2 Levels and trends in international migration The number of international migrants worldwide has continued to grow rapidly over the past fifteen years reaching million in 1, up from million in 1, 191 million in and 17 million in. Between and, the international migrant stock grew by an average of per cent per year. During the period -1, the annual growth rate accelerated, reaching per cent. Since then, however, it has slowed, falling to around 1.9 per cent per year during the period 1-1. High-income countries host more than two thirds of all international migrants. As of 1, 71 per cent of all international migrants worldwide----equal to 17 million international migrants----lived in high-income countries (figure 1). Of these, 1 million migrants were hosted in high-income OECD countries, while 9 million migrants were living in other high-income non-oecd countries. Only 9 per cent----or 71 million----of the world s migrants lived in middle- or low-income countries. Of these, 1 million resided in middle-income countries and 9 million in the low-income countries. The majority of the world s migrants live in high-income countries Figure 1 Number of international migrants by income group of country or area of destination, to 1 Low income Number of migrants (millions) 1 1 Middle income High income: non-oecd High income: OECD 1 1 Note: The classification of countries and areas by income level is based on 1 gross national income (GNI) per capita, in U.S. dollars, calculated by the World Bank.
3 International Migration Report 1: Highlights High-income countries have absorbed most of the recent growth in the global population of international migrants. High-income countries gained 7 million, or 81 per cent, of the 71 million migrants added worldwide between and 1. Of these, million migrants were added in the high-income OECD countries and 17 million in the high-income non-oecd countries. While high-income OECD countries gained the largest number of migrants worldwide, the pace of growth during the period -1 was slower for such countries (. per cent per year) than for non-oecd high-income countries (.9 per cent per year). In the middle-income countries (1. per cent per year) and the low-income countries (1. per cent per year), the pace of growth was considerably slower during this period. Asia and Europe host the largest numbers of migrants worldwide Nearly two thirds of all international migrants worldwide live in Europe or Asia. In 1, 7 million international migrants were residing in Europe, compared to 7 million in Asia. Northern America hosted the third largest number of international migrants ( million), followed by Africa (1 million), Latin America and the Caribbean (9 million), and Oceania (8 million) (figure ). Figure Number of international migrants by major area of destination, and 1 Europe 7 Asia 9 7 Northern America Africa 1 1 Latin America and the Caribbean Oceania Number of migrants (millions) Between and 1, Asia added more international migrants than any other major area. Asia gained some million international migrants during this period, or 1.7 million additional migrants per annum. Europe added the second largest number of international migrants between and 1 ( million, or 1. million per year), followed by Northern America (1 million, or.9 million per year) and Africa ( million, or. million per year). Latin America and the Caribbean and Oceania added comparatively smaller numbers of migrants during this period ( million, or. million per year each). Despite this continued growth, international migrants accounted for less
4 7 than per cent of the population of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. By contrast, in Europe, Northern America and Oceania international migrants comprised at least 1 per cent of the population. Figure Twenty countries or areas hosting the largest numbers of international migrants, and 1 United States 7United States 1 Russian Federation 1 Germany 9 Germany 1 Russian Federation India 1 Saudi Arabia France 9 United Kingdom Ukraine 8 United Arab Emirates Canada 8 Canada Saudi Arabia 8 France United Kingdom 7 Australia Australia Spain Pakistan Kazakhstan Italy India Iran Ukraine China, Hong Kong SAR Thailand United Arab Emirates Pakistan Italy Kazakhstan Côte d Ivoire South Africa Jordan Jordan Israel Japan Turkey Kuwait 1 Number of migrants (millions) 1 Number of migrants (millions) Africa Asia Europe LAC Northern America Oceania Notes: China, Hong Kong SAR stands for China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Iran for the Islamic Republic of Iran, United Kingdom for the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States for United States of America. LAC stands for Latin America and the Caribbean. Connecting lines indicate that the ranking of a country or area changed by five positions or more.
5 8 International Migration Report 1: Highlights The pace of growth in the migrant stock varies across major areas. Asia and Oceania experienced the fastest average annual growth rate in the migrant stock. Between and 1, the number of international migrants in Asia and Oceania grew by an average of.8 per cent per year. Latin America and the Caribbean recorded the third fastest average annual growth rate in the international migrant stock during this period (. per cent), followed by Africa (. per cent). Europe and Northern America, where the size of the migrant stock was already large, experienced a slightly slower pace of change, with an average annual growth rate of per cent for each. Most of the world s migrants live in a handful of countries. In 1, 7 per cent of all international migrants in the world were living in just twenty countries. The largest number of international migrants resided in the United States of America: 7 million, equal to 19 per cent of the world s total (figure ). Germany and the Russian Federation hosted the second and third largest numbers of migrants worldwide (around 1 million each), followed by Saudi Arabia (1 million), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (nearly 9 million), and the United Arab Emirates (8 million). Of the top twenty destinations of international migrants worldwide, nine were in Asia, seven in Europe, two in Northern America, and one each in Africa and Oceania. Map 1 Average annual rate of change in the number of international migrants by country or area of destination, to 1 Average annual rate of change (per cent) per cent or over to per cent to per cent to per cent - to per cent - to - per cent Less than - per cent No data Notes: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by India and Pakistan. The final status of Jammu and Kashmir has not yet been agreed upon by the parties. Final boundary between the Republic of Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan has not yet been determined. Final status of the Abyei area is not yet determined.
6 9 Trends in the stock of international migrants differ widely by country. Between and 1, the number of migrants grew in 17 countries or areas worldwide. In of these, including France, Germany and the United States of America, the international migrant stock grew by less than per cent per annum (map 1). In 1 countries or areas, however, the pace of growth during the period -1 was considerably faster, with 19 countries or areas recording an average annual growth rate of per cent or more. Among the countries or areas with the most pronounced growth during this period were Italy, Spain, Thailand and the United Arab Emirates. In contrast, in 1 countries or areas, the stock of international migrants declined during the period -1. In 9 countries or areas, including India, the Islamic Republic of Iran, the Russian Federation and Ukraine, the pace of decline was less than per cent per annum. In countries or areas, however, the international migrant stock shrunk more rapidly, with 1 countries or areas recording an average decline of more than per cent per annum. The number of refugees worldwide has reached the highest level since World War II. In 1, the total number of refugees in the world was estimated at 19. million, representing about 8 per cent of all international migrants (United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees 1). Developing regions hosted 8 per cent of the world s refugees (1. million persons), the highest value in more than two decades. The least developed countries provided asylum to. million refugees, or per cent of the global total. In 1, Turkey became the largest refugee-hosting country worldwide, with 1. million refugees. Turkey was followed by Pakistan (1. million), Lebanon (1. million), the Islamic Republic of Iran (1. million), Ethiopia and Jordan (.7 million each). More than half ( per cent) of refugees under UNHCR s mandate come from just three countries: the Syrian Arab Republic (.9 million), Afghanistan (. million) and Somalia (1.1 million).
7 1 International Migration Report 1: Highlights Demographic characteristics of international migrants Women comprise slightly less than half of all international migrants worldwide. Globally, the proportion of women among all migrants fell from 9 per cent in to 8 per cent in 1. Much of this decline is due to the growing share of male migrants in high-income non-oecd countries. Between and 1, the proportion of female migrants in such countries fell from to per cent (figure ). The share of female migrants also declined in middle-income countries. In the high-income OECD countries, however, the share of female migrants increased slightly during the same period: from 1 to per cent. Figure Percentage female among international migrants worldwide and by income group of the country or area of destination, and 1 World 8 9 High income: OECD 1 Low income 1 1 Middle income High income: non-oecd Percentage female Note: See note to figure 1. There are considerable differences across major areas in the proportion of women among all international migrants. Since, the proportion of female migrants increased in all major areas with the exception of Africa and Asia. In Europe, the female share of migrants rose from 1. per cent in to. per cent in 1. Likewise, in Northern America, the percentage of women among all international migrants rose from. to 1. per cent during this period. The larger proportion of female migrants in those major areas was mainly the outcome of the aging in place of migrants who had arrived
8 11 decades earlier and the fact that females, including female migrants, tend to have longer life expectancies compared to males. By contrast, in Asia the percentage of female migrants fell from. per cent in to per cent in 1. The reason for this decline rests primarily with the high concentration of males among recent migrant inflows. In Asia, the number of male migrants grew significantly more than the number of female migrants. The stock of male migrants in Asia grew by per cent, from 7 million in to million in 1 (figure ). This increase was fuelled in part by the strong demand for male migrant workers in the oil-producing countries of Western Asia. The stock of female migrants in Asia increased by per cent from million in to million in 1. Africa also experienced a more pronounced growth in male migrants ( per cent) during the period -1 compared to female migrants (7 per cent). By contrast, in Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, Northern America and Oceania, the stock of female migrants grew more rapidly than the stock of male migrants. Figure Number of international migrants by sex and major area of destination, to 1 Males Females Number of migrants (millions) Africa Europe Northern America 1 1 Asia Latin America and the Caribbean Oceania Worldwide, the median age of migrants has been increasing. The median age of all international migrants in 1 was 9 years, compared with 8 years in. The median age of migrants was highest in the high-income OECD countries ( years). Migrants in high-income non-oecd (7 years), in middle-income countries ( years), and in lowincome countries ( years) had considerably lower median ages. International migrants living in Africa were the youngest, with a median age of 9 in 1, followed by Asia ( years) and Latin America and the Caribbean ( years). In contrast, migrants were older in Europe, Northern America and Oceania, where the median age was, and years, respectively (see figure ).
9 1 International Migration Report 1: Highlights Several major areas are experiencing a rejuvenation of their migrant stock Yet in some major areas the migrant stock is becoming younger. Between and 1, the median age of international migrants declined in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania. Latin America and the Caribbean recorded the most substantial rejuvenation of its migrant stock during this period (around years), owing both to the inflow of new, younger migrants 1 as well as the death or return of older migrants, many of whom had arrived from Europe decades earlier. Conversely, in Africa, Europe and Northern America, the median age of international migrants increased between and 1. Northern America experienced the most pronounced increase (around years). Figure Median age among international migrants worldwide and by major area of destination, and 1 World 9 8 Oceania Europe 1 Northern America 8 Latin America and the Caribbean Asia Africa Median age (years) Most migrants worldwide are of working age. In 1, 7 per cent of all international migrants were aged to years, compared to 8 per cent of the total population (figure 7). Younger persons, below age, tend to be underrepresented amongst international migrants. Globally, 1 per cent of all migrants were under years of age, compared to per cent of the total population. Thirteen per cent of migrants worldwide were at least years old, nearly twice as high as the percentage of persons aged or over globally. This difference is due to a combination of factors, including the fact that, upon arrival, the majority of international migrants are of working age. The return of migrants at older ages and the fact that children born to migrants in the country of 1 Because international migrant stocks include not only newly arrived immigrants but also migrants who have lived in a country for many years, the median age of immigrants when they arrive is, on average, considerably lower than that of the migrant stock.
10 1 destination are considered native- rather than foreign-born also help to shape the overall age distribution of the migrant population. Figure 7 Age distributions of the total population and international migrants worldwide, 1 Per cent of total population Total population 8% Working ages Percent of international migrants International migrants 7% Working ages
11 1 International Migration Report 1: Highlights Where do international migrants come from? Most migrants originate from middle-income countries Although the majority of international migrants worldwide live in high-income countries, most migrants originate from middle-income countries. In 1, there were 17 million international migrants who had been born in a middle-income country, equal to nearly per cent of all migrants. Relatively fewer migrants originated from highincome OECD countries ( million, or 17 per cent), high-income non-oecd countries ( million, or 8 per cent) and from low-income countries ( million, or 1 per cent). Between and 1, the number of migrants originating from middle-income countries increased more rapidly than for any other income group (figure 8). Figure 8 Number of international migrants by income group of country or area of origin, to 1 Number of migrants (millions) 1 1 Low income Middle income High income: non-oecd High income: OECD 1 1 Note: Unknown residuals were redistributed proportionally to the size of groups for which data on international migrants were available by origin. The majority of migrants originating from middle-income countries live in a high-income country. Of the 17 million international migrants born in a middle-income country, nearly 9 per cent were residing in a high-income OECD country, 8 per cent in a high-income non-oecd country, per cent in another middle-income country and
12 1 per cent in a low-income country. Migrants from high-income OECD countries were primarily residing in other high-income OECD countries (8 per cent), while migrants from high-income non-oecd countries were almost evenly split between high-income OECD countries ( per cent) and middle-income countries (9 per cent). Over half of all migrants originating from low-income countries were living in a middle-income country (7 per cent), compared to 19 per cent in high-income OECD countries, per cent in high-income non-oecd countries and 19 per cent in other low-income countries. Nearly half of all international migrants worldwide were born in Asia. In 1, of the million international migrants worldwide, 1 million, or per cent, were born in Asia (figure 9). Europe was the birthplace of the second largest number of international migrants ( million, or per cent), followed by Latin America and the Caribbean (7 million, or 1 per cent) and Africa ( million, or 1 per cent). Relatively few migrants worldwide were born in Northern America ( million, or per cent) or Oceania ( million, or 1 per cent). Between and 1, the size of the migrant stock from Asia grew faster than from all other major areas. During that period the stock of migrants from Asia grew by.8 per cent per year, compared to 1. per cent for the Europe. Other major areas that also experienced a rapid growth in their diasporas were Africa (.7 per cent per annum), Latin America and the Caribbean (. per cent per annum), Oceania (. per cent per annum), and Northern America (.1 per cent per annum). Figure 9 Number of international migrants by major area of origin, and 1 Asia 8 1 Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Africa 7 Northern America Oceania Number of migrants (millions) Note: See note to figure 8.
13 1 In many parts of the world, migration occurs primarily within major areas International Migration Report 1: Highlights In many parts of the globe, migration occurs primarily between countries that are located within the same major area of the world. The majority of the international migrants originating from Asia ( per cent, or million persons), Europe ( per cent, or million), Oceania (9 per cent, or 1 million) and Africa ( per cent, or 18 million) live in another country of their major area of origin (figure 1). In contrast, the majority of international migrants born in Latin America and the Caribbean (8 per cent, or million) and Northern America (7 per cent, or million) reside in a country outside their major area of birth. Figure 1 Number of international migrants by major areas of origin cross-classified by major area of destination, 1 Africa Africa 18 million Asia Asia million LAC NA million Africa Asia Europe LAC Northern America Oceania Notes: See note to figure 8. LAC stands for Latin America and the Caribbean and NA for Northern America. Migration between countries that are located within the same major area is increasing. Between and 1, the share of international migrants who remained
14 17 within their own major area of birth increased in Asia, Europe, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania (figure 11). Conversely, for migrants born in Africa and Northern America, the proportion of those living in a country outside of their major area of birth increased. For Africa this has been accompanied by an increase in the share of African foreign-born persons living in Asia, Europe, Northern America and Oceania, while for Northern America it resulted in an increase in the share of persons living in Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Oceania. Figure 11 Percentage distribution of international migrants by major area of destination, for major areas of origin, and 1 Origin Africa Per cent of migrants by major area of destination % 1% 8% 1% 7% % 7% % 1 % 1% Asia 1% 1% % 7% % % 1% 1% % 1 % Europe % 1% % 1% % % % 1% % 1% % % 1 LAC 1% 1% % 7% 1% 1% 7% 7% 1 NA % 1% % 1% % % % 1% 7% % % % 1 Oceania % % 19% % 1% 17% 9% % 1 Africa Asia Europe LAC Northern America Oceania Note: See note to figure 1. Asia is the origin with the largest number of persons who are living outside their major area of birth. In 1, there were million international migrants born in Asia but living elsewhere. Of these, the majority were living in Europe ( million), followed by Northern America (17 million) and Oceania ( million). Migrants born in Latin America and the Caribbean represented the second largest diaspora group with million persons living outside their major area of birth. The majority of these migrants were living in
15 18 International Migration Report 1: Highlights Northern America ( million) and Europe ( million). Europe had the third largest number of persons living outside their major area of birth ( million). These migrants were primarily residing in Asia and Northern America (8 million each) and Oceania ( million). Figure 1 Twenty countries or areas of origin with the largest diaspora populations, and 1 11 Russian Federation 1 India 9 Mexico 1 Mexico 8 India 11 Russian Federation China 1 China Ukraine 7 Bangladesh Bangladesh Pakistan Afghanistan Ukraine United Kingdom Philippines Kazakhstan Syrian Arab Republic Pakistan United Kingdom Germany Afghanistan Italy Poland Philippines Kazakhstan Turkey Germany State of Palestine Indonesia Indonesia State of Palestine Portugal Romania Poland Egypt United States Turkey Morocco United States 1 Number of migrants (millions) 1 Number of migrants (millions) Africa Asia Europe LAC Northern America Oceania Notes: United Kingdom stands for United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and United States for United States of America. LAC stands for Latin America and the Caribbean. Connecting lines indicate that the ranking of a country or area changed by five positions or more.
16 19 Between and 1, some regional corridors grew very rapidly. Asia was one of the fastest growing destinations for migrants from Africa, with an annual average growth rate of. per cent, equal to an absolute increase of nearly million migrants during this period. For foreign-born persons from Asia, the fastest growing corridors outside of Asia were from Asia to Oceania (.8 per cent increase per annum, yielding million more migrants during the period -1) and from Asia to Northern America (.7 per cent per annum, yielding million more). One of the fastest-growing destinations for migrants originating from Latin America and the Caribbean was Europe (. per cent per annum, or million more). For foreign-born persons coming from Europe, one of the fastest-growing destinations was Africa (. per cent per annum, or. million more), whereas for foreignborn originating from Northern America, it was Latin America and the Caribbean (. per cent per annum, or. million more). India now has the largest diaspora in the world, followed by Mexico, the Russian Federation and China. In 1, 1 million persons from India were living outside of their country of birth compared to 1 million from Mexico (figure 1). Other countries with large diasporas included the Russian Federation (11 million), China (1 million), Bangladesh (7 million), and Pakistan and Ukraine ( million each). Of the top twenty countries or areas of origin of international migrants, 11 were in Asia, in Europe, and 1 each in Africa, Latin America and the Caribbean, and Northern America. Between and 1, some countries have experienced a rapid growth in the size of their diaspora populations. Among the countries and areas with the fastest average annual growth rate during this period were the Syrian Arab Republic (1.1 per cent per annum), Romania (7. per cent per annum), Poland (.1 per cent per annum) and India (. per cent per annum). In Syria much of this increase was due to the large outflow of refugees and asylum seekers following the conflict in the area. Diasporas from some countries of origin tend to concentrate in particular countries of destination. Mexico s diaspora is concentrated in just one country: the United States of America. In 1, the United States of America hosted some 1 million persons born in Mexico (figure 1), equal to nearly 98 per cent of all Mexicans living abroad. Other examples of countries with diaspora populations settled predominantly in one country include Algeria (in France), Burkina Faso (in Côte d'ivoire), Cuba and El Salvador (in the United States of America), and New Zealand (in Australia). In contrast, India s diaspora is more evenly spread out between a number of destination countries, including the United Arab Emirates ( million), and Pakistan and the United States of America ( million each). Several countries of the former Soviet Union, including the Russian Federation and Ukraine, also have more evenly distributed diaspora populations.
17 International Migration Report 1: Highlights Figure 1 Fifteen largest populations of migrants from a single country or area of origin living in a single country or area of destination, and 1 Mexico United States India United Arab Emirates Russia Ukraine Ukraine Russia Bangladesh India Kazakhstan Russia Russia Kazakhstan Afghanistan Iran China China, Hong Kong SAR State of PalesDne Jordan China United States India Pakistan Myanmar Thailand India United States Poland Germany Number of migrants (millions) Note: China, Hong Kong SAR stands for China, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Iran for the Islamic Republic of Iran, Russia for Russian Federation and United States for United States of America.
18 1 The contribution of international migration to population dynamics The number of international migrants worldwide has grown faster than the world s population. As a result of this faster growth rate, the share of migrants in the total population reached. per cent in 1, up from.8 in. There were, however considerable differences between major areas. In Europe, Northern America and Oceania, international migrants accounted for at least 1 per cent of the population. By contrast, in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, less than per cent of the population consisted of international migrants. International migration contributes significantly to population growth in many parts of the world, and reverses negative growth in some countries or areas. Between and 1, positive net migration contributed to per cent of the population growth in Northern America and per cent in Oceania. In Europe, the size of the population would have declined during the period -1 in the absence of positive net migration, whereas in Africa, Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean, negative net migration contributed marginally to slowing the pace of population growth. The impact of negative net migration is generally modest for countries with large populations. During the period -1, for instance, negative net migration had a relatively small impact on population change in countries or areas with large populations, including Bangladesh, China, India and Mexico. However, for smaller countries or areas, including the Small Island Developing States (SIDS), the impact can be more substantial. In the Federated States of Micronesia and the Marshall Islands, for example, whereas the size of the population declined during the period -1 owing to negative net migration, it would have increased under a scenario of zero-net migration. Net migration is projected to have a significant impact on the future size of populations in a number of major areas. In Europe, while current trends in migration will not be enough to compensate for the surplus of deaths over births (figure 1), this decline would have been even more pronounced, and started earlier, under a zero-netmigration scenario. Likewise, in Northern America the size of the population would start Net international migration refers to the difference between the number of immigrants and the number of emigrants. If more people immigrate to a country than emigrate from it, the latter gains population from positive net migration. When more people emigrate than immigrate, the country loses population through negative net migration.
19 International Migration Report 1: Highlights to decline in under a zero-net-migration scenario, while in Oceania the decline in total population would be two times larger by. Figure 1 Actual and projected change in total population over five-year time periods by major area, from to, with and without international migration starting in 1 (millions) Africa Asia Europe Latin America and the Caribbean Northern America Oceania Zero-net migration Medium variant Source: United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (1b). Migration can contribute to reducing slowing the long-term trend towards population ageing. Because international migrants tend to comprise larger proportions of working-age persons compared to the overall population, positive net migration can
20 contribute to reducing old-age dependency ratios. In many parts of the world, the old-age dependency ratio would be even higher in the absence of net migration. Assuming zeronet migration, the old-age dependency ratio of Europe in would rise to 1 persons age or over per 1 persons of working age, compared to 8 per 1 assuming a continuation of current migration patterns. For Northern America and Oceania, the oldage dependency ratio would rise to and per 1, respectively, with zero-net migration, compared to 8 and per 1 if current levels of migration continue. While international migration can play a role in modifying dependency ratios, it cannot reverse the trend of population ageing. Even assuming a continuation of current migration patterns, all major areas of the world are projected to have significantly higher old-age dependency ratios in. In Asia, for every 1 persons of working age, there will be 8 dependent older persons in compared to 11 dependent older persons in 1. Likewise, during the period 1-, old-age dependency ratios are projected to increase from to 8 per 1 in Europe, from to 8 per 1 in Northern America, from 11 to 1 per 1 in Latin America and the Caribbean, and from 18 to per 1 in Oceania. Only Africa is projected to have an old-age dependency ratio below 1 persons aged or over per 1 persons of working age in. The old-age dependency ratio is a commonly used measure of the potential need for social and economic support in a population. It is calculated by dividing the population aged years or older by the working-age population, aged 1 to years old. In general, a higher value of this ratio indicates that each potential worker needs to support a larger number of potentially dependent persons aged years or older.
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