1 National Assessments on Gender and Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) Scorecard on Gender Equality in the Knowledge Society Overall Results, Phase One September 2012
2 Overall Results The European Union as a composite ranks first overall, and first or second in every dimension. This is a remarkable result, considering the wide variation among countries in the EU in terms of social support, GDP, and promotion of STI. The United States ranks second overall, but 5th in health, agency, social status. Its high status overall comes from its primary ranking in the opportunity and capability and the knowledge society decision-making dimensions educational levels of women and positions in private sector and science decision-making levels. It comes in second in economic status and access to resources. The US ranks lowest in enabling policies. While it ranks higher in other sectors, this finding indicates that a more favourable policy environment for the US could be an important strategy towards addressing economic competitors in other parts of the world and a strategy for regenerating economic growth after the economic crisis of Brazil ranks the highest of the remaining countries, coming in above even the Republic of Korea. It is third overall, first in women's participation in science, technology and innovation, second in health, and third in social status and access to resources. However its low ranking (5th) in opportunity and capability, and knowledge society decision-making show where improvement needs to be made. Brazil is an example of a country with both a highly enabling policy environment for women, as well as implementation strategies. Indonesia is fourth overall, but with a third ranking in economic status it has shown steady improvement over the last decade 1. Of the countries in this study, Indonesia collects the least sex-disaggregated data, with data not available for many of the indicators addressed here. Its positive enabling policy environment gives it a strong potential for improvement, however current levels of access to resources, agency and social status indicate a need to improve the actual status of women in the country. South Africa ranks fifth overall but first in agency. It ranks highly (#3) in social status, science, technology and innovation participation, and knowledge society decision-making. This is likely a result of a strong educational system, a policy focus on STI, as well as a quota system implemented in various sectors of society to promote diversity of participation by race and gender. Its high rate of HIV in the population puts it last in health, while it ranks fifth in access to resources. 1 Lack of data for many indicators means that Indonesia's ranking may change as more data and expert analysis are incorporated into the national assessment.
3 Republic of Korea While it ranks first in health it is last in economic status, and second to last overall. This reflects the situation that even though it ranks third in opportunity and capability that is, in the levels of females in STI education and in access to resources, it sees a low level of female participation in public life in both public and private sectors. This shows the country has failed to adequately support its women to participate actively in its economic success. It also shows the lack of correlation between a country s GDP and gender equality. India ranks the lowest overall and in most categories, except in economic status; science, technology and innovation participation; and health. While its enabling policy environment is very positive and has been in place for many years, implementation and funding needs to improve greatly before its women can equally benefit from its innovation advantage. There are definite signs of progress, though. It has achieved universal primary education enrollment for example. However, size of the population mitigates against a rate of change as rapid as a country such as Indonesia or Brazil.
4 Scorecard on Gender Equality in the Knowledge Society 1. Health Status Life expectancy - females Life expectancy - males As expected, women live longer than men in all the countries covered. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS leaves both South African males and females with the lowest rates of life expectancy. Korean women are the longest living of any group surveyed three full decades more than women in South Africa. Women live nearly 10% or more longer than men in the EU (11.3%), Brazil (10.8%) and South Korea (9%). Healthy life expectancy - females Healthy life expectancy - males Healthy life expectancy is the average number of years that a person can expect to live in "full health", that is, excluding the years affected by disease and/or injury. HLE numbers are lower by years. Differences between women and men are smaller, less than a year in South Africa up to six years in South Korea. South Korean woman are also the healthiest overall. HIV/AIDS in female adults HIV/AIDS in female youth As the statistic measures the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in all adult women, the figure is not high for most countries, except South Africa where it is an alarming 19.7%. Nevertheless, even though in India the figures are below the point of concern of <0.1%, they are significant (though falling) because of the size of the affected population nearly one million women. Lower infection rates among young women in South Africa (13.6% vs 19.7% for adult women) indicate progress is being made in educating the young about the dangers of HIV/AIDS transmission. In the EU and Brazil, rates are higher among young women than among adult women, indicating a need for more education among young people. Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, and the US do not collect data on this indicator, which might alert health authorities to a potential at risk-target group.
5 New HIV infection rate Total fertility rate This is an important indicator in targeting at-risk groups. Females range from about one quarter (US) to one third (Indonesia), to 2/5 (Brazil and EU) of new infections. In Brazil, although in absolute numbers men are affected most, infection rates are increasing more rapidly among women. Rates for females in Indonesia have doubled over the decade, with a slight fall in the US. Data are not available for the other countries surveyed notably South Africa. Falling fertility rates correlate with increased female education and labor force participation as well as improved health. Only in India, Indonesia and South Africa are fertility rates above population replacement level. Notably, rates are falling in these three countries and do not exceed 2.6 (with India the highest) in any. 2. Social Status Sex ratio at birth Lifetime physical violence The current worldwide sex ratio at birth is 107 boys to 100 girls. Only India, at 112, had a sex ratio higher than the worldwide ratio of 107:100. All other countries fell below the worldwide ratio, at approximately 105. South Korea was at in 2011, having decreased every year from in Lifetime sexual violence Reliable data are hard to find on this topic, with lack of reporting or under-reporting of incidences of violence common across countries. Only four countries show data for any year, with figures ranging from the limited estimate of 3% for Indonesia, to between 30 and 35% for Brazil and EU (less than1/3 of countries). No national level data is made available in South Africa. Adult unpaid work Less data are available on lifetime sexual violence, and the data which are collected are old. All countries with the exception of the Republic of Korea (data considered to be an underestimate) show figures roughly half or less that of lifetime physical violence. Korea and Brazil are highest at 12-13%, followed by India and the US. Globally, women spend more hours in unpaid work than men. The exception here is Brazil where men (with two years data) worked 6.4 hours compared to 4.5 for women. In Korea, women spent 3.68 hours per day, compared to.68 for men.
6 Children and youth domestic chores (hours) While sex-disaggregated data are scarce only Brazil and India collect it at the national level this important indicator shows that in those countries reporting data, girls are expected to contribute greater amounts of time to domestic chore than boys: in Brazil, 1.8 vs 1.1 hours per day, and in India, 1.6 vs Economic Status Labour force participation Agricultural labour force India has the lowest female-to-male labour force participation ratio at 35.9%, with substantial drops in this ratio over the decade (5% for India, 7% for Indonesia). This may be the result of more women returning to school, higher unemployment among women or more women dropping out of the labour force. The US (83.3%) and EU (82%) show the highest ratio of women to men in the labor force and the biggest gains over the decade. This may indicate that women s employment suffered less from the recent economic crisis. The ratio for Korea was quite high at 67.8% (although low by standards of high income countries). Women s labourforce participation rate is falling in India, South Africa and Indonesia, while in the EU it is growing fast and in Korea, Brazil and the US is comparatively stable. Overall rates for women alone are lowest, again, in India (29%) and highest (at the same level) in Brazil and the US (60%). India sees by far the highest percentage of both men and women in agriculture than any other country, with substantially more women working in this sector 65% compared to 42% for men. Figures for both men and women are falling, though, reflecting global trends. In Indonesia, agriculture remains a dominant employment sector, with numbers in the 40% range for both men and women. As a high-income industrialized country, 7% of both men and women in Korea work in agriculture, a drop of nearly 50% for women over the decade. Brazil shows a relatively high percentage of both men and women (about 16% overall). South Africa s figures were surprisingly low for both men and women, showing the remnants of apartheid and the effects of labour migration. The overall percentage of men and women is small (3.8% and 5.6% respectively) and falling rapidly. The US and EU show the lowest percentage, with one percent of women and two percent of men.
7 Service sector participation Comparative wages Women s participation rate in the service sector is increasing in all countries except Brazil, where it has been decreasingly slightly. The greatest increase for women is seen in Korea. There are more women than men in service jobs in all the countries/areas surveyed except India, where women work in the service sector at slightly more than half the rate of men. In the US service sector, female participation has been fairly consistent over the decade. Households The best situation for women s wages in comparison to men s is in the US, where women's wages equaled 63.5% of men s in EU and South Africa are close behind. The lowest ratio is in India, where women were earning only 30.6% for equivalent work in South Africa showed the most improvement over the decade, however, women s wages decreased compared to those of men over the period in Indonesia, India and Brazil. Household income South Africa and EU do not collect sex-disaggregated data on household heads, with India collecting data on an infrequent basis. The range indicated by available data is from 11.7% in Indonesia to 30% in the US and 35.2% in Brazil. The Republic of Korea is in the middle at 22%, a consistent percentage since Only Brazil and the US collect sex-disaggregated data for this indicator, with only the US collecting it annually throughout the decade. In the first reported year, female-headed households in both Brazil and the US earned about 3/4 of the income of maleheaded households, while in the last reporting year, female-headed household income increased to approximately 4/5. Self-employment Data on self-employment shows relatively high overall rates which are falling for both men and women in the Republic of Korea (and both averaging close to 33%). Next highest are Indonesia with women averaging 17.6% and men 20.5% and Brazil, with women stable at 16.4% but men falling slightly at 24.6% from 27.4% in At the lower end are the EU, with self-employed women at 1.9% and men at 6.3%; the US, with 5.75 and 8.5, respectively (and falling slightly); and South Africa, with women at 11% and men at 8. The rate of self-employment for women is higher than men only in South Africa.
8 4. Access to Resources Property ownership policies; land; bank loans Internet use Percentage of women age who have a bank or savings account of their own Wealth Quintile 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th Total Education None years years years years Employment None Cash Non-cash Total Source: Access and ownership to resources allows women to leverage investments, make decisions about allocation of resources, access credit and financing, and exercise personal decision making power. Currently there is a lack of data in this area. Most countries under study have policies in place which do not necessarily extend to practice. For example, in India women have had the right to own property and take out bank loans for many years, but often do not have the opportunity to exercise these rights. Overall, only 15% of women have bank accounts. Mobile phone access Internet use is a key indicator of the knowledge society. Results show more males have internet access than females in every country collecting sex-disaggregated data. Isolated data exist for Brazil, India and South Africa, with internet use for both males and females remaining below 50%. Infrastructure: electricity Access to mobile phones is important for entrepreneurship and market activities, e-banking. It also indicates autonomy of women, relating to issues of ownership vs. access to the technology. Cell phones are cheaper, more accessible, portable and use less energy than computers as a result, mobile use should be more universal. Gender-based differences in access continue, including in the more developed countries. There is a lack of reliable, sexdisaggregated data for South Africa, India, and Indonesia. Little data exist on women s use of and access to infrastructure such as electricity and transportation, a base condition for STl. Electricity and clean and affordable energies allow women to engage in tasks other than obtaining energy for cooking and domestic chores; free up girls to attend school and have fewer detrimental health effects. It is an important precursor for enterprises and employment, for women as well as men: research on the effects of rural electrification on employment in South Africa, found increases in female employment within 5 years. Transportation issues involve travel to and from the workplace; security and freedom of movement; and ability to transport goods.
9 5. Agency Women in parliament Women ministers The percentage of female members of lower houses of parliament. South Africa shows by far the highest numbers, moving from one-third earlier in the last decade to almost one half by the end of the decade. Brazil is the lowest at 9.4 percent or less. All of the other countries show low numbers as well, from 11 to 18%. On the positive side, all are showing increases. Senior positions in local governments The percentage of government ministers and sub-ministers that are female. South Africa again shows by far the highest ratios, with nearly half of ministerial and sub-ministerial positions held by women. The US did much better in appointed high-level positions than in elected ones, with one-third of cabinet-level positions held by women at the end of the decade. Brazil, India, and Korea remained almost entirely in the single digits. Indonesia showed improvement, with an increase from 5 to 15% over the decade. Senior positions in political parties As seen here, of the countries under study, only Brazil, the US and the Republic of Korea consistently collect sex-disaggregated data in this area. This is unfortunate, as it is an important indicator we know from isolated and anecdotal evidence that women are more highly represented at lower levels of government. Senior positions in trade unions Only the Republic of Korea collects data consistently, although the US provides data for two years. It shows the highest level of participation, with Korea dropping. South Africa comes in second highest at 33% with the EU, Brazil and Indonesia at 25% and below. India provides no data. Contraceptive prevalence Little data is available globally on this important indicator of the role women play in leadership in the labour force. The particular employment issues that women face in terms of childcare, lower wages and less secure employment mean that this is a critical gap. In this study, data are available only from Brazil and South Africa. Although we have a fair amount of data on this item, there is a problem with comparability countries vary between any method, and "modern methods". These data do provide a general indication of women s access to contraception and hence their potential agency in choice and spacing of children.
10 6. Opportunity and Capability Literacy Primary enrollment Literacy is an obvious first step in education and indicates level of functioning in non-educational contexts, incluing daily life activities, livelihoods and production activities. While most countries show close to equal rates of literacy between females and males, we see continuing substantive gender differences in countries such as India and Indonesia which tend to accompany a continuing substantial illiterate population. Secondary enrolment Gross enrolment ratio over 100 per cent implies enrolment of under age and over age corresponding to the particular age group of the class. In general, India has seen the greatest rate of increase. All countries show enrolment of 100% or higher at the primary level and all countries show very close rates of enrolments for both girls and boys, indicating an achievement or near achievement of universal enrolment. Quality of education remains a concern. Tertiary enrolment At the beginning of the decade, more females than males were enrolled in secondary school in all of the countries/areas under study. In India, and the Republic of Korea, more boys are enrolled than girls, although the gap decreased. In Indonesia the enrollment of girls gradually increased to parity in In the other countries, the percentage of girls is higher than boys, at 96, 91.6 and 76% (South Africa). Distance learning We see here that parity decreases as education level increases in favour of women in EU, USA and Brazil, and in favour of males in the rest of the countries shown here. High rates at and above 100% (EU and Republic of Korea) probably indicate adults returning to school to increase their educational qualifications among both women and men. Lifelong learning Only Brazil and South Africa collect consolidated data on this indicator. Women have been the majority in South Africa through the decade, at 56% of students in 2001 rising to 60% in In Brazil female students made up nearly three times male students in distance education courses in 2000, and in % of women were enrolled as compared to 9.1% of men. Lifelong learning is an extremely important indicator of a learning society in the form of skills development, ongoing education, adult education, and e-learning. Internet and ICT access are a major vehicle. Very little data exist in general, and very little sexdisaggregated data. Brazil and Korea have the highest levels, with more females participating. In the EU, the sexes are tied.
11 7. Knowledge Society Decision Making Management participation Participation on corporate boards At what rate do women participate in decision making in the knowledge society? To what extent are they able to exercise leadership? This data point indicates the representation of women includes (a) legislative officials and government administrators and (b) managers. In a few countries, the category of managers is divided into corporate and general managers. Brazil, India and the US have the highest rates of females in this category, almost equal with males at 42 and 45%. South Africa and EU follow at around 30%, with Indonesia below 25%, and the Republic of Korea at below 10%. Data are inconclusive. Insufficient data are collected to analyse country trends, but one conclusion is clear. Women s participation on major corporate boards is very low in all the countries surveyed. Only the US (at 15-16%) and South Africa (14.5%) went beyond single digits in any year. The others are between 3.7 and 4.1%, except the Rebpulic of Korea, which comes in at barely 1%. University / research leadership Science academies Little data is available on this indicator. Brazil reported 10.9% in 2009 and 13.8% in 2010 of public universities headed by a woman (although public universities represent only about 1/3 of Brazilian universities). The US shows 23% female college presidents in 2006, and South Africa shows 17% in No country/area showed data on female heads of research institutes. An important indicator of who is recognized as a leader and eminent researcher in the national science community, and who sets the scientific agenda in a country. Academies also work with governments and universities to set policy and models for action. With the exception of South Africa (28%), female representation in science decision making is similar to that in the corporate sector: most academies see below 12% representation. Yearly data on this would be useful to understand whether there is progress.
12 8. Knowledge Economy Professional and technical positions Administrative and managerial positions According to ISCED, this category includes both natural science workers, technology professions, athletes, and those in social, communications and creative arts professions (the majority of females are in the latter). It profiles in a very general way the translation of females into the larger knowledge economy labour force. Women are represented over 50% in decreasing numbers respectively in Brazil the US and EU, hovering around 50% in Indonesia. Less than 50% of workers in these professions are female in the Republic of Korea, India and South Africa. This indicator shows a far greater range between countries/areas than professional and technical positions. The US is in the lead by far here, with a consistent average of 58% throughout the decade. Brazil is in second at 40% 18 percentage points less than the US representation (however, Brazil s figure did not include the public sector, where women tend to work). India and South Africa ranged from an average of one quarter to 38% over the period, while Indonesia reached a high of 24% in 2006 and went down to 21% in The Republic of Korea was at 9.6% in Information technology workforce In general, sex-disaggregated data on this indicator are not consistently available the numbers which do exist show less than 30% representatio, with rates in the US dropping steadily and South Korea showing both a drop and slight increase in the last few years perhaps a result of the financial crisis. This could indicate that women tend to be squeezed out of this sector as jobs are cut: Last hired, first fired.
13 9. Science, Technology and Innovation Participation Overall women account for a minority of the world's researchers.... Despite the growing demand for cross nationally comparable statistics on women in science, national data and their use in policymaking often remain limited (UNESO 2011). Substantial difficulties exist in comparing across countries without consistent data categorization and analysis. Science and engineering enrolment S&E labour force Enrolment in all scientific, technological and engineering disciplines. With the exception of the US and EU, data in the study countries are not consistently collected by year or discipline. The data for India show high participation with the high ratio of women in dentistry, nursing, medicine, ayurvedic and Unani occupations. Brazil numbers appear to have dropped slightly overall, while representation of females is just under 50% in South Africa. Engineering and physics enrollment Moving to workforce participation, rates of participation drop in most countries by up to 30 points, indicating a substantial loss of females in the transition from education. In the US, tertiary enrolment rates are roughly equivalent to labour force participation. However, problems with advancement and retention for females mean numbers drop at the higher paid and decision making levels (Knowledge Economy / Knowledge Society Decision Making). Biology, medical and life sciences enrollment Includes computing sciences. When physics and engineering sciences are considered in isolation, participation rates drop by 30 points. Data for India includes engineering only, no physics. PhDs in research institutes While data is sketchy and numbers difficult to break down, it appears that women s participation in the life sciences is much higher than in other areas of science, with a variation of 12 points. Female researchers Women account for the majority of tertiary students overall, however, men continue to dominate the highest levels as shown in the sparse data found here. In Indonesia, women comprised 18.4% in 2004 and 21.8% in The EU showed 32% females in Little sex-disaggregated data is available. In India in 2000 only 9.8% of researchers were women; by 2005 this had increased to 12.7%. South Africa showed 35.8% and 38% of researchers as female in 2003 and 2007, while the EU shows a consistent rate of 27-30%. We see a gradual upward trend.
14 Refereed articles Brain drain Sex-disaggregated data are sparse for this indicator. India and the Republic of Korea are at 14 and 15.4% of refereed articles (the India figure is for life sciences only). In South Africa women produced 22% of scientific articles in 2000 and 25% each in years Technicians labour force Understanding the sex, occupation and race breakdowns of national brain drain patterns can provide insight for policy and education. Data show a high rate for Brazil females make up 56.6% of skilled emigrants in 2000 and 57.4% in In Indonesia rates were high from 2000 at 68.3%, through to 2007 when there was a big drop, to 24% in In Korea, 39.3% of this group are women, and in South Africa women make up 42.2% of professionals who emigrate. These trends indicate that in certain countries, more males than females will participate in "brain drain". Entrepreneurship Many females end up as technicians rather than researchers or in higher-level positions. In the universities they often do not advance to higher levels of decision making and tenure at the same rates as males. Indonesia and Brazil have the highest rates, at or just above 50%, with the US showing low numbers, and no data available for South Korea. There is a particular lack of regular data on this. RICYT in LAC collects some, and the UN groups it with other work, making it harder to disaggregate for STI. This is significant because a large percentage of new businesses are science and technology based, especially in the countries under study. The country/region with the highest level of participation by women is the EU at 33.8%, Indonesia follows at 19.8%, followed by Brazil (16.4%) and South Africa (8%), India and the US (7%). The Republic of Korea has dropped steadily from 2.1% in 2010 to 3.5% in 2009 and 5% in It should be noted that these data is misleading in part, since in many countries informal employment is generally a larger source of employment for women than formal sector activities. Business leadership Businesses of more than one person. Data show Indonesia at 29.4%, followed by Brazil at 28.5%, Korea at 21.7, EU (data only for 2000) at 17.2, and the US and India with 16 and 10.1% respectively. This is an area with room for substantive improvement in all countries.
HIGHLIGHTS The ability to create, distribute and exploit knowledge is increasingly central to competitive advantage, wealth creation and better standards of living. The STI Scoreboard 2001 presents the
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