1 CHAPTER 23 Managing the Great Depression, Forging the New Deal, Mr. Muller - APUSH
2 Aim: How does the U.S. go from Boom, to Bust? Do Now: Once I built a tower up to the sun Brick and rivet and lime Once I built a tower, now it's done Brother, can you spare a dime? Bing Crosby - Brother Can You Spare A Dime Lyrics,
9 Election of 1928 Hoover will win because Americans are satisfied with the prosperity that America experiences during the 1920s, under Republicans Despite warnings from economists about a possibly drop in the stock market, Americans still held large sums of stocks (about 4 million Americans owned a stock) People would buy stocks on the margin (paying for a part of the stock and borrowing the rest, in seeking for a quick profit)
12 What leads up to the Great Depression? 1. Industries in trouble: The Rail Roads loose business to new forms of transportation (trucks, buses and private automobiles) Mining and lumbering, expanded during the war, but then decline after due to the decrease in demand. Electric also hurts coal-mining because its more efficient (fuel oil and natural gas becomes popular forms of energy as well) Key indicator of industry is the housing market, which begins to decline (houses being built )
13 2. Farmers Suffer the most after the war. They continue to overproduce. Hard to shift from wartime economy to peace time. After the War, demand drops and prices fall by 40% President Calvin Coolidge tries to help by having the government buy goods from the farmers at a standard price and sell them on the world market Doesn t work Dust Bowl- the region including Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, and New Mexico that was made worthless by farming drought and dust storms during the 1920s and 30s
14 3. Consumers obuying less because of raising prices, stagnant wages and also unbalanced distribution of income (Virtually no middle class) CREDIT peoples credit continues to build What s Credit? Credit: Arrangement in which consumers agreed to buy products or items now and decide to pay later. This is part of the Installment Plan (included interest)
15 4. Uneven Distribution of Income There was virtually no middle class. The 1920s led to the rich, getting richer, and the poor, getting poorer. 15
17 CRASH! On October 29 th, 1929 America experiences Black Tuesday Black Tuesday- Share holders panicked and tried to sell off their stocks. Many couldn t find buyers and thus were left with a huge credit or losing their life earnings People panicked by withdrawing savings from banks With the banks heavily invested in the stock market, they lost major amounts of money, and weren't able to give people their savings. By ,000 of the U.S. s 25,000 banks closed. With no government insurance, people lost EVERYTHING
19 Worldwide Europe faced Depression in the 1920s while trying to recover from World War I (especially Germany) With Europe in debt, it made it hard to sell American farm goods and manufactured goods abroad. Hawley-Smoot Tariff- Congress, in 1930, attempts to place a high tariff to protect American farmers and manufacturers Has opposite effect, it discourages trade and trade falls by 40%
20 What is the Great Depression? The period from , in which the economy plummeted and unemployment skyrocketed The stock market crash wasn t the sole cause of the Depression, it only sparked the beginning
21 From Boom to Bust Tariffs and war debt policies that cut down the foreign market for American goods (American Industries in trouble) A crisis in the farms (Dust Bowl-overproduction) Easy availability of Credit Unequal distribution of Income (rich got richer) Causes of the great depression
22 Effects of the Great Depression Shantytowns- little towns consisting of shacks ( Hoovervilles ) Soup Kitchens- offered free or low cost food Breadlines- Lines of people waiting to receive food from charity or public organizations Dust Bowl- Farmers exhausted the Great Plains region by overproducing crops. Drought came in the early 1930s and left dust, with wind blowing it into dust storms (Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, New Mexico and Colorado) Many farmers and families would migrate to C.A. and other Pacific coast
23 By 1932, 12 million Americans or 25% of the American labor force was unemployed African Americans and unskilled workers were the first ones to loose their jobs. By 1931, African American unemployment was an estimated 30-60% greater than whites
25 How does Hoover respond to the Depression? Believes Americans should have faith in the economy. The Depression was all part of a cycle Doesn t believe in government intervention in business. He believes in Rugged Individualism-- The idea that people should succeed through their own efforts Hoover believes that federal welfare or handouts would weaken peoples self-respect--> This shocked and frustrated Americans He tries to help by asking Labor leaders not to ask for higher wages, and employers not to lay off or cut wages. This doesn t affect the shrinking economy
26 Hoover s actions Federal Home Loan Bank Act- Lowered mortgage rates for homeowners and allowed farmers to refinance their farms Reconstruction Finance Corporation- $2 billion was authorized for emergency financing for banks, life insurance companies, railroads, and other large business Trickle Down Effect
27 Trickle Down Effect Money would Trickle down to the average person through job growth and higher wages TOO LITTLE TOO LATE!
28 Bonus Army 10,000-20,000 WWI veterans and families arrived in D.C. (1932) calling themselves the Bonus Expenditure Force. They came to support the Patman Bill (authorized government to pay a bonus to WWI vets, who didn t feel they were compensated adequately for their service)
29 How does Hoover respond? Hoover felt the marchers were Communists and criminals. He opposed the Patman bill. The Senate does vote down the bill and Hoover asks the marchers to leave. Most do, but about 2,000 stay. In attempt to rid D.C. of the remainders, Hoover calls in 10,000 soldiers under the command of General MacArthur The infantry gassed more than 1,000 people, including an 11 month old baby, who died. Two people were shot and many more injured Help or hurt Hoover s image??
30 The election of 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (Democrat) vs. Herbert Hoover (Republicanincumbent) Hoover had little to run off of. He continued to claim that the worst of the Depression was over. Hoover would criticize Roosevelt by calling him a radical who would raise taxes and make things worse
32 Franklin D. Roosevelt Immediately after being nominated, called for a response to the Depression --> He promised America a New Deal
33 The New Deal Promises to accomplish 3 goals for America 1. Promised RELIEF for the needy 2. Economic RECOVERY 3. Financial REFORM (change) to avoid future depressions
34 The First Hundred Days Upon taking office, FDR launched a period of intense activity in which Congress passed 15 major pieces of New Deal legislation
35 Roosevelt and the Great Depression RELIEF for the Needy Agriculture Adjustment Act (AAA)- Lowered production, by government paying farmers not to seed a certain amount of land. With less production = Higher crop prices Civilian Conservation Corps(CCC)- Put young year olds to work, building roads, developing parks, planting trees and helping in soil erosion and flood control projects Put 3 million to work By 1938, 11% of this workforce was African Americans Planted over 3 billion trees, 800 state parks and built more than 46,000 bridges.
37 RELIEF for the Needy continued National Industrial Recovery Act (NIRA) or the Public Works administration (PWA) Provided money to states so they could build schools, and other community buildings (40,000 schools, half million miles of road) Fireside Chats Radio talks about issues of public concerns. This made Americans feel like FDR was talking to them. Example= Explained how Americans panic about removing their savings from banks would hurt any bank weeks later, people started returning their savings into banks
38 Fireside Chat Bonus Army
40 Economic RECOVERY 21 st amendment- Repeals the 18 th amendment (Prohibition) Why would government do this? Federal Securities Act- 1933, Required Corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings (NO misrepresentation)
41 Recovery Home Owners Loan corporation (HOLC)- 1933, allowed homeowners to pay off mortgages easier. Federal Housing Administration (FHA)- 1934, insured bank mortgages for longer periods of time, and smaller down payments National Industrial Recovery Act (NRA)- helped set codes for fair competition, that regulated wages, prices and working conditions HOLC and FHA, both important to helping the housing market recover. WHY?
42 Financial REFORM Glass-Steagull Act of 1933, established the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC)- Insured individual bank accounts up to $5,000 ($ was safe) Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC)- Regulated banking and investment activities.
44 Bridging the New Deal to the Second New Deal The New Deal comes under scrutiny by the Supreme Court because they believe Roosevelt's programs were unconstitutional. Due to the heat FDR s New Deal takes from the Supreme Court, FDR is forced to launch a second plan of reforms that were less controversial than his first This second chance comes when FDR is elected for a second term in Here is his second hundred days
45 The Second Hundred Days This was the period in which Roosevelt got a second opportunity to continue what he started in the first hundred days. What programs did Roosevelt create under the Second New Deal?
46 The revised AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Act) now provided monetary loans to small farmers so they could buy land. More than $1 Billion would be lent out Works Progress Administration (WPA) From , spent $11 billion, gave 8 million jobs (unskilled). Built 850 airports, constructed or repaired 651,000 miles of roads and streets and put up more than 125,000 public buildings.
47 FDR s approach to the Depression FDR s New Deal programs were an example of the government being active in the economy. This approach is called Pump- Priming the idea of FDR helping or aiding the working class in order to turn the economy and unemployment around (bottom-up approach)
48 National Youth Administration (NYA)- Provided student aid to H.S., college and graduate students. In return students worked part-time at their schools Drop-outs were provided part-time jobs, like working on highways, parks and grounds of public buildings
49 Wagner Act- The federal government protected the rights of workers to join unions and collectively bargaining. Prohibited unfair labor practices like threatening workers, firing Union members and interfering with union organizing Fair Labor Standards Act- Set a maximum number of work hours to 44 hours per week, then went down to 40 hours a week after 2 years. Minimum wage also set to 25 cents (then 40 cents an hour by 1945)
50 Social Security Act- 1935, Retirees of 65 or older and their spouses were offered benefits and insurance. Unemployment compensation also created Aid to families with dependent children and the disabled
53 Packing the court After creating all these new programs under the New Deal, FDR feared that the Supreme Court might shoot down his programs Why would the Supreme Court do this? FDR was expanding the power of not only the presidential position, but also the federal government
54 How does FDR plan to get around this? FDR proposes to Congress a reorganization of the Federal Court Judiciary by adding more justices. Why would FDR do this? With more justices, FDR would have a better chance of having his policies prevail, instead of being shot down. Also with more justices being appointed, they would be chosen by FDR himself! Coincidence?
55 Reaction People believed that Roosevelt was trying to PACK THE COURT. According to the cartoon, what would be the effect of packing the court?
56 New Deal opposition Big Business Main opposition. Many conservative Democrat and Republican business owners and politicians (including former presidential candidate Al Smith) would form the American Liberty League This group would attack the New Deal because of its deficit spending technique. They felt American free enterprise was being destroyed
57 Socialist Party Led by Eugene Debs and Norman Thomas would lead the party to the presidential election, but would fall short along with the Communist party These parties claimed not enough was being done to the economy Progressive party Agreed with the Socialists that not enough was being done to better the situation, and also felt more should've been done to distribute the wealth.
59 Many New Deal opponents would enter politics like : 1. Francis Townsend fought for government pensions for the elderly 2. Father Charles E. Coughlin Catholic priest who blamed business owners, especially Jewish ones, for the crisis. 3. Huey Long Louisiana senator, believed income and inheritance taxes should be imposed on the wealthy. From that tax money, it should then be given to each American in the form of $2,500, a car and a college education. Sound realistic? NO! Huey Long assassinated in 1935
60 Women and African Americans New Deal programs offered more opportunities to white men then to women and minorities. They were paid less for the same amount of work. Weren't greatly affected by the New Deal
61 Republicans Felt the government and FDR had too much power. FDR is a dictator Taxing the wealthy is unfair New Deal programs were too much like socialism
62 Who was affected by the New Deal? Native Americans 1924, they are finally granted citizenship by Congress. They still suffered from the Dawes Act of 1887 (Assimilation) The Dawes Act aimed to break their tribal traditions Indian Reorganization Act- Aimed to restore Natives language, customs and religious freedoms. Education would be provided by the Bureau of Indian affairs
63 African Americans Roosevelt wasn t a strong civil rights advocate. FDR didn t want to alienate southern Democrats because he needed their support for his programs. FDR didn t support the abolition of the poll tax or anti-lynching laws (which actually increased during the 1930s) The New Deal gave many African Americans jobs, about 50 African Americans were appointed to posts in various agencies An estimated 40% of all African Americans were receiving help in the New Deal
64 Women Women were less affected by the Depression because they worked low wage earning jobs. They earned about 50 cents to every dollar a white male would earn doing the same job. Women were expected to give up their jobs for males, who were the heads of their families and needed to provide for them The New Deal didn t specifically hire women in the programs, however women got more involved in politics because of Eleanor Roosevelt Who was Eleanor Roosevelt?
65 Eleanor Roosevelt Considered Franklin D. Roosevelt s Eyes and Ears She was a major influence on the New Deal because of her travels. She was a humanitarian, who fought for women and minorities, especially African Americans She became an important political figure in the 1930s She traveled the nation and reported what she saw and heard, back to FDR She helped mold the New Deal programs through intervention with her husband on social reforms, her newspaper column and through her speeches and travels around the nation After FDR s death in 1945, Eleanor Roosevelt would become a leader in human rights.
66 The Economy The New Deal preserved free enterprise and capitalism The New Deal didn t end the Depression, World War II did, however it helped people cope with the effects of the Depression
68 The United States Constitution More power was given to the presidency and federal government The government now had a role or a responsibility in the economy and social life of Americans Thinking back to the Do Now answers you all gave, do you think George Washington would have approved of FDR s New Deal or been against it?
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Terms and People where charities or local agencies gave food to the poor shantytowns set up on empty land in cities and named after the President rural farmers who lost their land but stayed on to work