Civil Rights Amendments

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1 Civil Rights Amendments Eighth Grade Unit: 10 Lesson: 04 Suggested Duration: 3 days Lesson Synopsis: In this lesson, students will learn about the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Amendments passed during Reconstruction and how these impacted life in the United States. TEKS: 8.1 History. The student understands traditional historical points of reference in U.S. history through The student is expected to: 8.1A Identify the major eras in U.S. history through 1877 and describe their defining characteristics; 8.17 Government. The student understands the process of changing the U.S. Constitution and the impact of amendments on American society. The student is expected to: 8.17B Describe the impact of 19th-century amendments including the 13th, 14th, and 15th amendments on life in the United States; and 8.22 Citizenship. The student understands the importance of the expression of different points of view in a democratic society. The student is expected to: 8.22A Identify different points of view of political parties and interest groups on important historical and contemporary issues; Process TEKS: 8.30 Social studies skills. The student applies critical-thinking skills to organize and use information acquired from a variety of sources including electronic technology. The student is expected to: 8.30A Differentiate between, locate, and use primary and secondary sources such as computer software, databases, media and news services, biographies, interviews, and artifacts to acquire information about the United States; 8.30B Analyze information by sequencing, categorizing, identifying cause-and-effect relationships, comparing, contrasting, finding the main idea, summarizing, making generalizations and predictions, and drawing inferences and conclusions; 8.30D Identify points of view from the historical context surrounding an event and the frame of reference which influenced the participants; 8.30E Support a point of view on a social studies issue or event; 8.31 Social studies skills. The student communicates in written, oral, and visual forms. The student is expected to: 8.31A Use social studies terminology correctly; 8.31B Use standard grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and punctuation; 8.31D Create written, oral, and visual presentations of social studies information. GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION Performance Indicator(s): Illustrate the 13th, 14th, and 15 th amendments and how they impacted life in the United States immediately after the Civil War. Expain the illustrations; use academic language and tell whe significance of each component of the illustration. (8.1A; 8.17B) 1C; 1E; 4J; 5B Key Understandings and Guiding Questions: Legislation for the expansion of rights for groups of people demonstrates an effort to change society. How did Reconstruction efforts or laws impact African-Americans? Were Reconstruction efforts able to reconstruct America? Why or why not? How can legislation change society? Vocabulary of Instruction: amendment impact cause/effect consequence point of view primary source Reconstruction suffrage amnesty equal protection Civil Rights Act of 1866 Fifteenth Amendment Fourteenth Amendment Thirteenth Amendment Materials: 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 1 of 11

2 copy paper textbook Unit: 11 Lesson: 03 Resources: P{rint Resources Handout: Quest for Economic Autonomy and Equal Rights Handout: Civil Rights Amendments Handout: Civil Rights Act of 1866 Handout: Civil Rights Graphic Organizer Teacher Resource: Civil Rights Graphic Organizer Key Teacher Resource: Recontruction Basics PowerPoint Handout: Rubric: Evaluation Web Resources: Digital History: Journal entries: 13 th Amendment: 14 th Amendment: 15 th Amendment: Advance Preparation: 1. Become familiar with the content and procedures for this lesson. Refer to the Instructional Focus Document for specific content to include. 2. Copy handouts as needed. 3. Select appropriate sections of the textbook and other classroom materials to support the learning. 4. Preview websites according to district guidelines. 5. Access for two journal entries for the Elaborate section. The journal entries were created by Kate Stone, a young woman who grew up on a large plantation in Northeastern Louisiana. 6. Discovery Education Streaming has video clips which may be utilized with each lesson. Contact your local campus librarian or technology specialist to get a list of available clips. These clips can provide an additional resource for students to learn about the content of the lesson. Background Information: At the end of the Civil War, many issues arose regarding how to repair the political, economic, and social damage done by war. Reconstruction refers to the period after the Civil War when the southern states were reintegrated into the Union. Immediately following the war, the southern states were in disarray. Not only were many towns and cities burned, looted and destroyed, but the southern states were still not part of the United States. Reconstruction aimed to integrate the southern states back into the Union while ensuring such states were ready to obey the new laws and measures resulting from the war. Many questions arose after the Civil War, and policies and bills passed during reconstruction aimed to answer them. As a result of the Civil War, three constitutional amendments were born. The 13th amendment prohibited slavery, the 14th granted Civil Rights to black people, and the 15th granted black people the right to vote. Although president Lincoln had called for a lenient plan in dealing with the southern states, Congress enacted a plan that required the former states to meet certain conditions such as acceptance of the amendments mentioned above. Note that the three amendments were used as an example in the Elaborate section of Lesson 2 in Unit 4. GETTING READY FOR INSTRUCTION SUPPLEMENTAL PLANNING DOCUMENT Instructors are encouraged to supplement, and substitute resources, materials, and activities to differentiate instruction to address the needs of learners. The Exemplar Lessons are one approach to teaching and reaching the Performance Indicators and Specificity in the Instructional Focus Document for this unit. A Microsoft Word template for this planning document is located at If a supplement is created electronically, users are encouraged to upload the document to their Lesson Plans as a Lesson Plan Resource in your district Curriculum Developer site for future reference. 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 2 of 11

3 INSTRUCTIONAL PROCEDURES Instructional Procedures ENGAGE Student work in small groups (4 or fewer) to brainstorm a list of 10 possible problems the United States faced after the Civil War. Ask the following questions to guide the group lists: Who was affected after the Civil War? (Blacks, farmers, Southerners) What feelings by the former slaves, Southerners, and Northerners might emerge after all the fighting was over? (Uncertainty over what to do with the former slaves, Southerners loss over their property and way of life, and Northerners resentment toward rebelling states.) How would the government deal with the South? (The vast destruction in the South and freedom of the slaves would greatly influence the course of the government.) What role would African-Americans play in the new United States? (Former slaves would seek jobs and opportunities.) After the students have created their list of 10 problems, create a class list and discuss why they felt that those problems would arise. (This activity reviews previous learning and encourages students to use higher level thinking to apply their knowledge and make inferences based on their knowledge.) Notes for Teacher NOTE: 1 Day = 50 minutes Suggested time: 1/4 Day In this lesson you will learn about how the United States had to repair the damage done by the Civil War and how reconstruction was a very complex, and at times, ineffective approach for unity and peace. Note: Students will learn more about Reconstruction in Unit 12. This lesson will focuses only on the Reconstruction Amendments and the Civil Rights Act of EXPLORE Jigsaw activity. Divide students into 4 expert groups. (There will be an expert group for each of the 3 Amendments and the Civil Rights Act of Depending on class size, there may need to be 8 groups to keep the small groups a manageable size.) Students will start in an expert group and rotate to a new group with at least one representative from each expert group. Distribute to each group the Handout: Quest for Economic Autonomy and Equal Rights. Each group is responsible for becoming an expert on their topic (A Civil Rights Amendment or the Civil Rights Act of 1866). They will be teaching other classmates in the next step of the activity (the members of their second group). In their groups students discuss the challenges that faced freed slaves immediately after the Civil War. They also prepare to answer the following question. How do you think the government is going to have to respond to these challenges? (The government is going to have to pass laws that state how society will treat freed slaves and what rights they have.) Distribute to each student the Handout: Civil Rights Graphic Organizer and the Civil Rights Amendments. Also distribute the informational handouts appropriate for each group. (use the links in the Notes for Teacher section for more detailed readings on each of the Amendments and use the handout: Civil Rights Act of Suggested time: ¾ Day MATERIALS: Handout: Quest for Economic Autonomy and Equal Rights Handout: Civil Rights Amendments Handout: Civil Rights Graphic Organizer Handout: Civil Rights Act of 1866 Web Resources: (These are short readings that would work well for expert groups. Use the print friendly version button on each site.) 13 th Amendment: hp?doc=40 14 th Amendment: hp?doc=43 15 th Amendment: hp?doc=44 Note: Discussions over Black Codes, Ku Klux Klan, and other restrictions on 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 3 of 11

4 Instructional Procedures 1866) Group 1- Thirteenth Amendment Group 2- Forteenth Amendment Group 3- Fifteenth Amendment Group 4- Civil Rights Act of 1866 Notes for Teacher freed slaves will be addressed in the next unit and, because of time restraints, need not be addressed now. Students complete the graphic organizer using the information handouts, completing their portion of the Civil Rights Graphic Organizer as they become experts. Group discussion includes the following questions: How can legislation change society? (Legislation is written documentation that some action will take place. In a democratic society, people are expected to follow their own laws.) How did Reconstruction efforts or laws impact African- Americans? (It gave freed slaves hope that they would have economic and political opportunities. In reality, they would face even more challenges for the next one hundred years.) Teacher circulates, probing with questions, clarifying misunderstandings, and providing additional information as needed. Students continue to learn about their expert group topic by reading appropriate sections of the textbook and other classroom materials. (This can be completed as homework.) EXPLAIN Day 2 Students return to their expert groups for a short time to review information learned on Day 1 and to share new knowledge gained. Redistribute the class into new groups of 4 made up of one expert on each topic. (There may be more students in a group, but there needs to be a minimum of one representative from each of the expert groups.) One at a time group members share their knowledge about their assigned expert topic and about the challenges facing freed slaves immediately after the Civil War. As each group member shares, the others will complete the appropriate portion of the Handout: Civil Rights Graphic Organizer. Teacher circulates, probing with questions, clarifying misunderstandings, providing additional information as needed, and determining where additional explanation is needed. Suggested time: 1 Day MATERIALS: Teacher Resource: Recontruction Basics PowerPoint Facilitate a discussion of knowledge gained. If needed, Use the Teacher Resource: Reconstruction Basics PowerPoint to further explain the need for the Civil Rights Act of 1866 and the Reconstruction Amendments. Use Socratic Question with the following: Why were these amendments necessary? (To ensure that freed slaves had an opportunity to gain right.) Who do you think would have issues with these amendments? Why? (Southerners would take issue with these amendments because their economic system had been destroyed.) Who would be in favor of these amendments? Why? (Northerners might be in favor of these amendments because they gave freed slaves some guarantees.) Did these amendments cause problems in bringing the country back together? Why or why not? (The effects of the Civil War already made it difficult for the country to come back together. Some Northerners wanted to make sure Southern states repaid the U.S. for the problem they caused. Southerners still wanted to maintain their way of life. These amendments caused some problems because society did not know what to do with so 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 4 of 11

5 Instructional Procedures many freed slaves.) What group was left out of the Civil Rights Act of 1866? (Women) Do you think that this might cause a problem later? (Women suffragists will be upset their rights were overlooked and would not work as hard as they used to for social causes.) Does the passage of a law guarantee that it will be followed? Why or Why not? (No, because it is up to society and people in power to enforce the laws.) Were Reconstruction legislation efforts able to reconstruct America? Why or why not? (No, at least not immediately after the Civil War since there were many challenges facing the country. Freed slaves did not have the economic or political power to completely realize their quest for equal rights.) Continue the discussion using the key understanding and guiding questions to encourage students to use higher order thinking skills and academic language. Legislation for the expansion of rights for groups of people demonstrates an effort to change society. How did Reconstruction efforts or laws impact African- Americans? Were Reconstruction efforts able to reconstruct America? Why or why not? How can legislation change society? Notes for Teacher ELABORATE Day 3 To extend their learning of the destruction in the South and the need for reconstruction, students investigate the impact of the war on daily life by using primary source documents. Use the link in the Notes for Teacher to access two journal entries created by Kate Stone, a young woman who grew up on a large plantation in Northeastern Louisisana. Students (individually or in pairs) complete a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the impact on daily life on a plantation before and after the Civil War. EVALUATE Illustrate the 13th, 14th, and 15 th amendments and how they impacted life in the United States immediately after the Civil War. Explain the illustrations; use academic language and tell the significance of each component of the illustration. (8.1A; 8.17B) Suggested time: ½ Day Web Resource: Link for journal entries: nstruction/plantation/ps_stone.html Suggested time: ½ Day MATERIALS: Handout: Rubric: Evaluation 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 5 of 11

6 Quest for Economic Autonomy and Equal Rights The desire for independence in all of its aspects and equality shaped African-Americans' definition of freedom. African Americans wished to take control of the conditions under which they labored, and carve out the greatest possible economic independence. In public life, they demanded recognition of their equal rights as American citizens. Immediately after the Civil War, blacks throughout the South organized mass meetings and conventions demanding equality before the law, the right to vote, and equal access to schools, transportation, and other public facilities. The end of slavery, they insisted, enabled America for the first time to live up to the full implications of its democratic creed by abandoning racial discrimination and accepting blacks (or at least the adult males among them) into the political nation. Free blacks, ministers, artisans, and former soldiers predominated at these early meetings. Many of the delegates would go on to distinguished careers of public service during Reconstruction. 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 6 of 11

7 Civil Rights Amendments Transcript of 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865) AMENDMENT XIII Section 1. Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction. Transcript of 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Civil Rights (1868) AMENDMENT XIV Section 1. All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. Transcript of 15th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Voting Rights (1870) AMENDMENT XV Section 1. The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 7 of 11

8 Civil Rights Act of 1866 The roots of the Civil Rights Act of 1866 are traceable to the Emancipation Proclamation, delivered by President Abraham Lincoln on January 1, 1863, which freed slaves held in bondage in the rebel states. The Civil Rights Act of 1866 was a momentous chapter in the development of civic equality for newly emancipated blacks in the years following the Civil War. It was passed by Congress on 9th April 1866 over the veto of President Andrew Johnson. The act accomplished three primary objectives designed to integrate blacks into mainstream American society. First, the act proclaimed "that all persons born in the United States... are hereby declared to be citizens of the United States." Second, as citizens they could make and enforce contracts, sue and be sued, give evidence in court, and inherit, purchase, lease, sell, hold, and convey real and personal property. Third, the act made it unlawful to deprive a person of any of these rights of citizenship on the basis of race, color, or prior condition of slavery or involuntary servitude. Persons who denied these rights to former slaves were guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction faced a fine not exceeding $1,000, or imprisonment not exceeding one year, or both. The activities of organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan undermined the workings of this act and it failed to guarantee the civil rights of African Americans. 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 8 of 11

9 Civil Rights Graphic Organizer Directions: Describe amendment in the first row of the table. Then in each column describe the reaction of the group identified in the first column. 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment Civil Rights Act of 1866 What did it do? Reactions to? African- Americans 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 9 of 11

10 Civil Rights Graphic Organizer Key What did it do? 13 th Amendment 14 th Amendment 15 th Amendment Removed slavery from the social and economic systems Forced the nature of citizenship to be formally addressed Ensured voting to be a right of citizenship Civil Rights Act of 1866 Granted citizenship to persons born in the United States except Native Americans Reactions of? African- Americans Note: There will be a variety of answers. Students should begin to understand that many in the South, especially Democrats, were against these amendments and wanted to maintain the Southern way of life. Republicans from the North wanted the amendments and believed the amendments were needed to protect the rights of the blacks. Most feminists supported the amendments but questioned when they would gain their right to suffrage. 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 10 of 11

11 Rubric: Evaluation Student Name: Illustrate the 13th, 14th, and 15 th amendments and how they impacted life in the United States immediately after the Civil War. Explain the illustrations; use academic language and tell the significance of each component of the illustration. (8.1A; 8.17B) CATEGORY Illustrations Each of the Most of the Some of the The illustrations do illustrations clearly illustrations show the illustrations show the not show the impact shows the impact on life in the United States. impact on life in the United States. impact on life in the United States. on life in the United States. Content The illustrations presented are historically accurate. The illustrations presented are generally historically accurate. The illustrations are somewhat historically accurate. The illustrations presented are not historically accurate. Explanation Insightful, clear explanation reveals deep understanding of the economic, social and political situation after the Civil War and the significant impact the amendments had on the country. Good explanation gets to the main points of the amendments. Basic explanation is correct but lacks elaboration or deep connections. Unsatisfactory explanation of components included 2010, TESCCC 07/01/10 page 11 of 11