1 Unit #1: Foundations of Government Chapters 1 and 2
2 Principles of Government Chapter 1
3 Chapter 1, Sec 1 What is Government? Government is the institution through which a society makes and enforces its public policies. Public policies are all of those things a government decides to do such as, taxation, defense, education, etc. What must Government have to enforce these policies?
4 Chapter 1, Sec 1 Who has the Power? Every government exercises three kinds of power (what is power?): Legislative Power Power to make laws Executive Power Power to enforce the law. Judicial Power The power to interpret laws.
5 Chapter 1, Sec 1 How are powers defined in our government? The powers of a government are found in the constitution. A constitution is the body of fundamental laws.
6 Chapter 1, Sec 1 Who s really in Charge? The ultimate responsibility for the exercise of power is done in 2 ways: Dictatorship A single person whose rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people. Democracy The responsibility for the exercise of power rests with the majority of the people.
7 What is a State? Chapter 1, Sec 1 The State, or country, must have all of the following attributes: 1. Population = Number of people 2. Territory = Recognized boundary 3. Sovereignty = Supreme authority 4. Government = Organized politically
8 Major Political Ideas Chapter 1, Sec 1 Many have questioned the origin of the state. What set of circumstances first brought into being? Four theories have emerged
9 Major Political Ideas Chapter 1, Sec 1 Force Theory: One person or small group claims control over an area and forces all within it to submit to their rule.
10 Major Political Ideas Chapter 1, Sec 1 Evolutionary Theory: The state developed naturally out of the early family. The oldest male naturally governed the family.
11 Major Political Ideas Chapter 1, Sec 1 Divine Right Theory: God created the state and God had given those of a royal birth the divine right to rule.
12 Major Political Ideas Chapter 1, Sec 1 Social Contract Theory: People agreed to give up to the state as much power as needed to promote the safety and wellbeing of all. The state exists only to serve the will of the people.
13 Chapter 1, Sec 1 What does government do? Let s look into the Preamble to the Constitution: We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general Welfare, andsecure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
14 School House Rock
15 Rewrite the Preamble! Do you know what the Preamble actually means?! Your task is to rewrite the Preamble so it can be read for students next door at Camp Creek! Make sure to include all parts of the Preamble Be creative in your choice of words! Final copy needs to be on white paper and make it look nice! =)
16 Forms of Government Chapter 1, Sec 2 Democracy In a democracy, authority rests with the people. There are two types of democracy: 1. Direct Democracy 2. Indirect Democracy
17 Direct Democracy A direct democracy, also known as a pure democracy, exists where the will of the people is translated into law directly by the people themselves. Chapter 1, Sec 2 Direct democracy can only work in small groups or communities.
18 Indirect Democracy Chapter 1, Sec 2 Indirect Democracy, or Representative Democracy, is where a small group of persons are chosen by the people to act as their representatives. Ex: United States
19 Dictatorship Chapter 1, Sec 2 Dictatorship is the oldest, most common form of government and those who rule cannot be held responsible to the will of the people.
20 2 Types of Dictatorships 1. Autocracy Chapter 1, Sec 2 A government in which a single person holds unlimited power. a) Totalitarian Dictatorship b) Monarchy (King or Queen) 2. Oligarchy A government in which the power to rule is held by a small, usually self- appointed group of elites.
21 Geographic Distribution of Power Chapter 1, Sec 2 There are 3 basic forms of government depending on where the power to govern is located. 1. Unitary Government 2. Federal Government 3. Confederate Government
22 Unitary Government Chapter 1, Sec 2 A unitary government is a centralized government where all powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency.
23 Federal Government Chapter 1, Sec 2 A federal government is one in which the powers of government are divided between central and local governments.
24 Confederate Government Chapter 1, Sec 2 A confederation is an alliance of independent states. Ex: The Southern States during the Civil War.
25 Chapter 1, Sec 2 Relationship Legislative/Executive There are two forms of government depending on how the legislative and executive branches of a government relate. 1. Parliamentary Government 2. Presidential Government
26 Parliamentary Chapter 1, Sec 2 Government In a Parliamentary Government, the executive is made up of a Prime Minister and his Cabinet. The Prime Minister is the leader of the majority party in the parliament.
27 Presidential Chapter 1, Sec 2 Governments In a Presidential Government, there is a separation of powers between the executive and legislative branches. The two branches are independent of one another, and co-equal. The chief executive is chosen independently of the legislature and has powers that are not subject to the direct control of the legislative branch.
28 Basic Notions of Democracy The American concept of democracy rests on these 5 notions: Chapter 1, Sec 3 1. Worth of the individual a) Dignity and worth of the individual is the overriding principle in democratic thought.
29 Basic Notions Cont. Chapter 1, Sec 3 2. Equality of all Persons a) All people are entitled to equality of opportunity and equality before the law. b) The government works to create equal opportunity for its people, not necessarily equality.
30 Basic Notions Cont. Chapter 1, Sec 3 3. Majority Rule, Minority Rights a) Government s decisions are to be made by majority rule. b) The constitution ensures that the rights of the minority are not eliminated. c) The democratic process searches for satisfactory solutions, not always the right or best answer.
31 Basic Notions Cont. Chapter 1, Sec 3 4. Necessity of Compromise a) Compromise is the process of blending and adjusting competing views of interest.
32 Basic Notions Cont. Chapter 1, Sec 3 5. Individual Freedom a) Democracy does not and cannot insist on complete freedom for the individual. b) Absolute freedom can exist only in a state of anarchy. Anarchy = Total absence of government.
33 Economic Systems Chapter 1, Sec 3 There are three common forms of economies employed by governments: 1. Socialism 2. Communism 3. Capitalism
34 Socialism Strives for social and economic equality for all members of society. Karl Marx laid the foundation for socialism. Government owns the basic means of production such as industries. Chapter 1, Sec 3
35 Communism A collective with state ownership of land and other productive property. Ideas come from Karl Marx s free classless society. Needs a strong central government that plans all parts of the national economy. Chapter 1, Sec 3
36 Capitalism Chapter 1, Sec 3 Entrepreneurs use land, labor, intelligence, and capital to produce goods and services. Private ownership, individual initiative, profit and competition are the fundamental elements. Creates a mixed economy in which the government intervenes to promote and regulate the economy.
37 Origins of American Government Chapter 2
38 Basic Concepts of Government Chapter 2, Sec 1 Earliest English settlers brought with them the knowledge of a political system from England. Based on rich political history, the English colonists brought to North America three ideas that end up shaping our government.
39 Chapter 2, Sec 1 Basic Concepts of Government 1. Ordered Government: orderly regulation of their relationships with one another. Sheriff s Office. Grand Jury, Justice of the Peace, Coroner s Office 2. Limited Government: Government is restricted in what it may do & each individual has certain rights the government cannot take away. 3. Representative Government: serve the will of the people.
40 Chapter 2, Sec 1 Landmark English Documents Magna Carta A document that King John was forced to sign as a means of limiting the monarchy s power. Important principles of the Magna Carta Trial by Jury. Due Process of the Law. Power of the Monarch was not absolute.
41 Chapter 2, Sec 1 Landmark English Documents Petition of Right Parliament forced King Charles I to sign the petition in order for Parliament to allow the king the ability to tax Important principals from the Petition of Right. The king could no longer imprison or punish anyone without judgment by peers. The king could not impose martial law (military rule) during times of peace.
42 Important principals from the Petition of Right. Petition of Right Cont. The king could no longer imprison or punish anyone without judgment by peers. The king could not impose martial law (military rule) during times of peace. The king could not require homeowners to shelter the king s troops without their consent. No man should be required to pay a tax unless the tax was approved by Parliament. Divine right of kings is now being challenged!
43 Chapter 2, Sec 1 Landmark English Documents English Bill of Rights Drawn by Parliament in 1689 to prevent abuse of power by the monarchy. Important principles from the English Bill of Rights: Prohibited a standing army during peacetime without consent of Parliament. All changes in laws must be approved by Parliament. Included guarantees as right to fair trial, and freedom from excessive bail and from cruel and unusual punishment.
44 Chapter 2, Sec 1 English Colonies The 13 American colonies were established over a span of 125 years. The first colony, Virginia, started with Jamestown in Georgia was the last of the original 13 colonies after the establishment of Savannah in 1733.
45 Chapter 2, Sec 1 English Colonies Each colony was first established on the basis of a charter. Charter = A written grant of authority from the king. There were 3 different kinds of colonies:
46 Royal Colonies Chapter 2, Sec 1 The Royal colonies were in theory subject to the direct control of the king. The King appointed a governor and an advisory council. Advisory Council was known as the upper house. Lower House was elected by property owners qualified to vote. Laws passed approved by governor & crown.
47 Proprietary Colonies Chapter 2, Sec 1 Proprietary colonies were organized by a person whom the king gave a grant of land. -The land could be governed however the proprietor chose. -The proprietor chose the governor. Maryland & Delaware=Bicameral Pennsylvania=Unicameral
48 Charter Colonies Chapter 2, Sec 1 Charter colonies were given a grant directly to the colonists (Rhode Island, Connecticut). -The colonies were self-governing. -Governors were elected by white, male property owners. -King s approval was required, but often was not often asked. -Very liberal for their time!
49 Charter Colonies Chapter 2, Sec 2 Charter colonies were given a grant directly to the colonists (Rhode Island, Connecticut). -The colonies were self-governing. -Governors were elected by white, male property owners. -King s approval was required, but often was not often asked. -Very liberal for their time!
50 Chapter 2, Sec 2 The Coming of Independence With England over 3000 miles away, the American colonies were used to a large measure of self-government. By 1760 King George III began to deal more firmly with the colonies by taxing them England believed the colonies were only good for their economic impact. The colonies objected because they claimed this was taxation without representation.
51 Chapter 2, Sec 2 Colonial Unity In 1754 Benjamin Franklin came up with the Albany Plan of Union. It was to be an annual convention of delegates from each of the 13 colonies. The delegates agreed to the deal but it was rejected by the King.
52 Colonial Unrest Chapter 2, Sec 2 In 1765 Britain imposed the Stamp Act. Stamp Act A law that required the use of stamps on all legal documents. Nine colonies made a strong protest against the Stamp Act making this the first time a significant number of the colonies opposed the British Parliament.
53 Boston Massacre Chapter 2, Sec 2 The Stamp Act was repealed but new laws were enacted worse than before. Organized mobs were assembled to harass the British troops. On March 5, 1772, the British killed 5 Boston Massacre.
54 Boston Tea Party Chapter 2, Sec 2 Many colonists began boycotting English products including tea. On December 16, 1773, men dressed as Native Americans boarded ships and dumped tea into Boston Harbor known as the Boston Tea Party.
55 Chapter 2, Sec 2 First Continental Congress The British passed new and harsher laws to punish the colonists for the troubles in Boston called the Intolerable Acts. These Acts led to the First Continental Congress which met for two months debating what to do. The Congress sent a Declaration of Rights to King George protesting the King s policies.
56 Chapter 2, Sec 2 Second Continental Congress On April 19, 1775, the revolution began with the battles at Lexington and Concord. The Second Continental Congress was called on May 10 this time as America s first national government. They named a committee of 5 Ben Franklin, John Adams, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston, Thomas Jefferson to write a declaration of independence.
57 Declaration of Independence Chapter 2, Sec 2 The Declaration of Independence was mostly the work of Thomas Jefferson. It was adopted on July 4, 1776 which proclaimed the colonies the new United States of America. It was founded on the principle of consent of the governed.
58 Articles of Confederation Chapter 2, Sec 3 The Articles of Confederation were created to unite the former colonies. The individual states were to keep their Sovereignty, freedom, independence, every power, jurisdiction and right, not expressly delegated to the United States. The only powers given to the United States were for defensive purposes.
59 Articles of Confederation Chapter 2, Sec 3 Weaknesses in the Articles of Confederation: -Congress had no power to tax the states. There was no establishment of an executive or judicial branch. -Congress had no power to regulate trade between the states. -The Articles of Confederation could only be amended with the consent of all 13 states.
60 Chapter 2, Sec 3 Shay s Rebellion Shays' Rebellion between New England farmers and merchants threatened to plunge the "disunited states" into a civil war. The rebellion arose in Massachusetts in 1786, spread to other states, and culminated in the rebels' march upon a federal arsenal. The end results were a more popular governor, an economic upswing, and the creation of the Constitution of the United States in Philadelphia.
61 Creating the Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 4 The Philadelphia Convention began on May 25, The convention was only called to revise the Articles of Confederation.
62 Creating a Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 4 Virginia Plan: -Called for a new government with three separate branches: Legislative, Executive, Judicial. -Could veto any state law in conflict with national law. -Allowed to use force, if necessary, to make a state obey national law. -Congress would be bicameral (2 houses) with representation based on population.
63 Creating a Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 4 New Jersey Plan: -Keep a single branch of government with equal representation of each state -Congress would have limited powers to tax and regulate trade between the states. -Create a Federal Executive of more than one person chosen by Congress.
64 Creating a Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 4 The Connecticut Compromise: -The question of how should the states be represented needed to be answered. -Congress would be made up of two houses: Senate States equally represented House Representation based upon population.
65 Creating a Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 4 Bundle of Compromises: Three/Fifths compromise: All free persons should be counted as one; all other persons counted as three/fifths of one person. Commerce and Slave Trade compromise: Congress was forbidden to tax a state s exports and forbidden to act on slave trade for 20 years.
66 Ratifying the Constitution Chapter 2, Sec 5 Federalists vs. Anti-Federalists: Federalists argued that the country would be better off with a new constitution. Anti-Federalists objected over the ratification process, absence of any mention of God, denial to print money. Ratification = 9/13 states
67 Ratifying the Constitution Much of what is known about the constitutional meetings comes from James Madison s notes. James Madison (4 th President) became the floor leader during the convention. Known as the Father of the Constitution.
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