2 Causes of the Great Depression Massive business inventories Up 300% from 1928 to 1929 Lack of diversification in American economy Prosperity of 1920s largely a result of expansion of construction and automobile industries
3 Other Causes of the Great Depression Poor distribution of purchasing power among consumers Many farmers and factory workers were unable to purchase cars and houses and thus maintain economic growth Farm income declined 66% from 1920 to 1929 By 1929 the top 10% of the nation's population received 40% of the nation's disposable income
4 Other Causes of the Great Depression Huge credit problems People living on credit - Steady stream of bank failures in late 1920s as customers (many of them farmers) were unable to pay mortgages Many bankers had small cash reserves as they attempted to capitalize on stock market growth. Buying on Margin Paying a small % of a stock s price as down payment and borrowing the rest. Low margins encouraged speculative investment on the part of banks, corporations, and individual investors
5 Other Causes of the Great Depression Decline in demand for American goods in international trade Some European industry and agriculture gradually recovered from World War I Some nations, particularly Germany, were so beset by financial crises and inflation that they could not afford to purchase American goods Unable to pay wartime debts, many European nations borrowed from American banks, further increasing indebtedness High American protective tariffs discouraged trade
6 Election of 1928 Republican Herbert Hoover Secretary of Commerce Democrat Alfred E. Smith Progressive Governor of New York Hoover wins big, continued belief that things will be great.
8 Stock Market Crash, 1929 Black Tuesday By October 1929, margin buying had reached $8.5 billion in loans to stock purchasers Stock prices began to fall in September On October 24 (Black Thursday) and October 29 (Black Tuesday), prices fell drastically as sellers panicked. By December $40 billion in stock value had been lost.
9 Reactions to Crash Hoover and business leaders attempted to calm Americans by assuring them that the country's economy was fundamentally sound J.P. Morgan and other bankers bought $20 million of U.S. Steel to try to restore confidence
10 Between 1929 and 1933, 100,000 businesses failed Corporate profits fell from $10 billion to $1 billon Between 1929 and 1933, over 6000 banks failed with over 9 million savings accounts lost ($2.5 billion) By 1933, 13 million workers were unemployed (25% of the work force) and many were underemployed Estimates 50% of population one or the other. Malnutrition increased Diseases tuberculosis, typhoid and dysentery increased. In 1932, 95 people died in New York City from starvation Many turned to soup kitchens and breadlines for food Large numbers of homeless workers roamed the U.S., particularly the Southwest, seeking work
11 Hoover s Response Rugged Individualism Rejected direct relief (the dole) as undermining to character and rugged individualism. Afraid of creating a permanent poor underclass with no desire to work. Urged Americans to turn to community and church resources (Salvation Army, Community Chest, Red Cross) to meet needs of the poor
12 Hoover Gradually used Federal Agencies Work with business and labor leaders to reduce layoffs and strikes Financed federal work projects, Boulder, Hoover, and Grand Coulee dams Set up RFC (Reconstruction Finance Corporation) in 1932 to make loans ($2 Billion) to banks, railroads, and other businesses Stimulate economy in a "trickle-down" manner Create Job Growth and Higher Wages
13 Hawley-Smoot Tariff Raised tariffs 33% by signing the Hawley- Smoot Tariff in attempt to keep foreign goods off the U.S. market.
14 Bonus Army 1932 Up to 20,000 World War I veterans went to Washington D.C. to support bill before Congress to pay them extra money for wartime service. Supposed to be paid in 1945, Congressman Wright Patman wanted it paid immediately. Hoover orders military to disband army when bill fails. Bonus Army is gassed by military, creating public outcry.
15 Dorothea Lange
16 American History 11R
17 Mood of the Nation in 1932 due to By 1932, many Americans were out of work or just barely keeping their jobs. They were upset with the government s handling of the crisis. Many blamed president Herbert Hoover. Ready for a change in leadership. Great Depression
18 Election of 1932 Hoover refused to accept any responsibility for the economic downturn ("No president must ever admit he has been wrong") and was booed and jeered when he made his few campaign appearances outside Washington Campaign slogans: "The Worst is Past," "Prosperity is Just Around the Corner" Accused FDR of seeking the destruction of capitalism
19 Election of 1932 Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) preached a brand of cautious liberalism, rejecting Hoover's conservatism and the radical approach of socialists and communists. Offered a New Deal for the "forgotten man" and promised a balanced budget along with economic reforms Campaign slogan: "Happy Days are Here Again" signaled Democratic optimism in face of economic problems
20 Results of 1932 Election Though party platforms were remarkably similar, Democrats supported repeal of Prohibition and an increase in federal relief FDR won 57% of the popular vote and Democrats took control of both the House and Senate
22 One Hundred Days Following long lame-duck period for Hoover and Republicans (November 1932-March 1933), FDR launched Hundred Days of legislative and administrative changes From March 9 th to June 16 th, 1933, 15 major pieces of legislation was sent to Congress to significantly enlarge the role of the Federal government. Focus on: Relief Recovery Reform
23 Bank Holiday On March 5 th, Roosevelt declared a bank holiday. Convinced Congress to pass the Emergency Banking Relief Act. All banks in good economic condition could reopen. All banks found insolvent would remain closed. Banks needing some help would receive loans to help them reopen.
24 Fireside Chat On March 12 th, before the first banks would reopen, Roosevelt went on the radio to explain his New Deal legislation and reassure the nation. His informal manner and his call for public support of his programs helped calm the nation. Ended the run on banks and people put some savings back into the banks
25 Relief FERA Federal Emergency Relief Act Distributed millions of dollars of direct aid to unemployed workers PWA Public Works Administration Received $3.3 billion appropriation from Congress for public works projects CCC Civilian Conservation Corps Sent 250,000 young men to work camps to perform reforestation and conservation tasks. Removed surplus of workers from cities, provided healthy conditions for boys, provided money for families.
26 Relief TVA Tennessee Valley Authority Federal government builds series of dams to prevent flooding and sell electricity. First public competition with private power industries WPA Works Progress Administration Employed 8.5 million workers in construction and other jobs, but more importantly provided work in arts, theater, and literary projects.
27 Recovery AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Act Protected farmers from price drops by providing crop subsidies to reduce production, educational programs to teach methods of preventing soil erosion NIRA - National Industrial Recovery Act Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers
28 Opposition to New Deal
29 Recovery HOLC Home Owners Loan Corporation Provided government loans to homeowners who faced foreclosure because they could not meet loan payments FHA Federal Housing Administration Loans for home mortgages and repairs.
30 Reform FDIC Created by Glass-Steagall Act Created federally insured bank deposits ($2500 per investor at first) to prevent bank failures SEC Securities and Exchange Commission Regulated stock market and restricted margin buying SSA Social Security Act Provided a pension for retired workers and their spouses and aided people with disabilities.
31 Reform Wagner Act - NLRB National Labor Relations Board Allowed workers to join unions and outlawed union-busting tactics by management Fair Labor Standards Act Set maximum number of hours at 44 hours per week, decreased to 40 hours a week two years later. Minimum wage set at 25 cents an hour. Rules for children under 16 and banned those under 18 from hazardous work.
32 New Deal under Attack Roosevelt accepted deficit spending as necessary evil Liberals Felt New Deal did not go far enough Conservatives Felt Roosevelt had socialized the economy and put in too much government control
33 Supreme Court Attacks Supreme Court Struck down some New Deal legislation as going beyond the power of the executive branch Roosevelt To avoid further problems with SC Proposed a court reform bill to reorganize the judiciary and allow him to appoint 6 additional justices. Court-packing bill Protests in Congress and press Confrontation avoided with retirement of one justice.
34 Supreme Court Packing Bill
35 Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States (1935) Sick chicken case Brooklyn poultry corporation sold unfit chicken to a butcher. Supreme Court ruled that Congressional legislation of interstate commerce did not apply to a New York firm. Ruled the National Industrial Recovery Act was unconstitutional because Gave legislative powers to executive Some industries entirely in a state not under interstate commerce.
36 United States v. Butler (1936) Struck down Agricultural Adjustment Act. Processing tax to pay farmers to restrict production Not power of Congress, power of States. Regulation of agriculture beyond the power of the Congress. Congress passed a new Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1938 that was constitutional. Quotas and penalties for overproduction
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