interpretative oel, it ust also be a critical one. (2) Knowlege base on social scientific activities is likely to be controversial an political. any society, the clai to knowlege (even if falsely base) questions the status quo of soe group. The fact that the knowlege claie is of social processes eans that the nuber of groups affecte by that clai is boun to be large. a eveloping society, such clais to knowlege ay easily run counter to the assuptions on which the plans for socio-econoic evelopent are base. As such, the group ost irectly effecte by the work of the social scientists is the governent. It is the reaction of this group which eterines the future of the work of the social scientist. The political philosophy by which a governent operates, the pattern of its political power, an the current stage of evelopent are all key factors in shaping its reaction to the social science. a stage of evelopent where the exigencies of the situation are seen as requiring a fir controlling han, the social scientist ay be heavily constraine in his research an publications. This is not necessarily ue to a istrust of hi so uch as that in the ability of those affecte to ispassionately view the conclusions of the stuy. The priary proble facing the social scientist in such a situation is one of balancing social responsibility against acaeic responsibility. The seconary proble is to convince the authorities that the research work an the researchers are positively ientifie with the evelopental ais of the nation. Given the context in which they are to take place, the steps to these goals have to be any sall ones, an carefully taken. (1) Geertz, Cliffor. "The Javanese Kijaji: the Changing R61e of a Cultural Broker". Coparative Stuies in Society an History. Vol (2) "Critical" as iscusse in Brian Fay's alternate oel. Social Theory an Political Practices, Allen an Urwin,

109 IV. REGIOAL AD ITERATIOAL CO- OPERATIO The possibility of co-operation, regionally an internationally, in the evelopent of the social sciences greatly epens on the stage of evolution reache by participating countries. As far as Singapore is concerne, it ay be on par, or slightly ore avance, than its neighbours. This is a purely personal conclusion an is base on the knowlege that, post-grauate stuents fro neighbouring countries have foun Singapore University suitable for further training. However gratifying this ay be, Singapore is, nevertheless, still far fro being a social science centre. As such, regional co-operation in social science evelopent ay be no ore than a joint effort at pulling each other up by their respective bootstraps - a ifficult process uner noral circustances, an even ore coplex atter when the socio-political systes are so isparate. evertheless, it is possible to share knowlege an expertise while leaving each country to evolve its own patterns suitable to the social structure of which it is a part. Thus, cooperation shoul ainly be in training of social scientists, collaboration in research an sharing of ata an exchange of personnel. On no account shoul any attepts be ae at shaping the character or the position of the social sciences in each country. hen, an if, the capability an the utility of the social sciences is recognize in the work of each country's traine personnel, that proble will take care of itself. The fors of regional an international cooperation between social scientists in the various isciplines epen on the perspectives they hol. How they locate theselves at the regional an international level an the strength of these relationships are significant factors in the types of cooperation possible. ters of the fraes of reference of the local social scientists, there sees to be two basic patterns. The first is regional in basis. This revolves aroun the countries in this region an, given the political situation, it effectively eans the ASEA countries. This regional frae of reference is base on the acceptance of the fact that, espite socio-cultural an political ifferences, there is a sufficient coonality of interest in the social processes an the probles of national evelopent an that uch ay be gaine fro cross -cultural coparisons an exchanges of personnel an ata. Geographical contiguity has facilitate contacts an exchanges an the current prootion of the ASEA concept has ae interaction that uch easier. At the international level, the local social scientists are ost likely to locate theselves within the acaeic circles in which they receive their post-grauate training. general, this eans Australia, the Unite Kingo, the Unite States an Canaa. The tenency for areas of specialization to exist in soe countries has resulte in ientification by isciplines with these countries. For exaple, sociologists ten to ientify theselves with the acaeic circles in the Unite States while social anthropologists ten to o the sae with those in the Unite Kingo. It is thus priarily a function of grauate training, an any tenency of a particular iscipline to be ore evelope in any one country. The above generally epicts the fraes of reference of local social scientists in locating their work within regional an international acaeic circles. The regional ientification is as uch a recognition of coon interest as it is an acknowlegeent of geographical contiguity. Thus any of the social scientists have been or thought it likely that they woul be, associate in research work in collaboration with colleagues fro ASEA countries. It woul see, however, that this ientification is balance by the ties to the international syste. Most of those who replie to the survey inicate that while they have subitte papers to local or regional publications, they ten to look to the international boies an journals of their isciplines as the final arbiter of their acaeic copetence. Most of those who subitte papers to such international journals gave as their reason for oing so, the reason of prestige. ters of the social sciences in Singapore, the Unite States an the Unite Kingo are probably ost influential in this sense. This relation is also evient in the reports of ebership of professional social science organizations; of countries in which sabbaticals are ost likely to be spent; of countries in which conferences have been attene. ters of ai which ay be provie on an international basis to evelop the social sciences, there are a nuber of areas in which this ay be effecte. Besies the all-iportant research funing nees, provision for the following are suggeste: 1. Library aterials - all fors. 2. Coputer prograes - for exaple, the statistical package for the social sciences an other specialize population/econoic tren analysis packages. 3. Specialize equipent - punchers, sorters, verifiers an collators, icro-coputers for ata analysis an stuent training. Specialize training prograes for local social scientists - both within the university an outsie. Sponsorship of acaeic staff training prograes to octoral levels after the first egree. the areas of international an regional collaboration, those surveye were of the opinion that joint projects within one country, an coparative stuies between countries shoul be consiere the ost iportant areas for evelopent. Personnel exchange was rate a close thir. A secon group of areas for collaboration inclue exchange of publications, sharing of specialize libraries an the 11

110 setting up of joint avance training prograes. Data banks were not high on the priorities of those surveye. The concentration of efforts shoul thus priarily be in research an training followe by support facilities. the areas of collaboration, we shoul, of course, inclue the general fors of international ai iscusse earlier. Presuably, an international agency coul fun joint projects which woul bring expertise into collaborative research efforts with local social scientists intereste in a particular proble. This woul provie for researchan training at the sae tie. Siilarly, the evelopent of software in the various institutions coul be sponsore by international agencies with a view to eventual istribution to eveloping organizations. ters of cost-effectiveness, such exchanges an istributions are probably the ost iportant in social science research. Once evelope, the software packages can be easily transitte as tape or listings an ocuentation for these 'canne' prograes can be cheaply uplicate by the co-orinating agency. The availability of sophisticate an specialize packages is an iportant factor in a situation where harware is becoing reaily available but prograing expertise inial. The nee for such co-orination of evelopent an exchange is especially great in view of the large nuber of an-hours spent in the evelopent of even siple packages. It is sheer waste for each coputer facility to evelop such packages when they ay alreay exist at soe other institutions. Soe training prograes ay also bring regional an international institutions into effective collaboration. ost cases, the staff of the various institutions an universities have ha rather specialize an, in soe cases, liite training. -~ However, the eans of evelopental prograes are such that a general practitioner is neee in a liite anpower situation. Given such a nee for flexibility, joint training prograes woul benefit all participating countries in ters of a ivision of the financial buren carrie as well as through the exchange of experiences The kins of training prograes which can be share range fro urban to rural projects; fro technological to social-base stuies; an fro eucational to governental nees. The existence of a co-orinating tea for such projects within an international boy such as Unesco will o uch to facilitate atters. Collaboration in social sciences evelopent through provision of assistance for staff-evelopent is now quite well-establishe. One such prograe is the Coonwealth Acaeic Staff Scholarships for training of junior staff. These have peritte a epenable expansion not subject to the vagaries of applicants' interests an specializations which ay not ovetail with the institutional nees. Ientification of locals capable of benefitting fro like evelopent prograes is, of course, crucial. Thus, it is ifficult to separate the question of international assistance fro that of collaboration in social science evelopent. A policy for evelopent ust touch siultaneously all bases. Although this ay be ifficult, the benefits are interactive an cuulative, an thus worth the effort. Given an intensive prograe of ai, it is certain that the social sciences in Singapore can greatly expan their contribution. Ultiately, it epens on the existence of coitte social scientists who can work within the social fraework to foster the nascent trens establishe in the last ecae. 111

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