BEING WORKERS IN MALAYSIA: STRATEGY OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN DEALING WITH POVERTY AND EDUCATION

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1 International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET) Volume 9, Issue 11, November 2018, pp , Article ID: IJCIET_09_11_154 Available online at ISSN Print: and ISSN Online: IAEME Publication Scopus Indexed BEING WORKERS IN MALAYSIA: STRATEGY OF RURAL COMMUNITIES IN DEALING WITH POVERTY AND EDUCATION *Sofyan Anif and Tjipto Subadi Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Kartasura 57102, Indonesia * Corresponding author. ABSTRACT The research work exposes the strategy of Indonesian workers (servants) in Malaysia in dealing with poverty, and education cost. The research employed a phenomenology qualitative approach, paradigm in social definition in micro analysis. The subjects were the workers (servants) in Malaysia and their families in central java. The technique of data gathering used observation, interview, and documentation. The data analysis technique applied an interactive model: data reduction, data display, and conclusion. The results of the research show that the servants strategies in dealing with poverty and education cost by using three approaches: religion, hard work, financial. Keywords: Servant workers, Poverty, Education cost, rural communities. Cite this Article: Sofyan Anif and Tjipto Subadi, Being Workers in Malaysia: Strategy of Rural Communities in Dealing with Poverty and Education, International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(11), 2018, pp INTRODUCTION An Indonesian worker (servant) working in a foreign country is usually called as TKI (Indonesian Workers), which is part of international migration program. In Indonesia, the migration has formally begun since It is due to the need of farm jobs. During the early migration period, the Netherland colonization government had moved 155 heads of the households from Java to Gedong Tataan, South Sumatra [1]. The migration occurred in Provincial Central Java, according to the documented research by Subadi and Ismail in 2013 [2] that the number of transmigration in Central Java decreased from 2003 to In 2003, a transmigration target was 1,249 heads of households and only 1,087 heads of households had migrated (3,989 people). In 2007, a transmigration target was 856 heads of households but only 581 heads of household had migrated (2,158 people)

2 Being Workers in Malaysia: Strategy of Rural Communities in Dealing with Poverty and Education The migration in Java was highly related to the amounts of the population, job vacancy, and job seekers. If the job vacancy in a country is lower while the job seekers are higher, it will cause unemployment. As a result, it is necessary to provide more jobs and send labor forces to foreign countries. Based on the 2015 national census, the Central Java s statistic and population data show that the province s population reached 33,720,133 people, consisting of 16,725,250 males and 16,994,883 females. [3] The province s labor force on February 2015 amounted to 18,290,000 people, but the working people reached 17,320,000 people. It means that there is an open unemployment (TPT) that reached 970,000 people in the Provincial Central Java on February (Statistic Data of the Provincial Central Java, No.37/05/33/Th.IX, 05 Mei 2015). [4] For the government of the Republic of Indonesia, sending the workers to foreign countries is intended to deal with unemployment (to deal with poverty) and increase socioeconomic and education values. However, sending them to other countries frequently causes few cases. For example, the Malaysian employers tortured the servants such as Suliati, Supeni, and Suryani where the case could not have been solved. Researchers argue; if cases of torture TKI is not resolved it will disturb the good relations between Indonesia and Malaysia, as stated the senior researcher Datuk Firdaus Abdullah [5]. He stated that the case of violence against the servants is not a normal criminal action but it includes many other aspects. In addition to the humanistic dimension, criminal issue and violence against foreign servants in Malaysia also have a diplomatic, international relation, and enforcement dimension of the Act. It means that in addition to disturbing the relationship of the two countries, this case can also result in a confidence crisis in state administration and our justice system. Additionally, cases of violence will also affect; 1) peace of workers, 2) concentration in professional work and their strategies override poverty and education expenses. Based on the description above, a research question to be raised is about the servants strategy in dealing with poverty and education cost. The problem, how is the servants strategy in dealing with poverty and education cost? Whereas the study aims to describe the servants strategy in dealing with poverty and education cost. 2. LITERATURE REVIEW The study of the Indonesia servant workers is said to be appropriate to a context of migration theory. A best-known grand theory among the migration theories is Lee's theory [6], called push-pull theory. It states that every migration has the areas of hometown and destination, and a variety of disturbances. Lee argues that there are the factors influencing a person on taking a migration decision are those in the areas of hometown and destination, disturbance and personality. The hometown factor can be positive, negative, or neutral. It is positive if it encourages migrants; it is negative if it impedes them; and it is neutral if it does not influence them. Regarding the destination factor, it will be positive if the migrant candidates are interested in it; it will be negative if it will impede them; and it will be neutral if it does not affect them. In his results of the research, Lee concludes that: 1) migration is related to distance, 2) migration occurs in stages, 3) migration to destinations (foreign countries) and migration to hometown, 4) rural and urban migration in difference, 5) migration, and 7) economic motive as a reason off or migration. [6]

3 Sofyan Anif and Tjipto Subadi However, many factors in non-economy that are not argued by Lee as a factor in the intention of migration become a factor that encourages a person to do the migrasi. Among these factors is a factor family relationship (kinship) that exists between TKI old with the new, the awareness factor of social networks and social security awareness factor, the awareness factor of religious teachings (religiosities), and the awareness factor of science and social status. Protection of Indonesian Workers (TKI) by Indonesian Government: Act of RI No. 39/ Article 78 (1) states that the representative of the Republic of Indonesia (RI) give any protection to the Indonesian workers in a foreign country based on Act, Law, and International Rules. (2) In terms of the protection of the Indonesian workers in a foreign country, the government appoints an attaché of the Indonesian Labor Force as the Indonesian representation. (3) The attaché s duty refers to the Act. [7] Regarding the Indonesian workers in Malaysia, the Malaysian government issues a guide and requirements of employing a foreign worker as a servant in Malaysia. Poverty in Provincial Central Java The term poor is a limited situation and condition that is not caused by one s desire. A poor person can be indicated with low education, working productivity, income, health, nutrition, and life welfare. In the other words, he or she is powerless. The poverty can be due to low human resources. He or she is a less educated person because he or she is low in formal or informal education. Robert Chambers [8] suggested that the factor in poverty is due to very poor condition or removing a property where a person is hard to get it again. It is probably because of more needs or economic crisis. For instance, expense is higher than income although previously budgeted. Commonly, the poor condition is caused by five factors: tradition, disaster, physical disability, unproductive expenses, and extortion. Referring to the data of Central Java on March 2016, the poor population increases 15,210 people, it is higher than on September On March 2016, reached 4,577 million, or it increases 4,562 million (the Central Java Social sub-head of BPS, 2015). [9]. 3. METHODOLOGY The study implemented theory Berger s phenomenology with a social definition paradigm for the micro analysis. The researchers interpreted a case based on their scientific knowledge. [10] The research was conducted in two stages, i.e. first order followed by second order. The first order of understanding (asking for researchers interviewed people to find accurate information) and understanding of second order (explain and interpret the results of the interview to elaborate on new meaning). [11] The subject of the study is Indonesian house maids in Malaysia (Rohimah dan Sarmini) from Central Java. In addition, there were other informants selected on the basis of validity consideration. They were the neighbours of the female workers, their families and Head of Provincial Agency. In obtaining information of the Indonesian domestic servants in Malaysia, 1) the researchers went to the Provincial Central Java Department (Head of Provincial Agency) for crosschecking the information. 2) Then, the researchers interviewed the selected domestic servants. Data collection using the method of observation, documentation and interview. The researchers took many pictures of the man physically present condition as documentation

4 Being Workers in Malaysia: Strategy of Rural Communities in Dealing with Poverty and Education The researchers used the structure of in-depth interviews and semi structure. In this interview, the researchers asked some great questions that could be developed into more questions that are detailed. While the analysis of the data used by the theory, first order understanding and second order understanding with interactive models, namely: data reduction, data display and conclusion / verification. 4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Workers Strategies in Malaysia for Dealing with Poverty and Education Cost a) Rohimah Strategy. Although the servants take any sad experience in foreign countries (Malaysia), there are some successful servants after working there. Rohimah, for example, is an ex-servant in Malaysia successful in being a broom entrepreneur. She has millions of assets. Her products can be exported to such countries as Taiwan, Korea Selatan, and Malaysia. Rohimah and her husband have managed a business of brooms of weeds since It has provided job vacancy for hundreds of workers. By working very hard, they can run a business although it cannot produce due to capital and bad managements. Such a condition makes her take a decision in working again in Malaysia. She has worked in Singapore for one year, but she gets more experiences for continuing her broom business helped by her husband. Rohimah said that: Oh, my early business ever experiences money loosing and more profits. Essentially, being a successful businessman is not easy and must work very hard. Of course, my successfulness is greatly related to my husband. He works very hard to market products, and increase their quality so that they can be exported to some Asian countries. Principally, if wanting to be successful in everything, don t forget to perform a prayer and save money. (Interview, July 28, 2016). Rohimah explains: My strategy worked in Malaysia; 1) of honest work. 2) Must work very hard. 3) Always prayed to God. 4) Devoted to her husband, always communication and ask for his blessing. 5) Save money, to save money. 6) Sending money from abroad to husband.(interview, August 19, 2016). Rohimah strategy as domestic workers in Malaysia in order to overcome poverty and education costs using four strategy, namely: a) the religious strategy that is honest work and prayer, b) asking for the blessing of her husband, c) work hard, and d) management of financial economics. With four strategies, ex-slave Rohimah be successful, he has a broom industry, with a turnover of millions of rupiah that can handle the cost poverty and education. b) Sarmini Strategy. Sarmini from Banyu as worked in Malaysia. She is a successful woman with bachelor degree of Universitas Terbuka Malaysia. When she worked in Malaysia in 2004, she graduated from Diploma 2 of Sekolah Tinggi Agama Buda in Semarang. Actually, she wanted to study at bachelor program, but her parents could not finance her due to financial condition. Then, Sarmini decided to work as migrant workers in Malaysia

5 Sofyan Anif and Tjipto Subadi Sarmini says: Three years I worked as domestic workers in the host Tan Choo Tang (name of employer). In 2007 I asked permission will return, Tan Choo Tang asked me, what do you go home? I'm going to study. The employer sympathize and says; 1) Your college while working here (Malaysia), 2) I will help 50% of the total cost of your tuition, 3) I also would help the college needs you, for example; books and computers. 4) You may learn during the day as long as you work sedah completed. In the fourth year (2007), I was studying at the Open University of Malaysia and successfully graduated with value 3.7/ cum laude. (Interview, July 19, 2016). Sarmini said that the strategy to be a successful servant is: 1) be honest 2), pray to Allah, 3) ask for the blessing of your parents, 4) work hard, 5) do not be consumptive, 6) be frugal, 7) save money.(interview, August 23, 2016). Sarmini strategy as domestic workers in Malaysia to address poverty and education costs using four strategy, namely: a) strategy to religious work honestly and prayer, b) asking for blessing of the parents, and c) the management of financial economics. With these four strategies, Sarmini a migrant worker while studying at the Open University Malaysia, and graduated S1 Based on the description above, it can be concluded that being a servant in Malaysia must not be suffering. There are the successful servants, for example, Rohimah and Sarmini. Rokhimah former migrant worker becomes a successful businessmen, he has a broom industry with a turnover of millions of rupiah, while the former migrant worker Sarmini successful as workers and S1 successfully obtained a degree at the Open University Malaysia Strategy analysis Rohimah strategy as domestic workers in Malaysia in order to overcome poverty and education costs using four strategy, namely: a) the religious strategy that is honest work and prayer, b) asking for the blessing of her husband, c) work hard, and d) management of financial economics. With four strategies, ex-slave Rohimah be successful, he has a broom industry, with a turnover of millions of rupiah that can address costs of poverty and education. Whereas Sarmini strategy as domestic workers in Malaysia to address poverty and education costs, also using four strategy, namely: a) strategy to religious work honestly and prayer, b) adhered to the parents, and c) the management of financial economics. With four strategies, the former slave Sarmini successful as workers and S1 successfully obtained a degree at Open University Malaysia. Rohimah strategy and strategy Sarmini as domestic workers in Malaysia to address poverty and education costs uses four approaches as described above, which membdakan is if Rohimah asked for the blessing of her husband, while Sarmini asked for the blessing of his parents. Of the two phenomena former migrant worker which successfully aforementioned (Rohimah and Sarmini) could conclude that the strategy maid in tackling poverty and education costs, using three approaches. The approaches are: (1) pendekana religion, namely: honest while praying to God and asking for blessing from parents / husband, (2) approach to hard work, namely: work sincerely with satisfactory results, and 3) financial approach wisely, namely: the use of money for purposes that are not consumptive, manage their finances with savings and remittances

6 Being Workers in Malaysia: Strategy of Rural Communities in Dealing with Poverty and Education This is consistent with the literature (The Straits Times), that work hard and high willingness surely be a success. That also acted Mince Djara Lodu (31 years old) in Singapore. Although he is an Indonesian workers in Singapore, who would have thought, it turns out Mince earned a bachelor's degree from the Open University of Indonesia (December 2002 last year). [12] Mince worked for Mrs. Juliette and Loe Lim Kok Weng, married couple aged around 60. Mince came to Singapore in 2002 when he was 19 years old, now he is at the age of 31 years. Mince proud to say that he has a degree from the Department of English for Translation at the Faculty of Social and Political Sciences. Achievement of this housekeeper with a Filipina maids working in Hong Kong, was awarded the prestigious scholarship from the Foundation for Human Rights Magnum to continue their studies to New York University.[12] Sarmini, Rohimah phenomenon and is also in line with research Hugo (1982) highlighted the impact of migration on the family economy. This research resulted in the finding that the amounts of migrant remittances determine the level of prosperity of a household. Most remittances from migrants to meet basic living needs, it was concluded that 40% of remittances from migrants are used to buy rice, while 60% of remittances for education expenses sister and her children. [13]. 5. CONCLUSIONS The results of the research show that the servants strategies in dealing with poverty and education cost by using three main approaches. The approaches are 1) religion, namely: honest while praying to God and asking for blessing from parents / husband, 2) approach to hard work, namely: work sincerely with satisfactory results, and 3) financial approach wisely, namely: the use of money for purposes that are not consumptive, manage their finances with savings and remittances. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors thank Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta for providing research grant and international publication funding. REFERENCES [1] Rigg, J. Southeast Asia a Region in Transition, 2013, London: Cambridge University Press. [2] Subadi, T.and Ismail, R. Indonesian Female Migrants and Employers Mistreatment In Malaysia: A Case Of Domestic Servants From Central Java. Journal of International Research Humanities and Social Science, 3(6), 2013, pp.1-9. [3] BPS Prov. Jateng. Statistik Sosial dan Kependudukan Jawa Tengah Hasil Susenas, Semarang: Pemda Provinsi Jawa Tengah. [4] BPS Prov. Jateng, Berita Resmi Statistik Provinsi Jawa Tengah, No.37/05/33/Th.IX, 05 Mei Semarang: Pemda Provinsi Jawa Tengah. [5] Abdullah, F. Case of Foreign Housemaids Mistreatment (Kes dera pembantu rumah warga asing), Utusan Malaysia, 28 August [6] Lee, E. S., A Theory of Migration, Demography, 3(1), 1966, pp [7] Undang-Undang RI No. 39 Tahun 2004, Tentang Penempatan Dan Perlindungan Tenaga Kerja Indonesia Di Luar Negeri, Jakarta: Department Transmigrasi Kependudukan dan Ketenagakerjaan

7 Sofyan Anif and Tjipto Subadi [8] Chambers, R. Rural poverty: are basic needs red herrings, Rural Life, [9] Erisman,Badan Pusat Statistik (BPS) Jawa Tengah 2015, dalam Meningkat#sthash.TxatG1r9.dpuf [10] Subadi, T., Ismail, R, 2013, Indonesian Female Migrants and Employers Mistreatment In Malaysia: A Case Of Domestic Servants From Central Java. Jurnal International (Research Humanities and social science International, ISSN: (paper) (online), Vol. 3, No. 6, Mei (2013). [11] Subadi, T., Rita, P.K. and Sutarni, S. A Lesson Study as a Development Model of Professional Teachers. International Journal of Education. 5(2), 2013, pp [12] Tribun, T. Kisah Mince, TKW yang Jadi Sarjana dan Peroleh Beasiswa ke New York.( [13] Hugo. Evaluation of the Impact of Migration on Individuals, Households and Communities, dalam National Migration Survey: Guidelines for Analysis, 1982, New York, United Nations

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