2 Objectives Describe the colonists political heritage. Explain the colonists reaction to new taxes. Describe the methods the colonists used to protest British taxes. Understand the significance of the First Continental Congress in 1774.
3 Terms and People Stamp Act 1765 act by Parliament that placed a tax on all printed materials John Adams Massachusetts lawyer who championed colonial independence Patrick Henry Virginia colonist who demanded Give me liberty, or give me death. Sons of Liberty Patriot associations that protested against British taxes nonimportation agreements colonial boycotts of British goods following the Stamp Act
4 Terms and People (continued) Boston Massacre the 1770 shooting of five Boston citizens by British soldiers committee of correspondence provided leadership and cooperation between colonies Boston Tea Party 1773 Patriot protest against British tax on tea; Patriots dumped British tea into Boston Harbor Intolerable Acts colonial label for the Coercive Acts punishing Boston after the Boston Tea Party
5 Terms and People (continued) First Continental Congress 1774 meeting of colonial delegates to protest the Intolerable Acts
6 What caused the colonists to rebel against the British? Colonists enjoyed military protection, profits from trade, and political rights as British subjects. When Britain imposed taxes, colonists protested. These protests grew into rebellion and eventually turned into war.
7 In the 1760s, colonists cherished their rights as Englishmen. Due process of law Freedom of the press Trial by jury Protection from foreign attack
8 But, by modern standards, Britain was not very democratic. Wealth and birth determined power and status. There was no formal charter outlining citizen rights. Only a quarter of British males could vote. Parliament claimed virtual representation allowing it to make laws for all British subjects.
9 In contrast, the colonies were quite democratic. Most colonies had elected assemblies. These charters outlined individual rights. Colonial assemblies controlled royal governors by withholding their salaries if displeased. Most males could vote for their assemblies but none could vote for members of Parliament.
10 Comparing British and Colonial Governments Great Britain King Inherited executive power Parliament House of Lords Aristocrats with inherited legislative power House of Commons Elected by the few wealthy property owners American Colonies Governor Appointed by the King but paid by colonial legislature Colonial Legislatures Upper House or Council Prominent citizens appointed by the governor Lower House or Assembly Elected property owners about two-thirds of colonists
11 After the French and Indian War, Parliament decided to tax the colonists. The war raised Britain s debt. Defending the colonies was expensive. People in Britain already paid higher taxes. By collecting taxes and paying royal governors directly, Parliament could take control away from the colonial assemblies.
12 New taxes caused colonists to shout No taxation without representation! Sugar Act (1764) assigned customs officers and special courts to collect taxes and prosecute smugglers. Quartering Act (1765) required colonists to provide housing and supplies for British soldiers. Stamp Act (1765) taxed printed materials such as newspapers, books, and contracts.
13 Parliament rejected colonist complaints by claiming: Parliament represented, and could tax, any subject. Other citizens couldn t vote but still paid taxes. The revenue was necessary. The colonists could afford to pay their share. The colonists were selfish and narrow-minded.
14 Colonists protested in 3 ways: Intellectual Economic Violence Argued that government is a social contract with citizens. Advocated natural rights including life, liberty, and property. Daughters of Liberty wore homespun only. Nonimportation agreements called for a boycott of goods from Britain. Rebels tarred and feathered tax collectors. Mobs destroyed governor s home and assaulted royal officials. Boston Tea Party dumped British tea into harbor.
15 Colonists held the Stamp Act Congress (October 1765) and boycotted British goods. Parliament repealed the Stamp Act but replaced it with the Townshend Acts (1767) that taxed glass, lead, paper, paint, and tea. Boston rioted against corrupt customs officials and seizure of John Hancock s boat Liberty. The governor dissolved the Massachusetts legislature and 4,000 British troops were sent to Boston.
16 In March 1770, British soldiers fired at a Boston mob, killing five. Patriots used this Boston Massacre to incite and organize colonists.
17 Parliament repealed the Townshend Acts except for the tax on tea. Parliament gave the British East India Company a special deal that made its tea cheapest in the colonies. In protest, in 1773 Boston Patriots dressed like Indians and dumped the tea into Boston harbor.
18 Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish Boston. Closed the port of Boston Quartered soldiers in Boston homes Increased the governor s power at expense of legislature Allowed British officials to be tried in Britain Colonists formed committees of correspondence to coordinate protests against these Intolerable Acts.
19 In 1774 the First Continental Congress met in Philadelphia. Patrick Henry demanded, Give me liberty, or give me death. Most still hoped the king would side with them against Parliament. Some, like John Adams, believed a new country was being born.
20 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz
21 Section 2
22 Objectives Explain why fighting broke out to begin the American Revolution and the response of the Second Continental Congress. Describe the Loyalists view of the Patriots. Analyze the impact of Thomas Paine s Common Sense. Assess why Congress declared independence and the ideas underlying the Declaration of Independence.
23 Terms and People militia a civilian group that trains as soldiers to serve in emergencies Loyalists colonists who remained loyal to Britain during the Revolution Second Continental Congress colonial delegates who met in Philadelphia in May 1775 to organize a bigger fight against the British Continental Army volunteers who supported the Patriot siege of Boston and were put under control of Congress
24 Terms and People (continued) George Washington Virginian chosen to command the Continental Army Thomas Paine author of the pamphlet Common Sense that proposed independence Declaration of Independence 1776 document that explained the reasons for American independence from Great Britain
25 Terms and People (continued) Thomas Jefferson Virginia patriot and main author of the Declaration of Independence natural rights Enlightenment idea embodied by the Declaration of Independence that all men have rights which governments cannot take away
26 What events led the colonists to declare their independence from Britain? In 1776, colonists made three important decisions: To declare their independence To choose a republican model of government To confederate the thirteen colonies into the United States of America Their strength surprised and changed the world.
27 In early 1775, Boston Patriots responded to the Intolerable Acts John Hancock and Samuel Adams organized a Provincial Congress to run Massachusetts. The Patriots began to stockpile weapons and ammunition in towns outside of Boston. Colonial militia calling themselves minutemen began to organize.
28 The Revolution began on April 19, Redcoats marched toward Concord to seize weapons and ammunition. In Lexington, they met colonial militia. The Redcoats killed eight minutemen. Marching on to Concord, the British met hundreds of armed Patriots in a skirmish. As the Redcoats marched back to Boston, the Patriots killed or wounded 200 of them.
29 Aroused by the events at Lexington and Concord, thousands of Patriots surrounded the British in Boston.
30 Provincial assemblies seized control in the other New England colonies while colonial militia pinned down British troops in Boston. In May 1775 the Second Continental Congress met in Philadelphia to take control of the fighting. As volunteers arrived in Boston, George Washington was chosen to command the new Continental Army.
31 Congress made one final attempt at reconciliation in July The Olive Branch Petition was sent to Britain reaffirming allegiance to King George, but not Parliament. The petition was rejected. Britain responded by sending more troops.
32 Not all colonists favored independence. About one-fifth remained British Loyalists. Some believed Britain was too powerful to beat. Some feared a loss of business and income. Some feared abuse from lawless Patriots. Some resented Patriot taxes and militia demands. Native Americans feared settlers moving westward. Many slaves hoped for freedom under the British.
33 Paine depicted the king as an enemy of liberty. Thomas Paine s pamphlet Common Sense crystallized colonial ideas in early He called for a republic where opportunity is based on merit not on inherited privilege. He said the government should be elected by the common people. Paine reinforced the Enlightenment idea that all men have natural rights.
34 In the spring of 1776, Congress selected a committee to declare, and explain reasons for, independence. So Thomas Jefferson drafted the Declaration of Independence. Congress approved it on July 4, It stated that All men are created equal.
35 The Declaration was organized into four sections: The Preamble stated the reasons for writing the Declaration. The second paragraph stated the purpose of government to protect people s rights. Then came a long list of grievances against the King. The final paragraph actually declared independence.
36 The signers pledged, our Lives, our Fortunes, and our sacred Honor. Just as Patriots tore down this statue of the king for bullets, the signers of the Declaration knew there was no turning back.
37 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz
38 Section 3
39 Objectives Explain the advantages the British held at the start of the war, and the mistakes they made by underestimating the Patriots. Describe the frontier war. Evaluate the major military turning points of the war.
40 Terms and People William Howe British general whose mistakes resulted in many British deaths at Bunker Hill mercenary soldier for hire Battle of Trenton surprise victory by General Washington in December 1776 Charles Cornwallis British general defeated at Princeton and later forced to surrender at Yorktown Battle of Princeton 1777 Patriot victory that came on the heels of Trenton
41 Terms and People (continued) Saratoga American victory in New York (1777) that led to alliance with France Marquis de Lafayette French nobleman who assisted Washington Benjamin Franklin ambassador to France who persuaded the French to aid the Americans Valley Forge Pennsylvania camp where Washington s army spent the harsh winter of Monmouth defeat of British troops after their evacuation of Philadelphia in June 1778
42 What factors helped the Patriots win the war? The Patriots needed to overcome a powerful empire with nearly four times their population. The Colonists were: 20% Loyalists plus 20% slaves plus many who remained neutral
43 The odds were against the Patriots. Britain Well-organized, long established government. Produced many more ships and weapons. British troops were well trained and supplied. Colonists Continental Congress just starting out. The Continental Congress had no money nor authority to tax. Continental soldiers were cold, hungry, and poorly equipped.
44 British commanders made major mistakes. British generals didn t take Patriots seriously. The British battle tactics were unsuited for fighting in America. The hiring of brutal Hessian mercenaries angered colonists. The British failed to see that the real struggle was for the hearts and minds of the citizens.
45 British commander William Howe made a costly mistake at Bunker Hill. To show British invincibility, he ordered a frontal assault. The Redcoats took the hill, but they suffered heavy casualties. In early 1776, cannons captured by Continentals at Fort Ticonderoga were dragged to Boston to fire on the British. They soon evacuated.
46 Howe s overall strategy included three objectives: Defeat the Continental Army on the battlefield. Capture the seaports to block trade. Capture the capital of Philadelphia. The British attained all three objectives but still lost the war. No matter the setback, the Patriots kept on fighting.
47 George Washington didn t win many battles but he kept the Continental Army intact. He only fought when conditions were favorable. He inspired his men despite extreme hardship.
48 The colonists endured despite hard times. The Continental Congress could only pay farmers and soldiers with paper money, causing inflation. The British blockade meant shortages of goods. Some profiteers sold items at inflated prices. Washington s troops spent the cold winter of at Valley Forge. There was disease and hunger; a third of the men were without shoes or coats.
49 Thomas Paine s The American Crisis essays provided inspiration. The Continental Army kept the British occupied, allowing local militia to suppress Loyalists in the countryside.
50 Women played an important role as well. Wives and daughters made blankets, clothing, and shoes for soldiers. Some wives followed the men into battle, cooking, washing clothes, and maintaining the camp. At Monmouth, Mary Hayes, known as Molly Pitcher, was said to have replaced her fallen husband at a cannon.
51 Forced out of Boston in 1776, the British took New York and forced Washington to retreat across New Jersey. Washington counterattacked with a surprise Christmas night raid on the Hessian mercenaries in the Battle of Trenton. Washington then inflicted heavy casualties on General Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.
52 In October 1777, British General John Burgoyne invaded the Hudson Valley from Canada. He fell into a trap at Saratoga. Thanks to Benedict Arnold, the Patriots won. France decided to form an alliance and send troops.
53 Britain s European enemies sent assistance. Benjamin Franklin persuaded France to send supplies and, after Saratoga, troops and a navy. French nobleman Marquis de Lafayette volunteered to help Washington. Baron Von Steuben, a German, volunteered to train and drill Washington s men in The Spanish in New Orleans kept the British from entering the Mississippi River in 1779.
54 In 1779, the British and the Iroquois attacked outposts in northern New York. The war moved west. Colonists burned 40 Iroquois villages to break the power of the Iroquois Confederacy. In the Northwest, Colonel George Rogers Clark and French allies captured key British posts. Americans were in control of the Ohio River Valley when the war ended.
55 Fighting on the western frontier impacted relations with Native Americans. Settlers moving west of the Appalachians led to skirmishes with the Native Americans. Native Americans sided with the British and attacked colonists all along the frontier. Settlers ignored truces and killed neutral Indians. Hostilities continued long after the war ended.
56 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz
57 Section 4
58 Objectives Assess why the British failed to win the war in the South. Describe how the British were finally defeated. List the terms of the peace treaty. Explain how the war and the peace treaty affected minority groups and women. Assess the impact of the American Revolution on other countries.
59 Terms and People Kings Mountain 1780 battle in South Carolina where Patriots crushed a Loyalist militia Yorktown final major battle of the Revolution, where a large British army was forced to surrender in October 1781 Treaty of Paris 1783 peace treaty that officially ended the American Revolution and recognized American independence manumission to voluntarily free a slave
60 What did the Revolution accomplish, and what ideas did it set in motion? For the first time, overseas colonies rejected their empire in favor of creating a republican union. The Patriots defied conventional wisdom and aimed to create a more equal society.
61 The British won most of the battles and captured southern seaports: Savannah captured in 1778 Charlestown captured in 1780 Patriots crushed at Camden in 1780 Despite these victories, the British lost popular support in the South.
62 Britain won battles but failed to control the southern countryside where Patriot and Loyalist militias fought a brutal civil war. In October 1780, Patriots crushed a Loyalist militia at Kings Mountain and executed many prisoners. Over time neutral civilians came to blame the British for chaos in their lives and joined the Patriots.
63 In 1781, Nathanael Greene and Daniel Morgan inflicted heavy losses on the British at Cowpens, South Carolina, and Guilford Courthouse, North Carolina. British General Cornwallis grew frustrated as the countryside became more anti-british. He gave up on the Carolinas and headed north toward Yorktown, Virginia.
64 In July, Cornwallis was trapped on a northern Virginia peninsula at Yorktown. On October 19, 1781, Cornwallis was forced to surrender his 8,000 man army to Lafayette and Washington.
65 Washington was lucky. The French fleet arrived in time to trap the British.
66 The American-French victory at Yorktown led to the end of the war. After seven years of fighting, the British were tired and sought peace with their former colonists. In 1783, Benjamin Franklin negotiated the Treaty of Paris that officially recognized American independence. Franklin gained more territory for the United States than the Americans actually won on the battlefield.
67 How could the powerful British Empire lose? The British underestimated the Patriots and thus made tactical mistakes. British generals misunderstood the political need to capture the hearts of the people. The Patriots were highly motivated. The Patriots received assistance from France. The Patriots had the shrewd leadership of George Washington.
68 The Treaty of Paris recognized American independence. But Women gained few political or legal rights. About 90,000 Loyalists became refugees. Some resettled in Canada. Many African Americans were re-enslaved and sent to the British West Indies.
69 Native Americans were ignored by the treaty and abandoned by Britain. Frontiersmen forced Native Americans to sign treaties and took huge tracts of land. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix (1784) The Treaty of Hopewell (1785) By 1790, more than 100,000 settlers lived on former Indian lands in Tennessee and Kentucky.
70 The Revolution inspired many slaves to demand their freedom. In the North, some slaves petitioned or sued for freedom. Thousands of African Americans volunteered to fight the British. In the South, some planters voluntarily freed their slaves in an action called manumission. However, southern whites feared black reprisals. The Revolution led to emancipation in the North but not the South, where slaves were a third of the population.
71 The American Revolution inspired other revolutions around the world. First was the French Revolution in Others followed in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. The American Revolution changed the world.
72 Section Review QuickTake Quiz Know It, Show It Quiz
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