1 Contemporary Human Geography, 2e Lectures Chapter 9 Development Karl Byrand, University of Wisconsin-Sheboygan
2 9.1 Human Development Index Development The process of improving the material conditions of people through diffusion of knowledge and technology
3 9.1 Human Development Index Developed country AKA more developed country (MDC) AKA relatively developed country
4 9.1 Human Development Index Developing country AKA less developed country (LDC) AKA relatively developed country
5 9.1 Human Development Index Human Development Index (HDI) Decent standard of living Access to knowledge Long and healthy life
6 9.1 Human Development Index HDI
7 9.1 Human Development Index Inequality-Adjusted Human Development Index (IHDI) A comparative measure against the HDI The greater the difference between HDI and IHDI, the greater the inequality
8 9.1 Human Development Index INEQUALITY-ADJUSTED HDI
9 9.1 Human Development Index Focus on world regions Nine world regions based on physical, cultural, and economic features
10 9.1 Human Development Index NINE WORLD REGIONS
11 9.2 Standard of Living Developed countries have higher average incomes than developing countries. People in developed countries have higher incomes and possess more goods.
12 9.2 Standard of Living Income Annual gross national income per capita at purchasing power parity Gross domestic product The value of the output of goods and services produced in a country in a year Money that leaves the country is not included in measure Purchasing power parity Accounts for the differences in the cost of goods among countries
13 9.2 Standard of Living GNI PER CAPITA PPP
14 9.2 Standard of Living Economic structure Three sectors or categories Primary Secondary Tertiary Developing countries have a higher share of primary and secondary workers Developed countries have a higher share of tertiary workers
15 9.2 Standard of Living PERCENT GNI CONTRIBUTED BY TYPE OF JOB
16 9.2 Standard of Living Productivity Productivity The value of a particular product compared to the amount of labor needed to make it Value added The gross value of the product minus the cost of raw materials and energy
17 9.2 Standard of Living Consumer goods
18 9.2 Standard of Living TELEPHONES PER 100 PEOPLE
19 9.2 Standard of Living INTERNET USERS PER 100 PEOPLE
20 9.2 Standard of Living Focus on North America Highest per capita income Highest percentage of tertiary-sector employees Highest level of consumption of consumer goods
21 9.3 Access to Knowledge Quantity of schooling Most critical measure of ability of an individual to gain access to knowledge for development Years of schooling The number of years the average person age 25 or older in a country has spent in schools
22 9.3 Access to Knowledge MEAN YEARS OF SCHOOLING
23 9.3 Access to Knowledge Expected years of schooling The number of years that the average five-year-old child is expected to spend with his or her education
24 9.3 Access to Knowledge EXPECTED YEARS OF SCHOOLING
25 9.3 Access to Knowledge Quality of schooling Pupil teacher ratio Literacy rate The percentage of a country s people who can read and write
26 9.3 Access to Knowledge PUPIL/TEACHER RATIO
27 9.3 Access to Knowledge LITERACY RATE
28 9.3 Access to Knowledge Focus on Europe World s highest HDI European core pattern High levels of schooling Higher pupil teacher ratios Universal literacy Eastern European countries skew the data.
29 9.4 Health Indicators Life expectancy LIFE EXPECTANCY BY REGION
30 9.4 Health Indicators Health care access Healthier populations are more economically productive.
31 9.4 Health Indicators CHILDREN LACKING MEASLES IMMUNIZATION
32 9.4 Health Indicators Health care expenditures Healthier populations are more economically productive.
33 9.4 Health Indicators HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURE PER CAPITA
34 9.4 Health Indicators HEALTH CARE EXPENDITURE AS PERCENTAGE OF GNI
35 9.4 Health Indicators Focus on Latin America Varying levels of development Coastal area has a relatively high per capita GNI Relatively high life expectancy Relatively high immunization rates More hospital beds per capita More money spent on health care Less than developed regions, however
36 9.5 Gender-Related Development The status of women is lower than men in every country. Gender Inequality Index (GII) Reproductive health Empowerment Labor
37 9.5 Gender-Related Development GENDER INEQUALITY INDEX (GII)
38 9.5 Gender-Related Development Empowerment The percentage of seats held by women in the national legislature The percentage of women who have completed high school
39 9.5 Gender-Related Development SEATS IN NATIONAL LEGISLATURE HELD BY WOMEN
40 9.5 Gender-Related Development Labor Labor force participation rate The percentage of women who hold full-time jobs outside the home
41 9.5 Gender-Related Development ADOLESCENT FERTILITY RATE (RIGHT) TEENAGE MOTHER IN OHIO (LEFT)
42 9.5 Gender-Related Development Reproductive health Material mortality ratio The number of women who die giving birth per 100,000 births Adolescent fertility rate The number of women per 1,000 women age 15 19
43 9.5 Gender-Related Development FOCUS ON EAST ASIA: WOMEN IN THE LABOR FORCE
44 9.5 Gender-Related Development Focus on East Asia The GII is comparable to that of developed regions. China has high female education levels and labor force participation. Low material mortality rates Low teenage fertility rates Accounts for 1/3 of the total world economic growth
45 9.6 Two Paths to Development Development through self-sufficiency Self-sufficiency (balanced growth) approach Investment spread equally as possible across all sectors of a country s economy and in all regions Fair system where residents and enterprises share development benefits Reducing poverty takes precedence over encouraging a few people to become wealthy consumers.
46 9.6 Two Paths to Development Self-sufficiency approach (continued) Fledgling businesses are isolated from competition with large international corporations. Tariffs, quotas, and licenses limit the import of goods.
47 9.6 Two Paths to Development Self-sufficiency: India Barriers to trade Imports are subject to licensing and bureaucratic barriers. Limited quantities of goods are permitted to be sold by importers. Taxes on imported goods significantly increase consumer prices. No currency exchange Government permission is required for sale of new products, factory modernization, and changes in production and staffing.
48 9.6 Two Paths to Development Development through international trade W. W. Rostow s model The traditional society Agriculture and national wealth allocated to nonproductive activities The preconditions for takeoff Technology investment and infrastructure development
49 9.6 Two Paths to Development W. W. Rostow s model (Continued): The takeoff: Rapid growth generated by limited number of economic activities The drive to maturity Wide diffusion of modern technologies The age of mass consumption Production shift from heavy industry to consumer goods
50 9.6 Two Paths to Development International trade examples The Four Dragons barriers to trade South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan, Hong Kong Petroleum-rich Arabian Peninsula countries
51 9.6 Two Paths to Development Self-sufficiency shortcomings Self-sufficiency protected inefficient industries. A large bureaucracy was needed to administer the controls.
52 9.6 Two Paths to Development International trade shortcomings Local hardships Slow market growth Low commodity prices
53 9.6 Two Paths to Development International trade triumphs India Reduced taxes and restrictions on imports and exports Eliminated many monopolies Encouraged improvement of the quality of products
54 9.6 Two Paths to Development WORLD TRADE AS PERCENT OF INCOME
55 9.6 Two Paths to Development GDP PER CAPITA CHANGE IN INDIA
56 9.6 Two Paths to Development Focus on Southwest Asia and North Africa Oil-rich countries that have used revenues to finance large-scale projects Imported consumer goods are readily available. Cultural clash between some business practices and Islamic principles Women are excluded from holding many jobs and visiting public places. Prayer practices halt business several times per day.
57 9.7 World Trade World Trade Organization (WTO) 1. Reduce or eliminate restrictions: On trade of manufactured goods On international movement of money
58 9.7 World Trade World Trade Organization (WTO) 2. Enforce agreements: By ruling if a country has violated a WTO agreement By ordering violation remedies
59 9.7 World Trade World Trade Organization (WTO) 3. Protect intellectual property: By hearing charges of patent and copyright violations By ordering illegal copyright or patent activities to stop
60 9.7 World Trade WORLD TRADE ORGANIZATION
61 9.7 World Trade WTO critics Progressive: WTO is antidemocratic Conservative: WTO compromises power and sovereignty of individual countries
62 9.7 World Trade Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) Investment made by a foreign company in the economy of another country
63 9.7 World Trade GROWTH IN FDI
64 9.7 World Trade FDI BY REGION
65 9.7 World Trade Transnational Corporation (TNC) Invests and operates in countries other than the one in which its headquarters are located
66 9.7 World Trade Focus on Southeast Asia Cheap labor advantage Thailand Region s center for automobile and consumer goods manufacturing Recent reforms have slowed development.
67 9.8 Financing Development Foreign aid U.S. government gives.2 percent of its GNI European countries give.5 percent of their GNI
68 9.8 Financing Development FOREIGN AID AS PERCENT OF GNI
69 9.8 Financing Development Loans World Bank International Monetary Fund (IMF) 50 percent of World Bank projects failures Faulty engineering Squandered aid Lack of business attraction
70 9.8 Financing Development DEVELOPMENT ASSISTANCE
71 9.8 Financing Development WORLD BANK INVESTMENT: THE PHILIPPINES
72 9.8 Financing Development Structural adjustment programs Economic reforms and adjustments Policy Framework Paper (PFP) Outlines structural adjustment program Requirements typically include: Spend only what it can afford Direct benefits to the poor, not just elite Divert investment from military to health and education
73 9.8 Financing Development Structural adjustment programs (continued) Requirements typically include (continued): Invest scarce resources where impact would be greatest Encourage more productive private sector Government reform
74 9.8 Financing Development Structural adjustment programs critics Structural adjustment programs lead to: Cuts in health and education Loss of state enterprise and civil service jobs Less support for the most in need International organizations support Structural adjustment programs lead to: Economic growth
75 9.8 Financing Development DEBT AS PERCENT OF GNI
76 9.8 Financing Development Focus on Central Asia Relatively high level of development in Kazakhstan and Iran Oil revenues used to finance development Iran has also used oil to promote revolutions elsewhere.
77 9.9 Fair Trade Fair trade standards Fair trade Labelling Organisations International (FLO) Sets international standards Standards applied to workers on farms and in factories
78 9.9 Fair Trade Fair trade producer practices Fair trade cooperatives Local producers are members and have greater oversight.
80 9.9 Fair Trade International trade development path Characteristics may include: Working long hours in poor conditions Low pay Minimal oversight by international loan agencies Child labor Forced labor Poor sanitation and safety No compensation for injured, ill, and laid-off workers
81 9.9 Fair Trade Focus on South Asia Grameen Bank in Bangladesh Allows would-be entrepreneurs to acquire loans Extremely low default rate Many women have benefited.
82 9.10 Millennium Development Goals Gap between developed and developing countries has narrowed Core and periphery Closing the gap Since 1980, all but three countries have had improved HDI scores. Congo Democratic Republic, Zambia, Zimbabwe
83 9.10 Millennium Development Goals HDI CHANGE,
84 9.10 Millennium Development Goals HDI CHANGE BY REGION
85 9.10 Millennium Development Goals CHANGE IN LIFE EXPECTANCY
86 9.10 Millennium Development Goals CHANGE IN GDP PER CAPITA
87 9.10 Millennium Development Goals Millennium development goals 1: End poverty and hunger 2: Achieve universal primary (elementary school) education 3: Promote gender equality and empower women 4: Reduce child mortality
88 9.10 Millennium Development Goals Millennium development goals (continued) 5: Improve maternal health 6: Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases 7: Ensure environmental sustainability 8: Develop a global partnership for development
89 9.10 Millennium Development Goals Focus on Sub-Saharan Africa Least favorable prospect for development World s highest percentage of people living in poverty Poor health care Low education levels Imbalance between population and physical environment s support capacity
90 Chapter Review Key Questions How does development vary among regions? How can countries promote development? What are future challenges for development?
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