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1 SOL Fast Facts for 8 th Grade Civics and Economics Unit 1 We the People: A Government of Citizens individual with certain rights and duties under a government and who, by birth or by choice, 1 citizen owes allegiance to that government 14 th Amendment defines citizenship in U.S. 2 sources of citizenship Birth Naturalization establish residency know American history and principles 3 naturalization process be able to read, speak, and write basic English pass exam (history & principals) take oath of allegiance obey laws pay taxes 4 duties of citizens serve in the armed forces if called serve on a jury if called serve as a witness in court if called register and vote influence government by communicating with government officials volunteer for appointed positions 5 responsibilities of citizens hold elective office participate in political campaigns keep informed regarding current issues respect others' rights to an equal voice in government protect citizens preserve order 6 purposes of government provide public goods and services plan for the future 7 democracy form of government in which the people rule the country government may do only those things people have given it the power to do and is specifically 8 limited government not allowed to do some things that step on people s rights the side receiving the greatest number of votes makes decisions binding on whole group while 9 majority rule protecting minority rights protection of fundamental the responsibility of the government to safeguard the rights of all citizens, even those in the 10 freedoms minority 11 representative government people elect public officeholders to make laws and conduct government on their behalf people are the source of all governmental power so government can only do what the citizens 12 consent of the governed show they approve of (through voting) 13 rule of law government including those who govern are bound by the law popular sovereignty government s authority to govern comes from the people themselves, rather than from birth of 14 the rulers or some outside source charters of the Virginia document that guaranteed the rights of Englishmen who agreed to settle in America 15 Company of London 16 Virginia Declaration of Rights document that served as a model for the Bill of Rights of the Constitution document written by Jefferson that established freedom of religious beliefs and opinions, Virginia Statute for Religious 17 and the separation of church and state Freedom model for part of the 1 st Amendment stated grievances against the king of England affirmed certain unalienable rights (life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness) 18 Declaration of Independence established the idea that all people are equal under the law establishes the right of citizens to change an unjust government document established first form of national US government major powers resided with individual states 19 Articles of Confederation weak central government no power to tax and enforce laws volunteer for organizations and public service (ex.: tutoring) 20 citizen s community service express concern about public issues help make the community a better place to live

2 21 22 personal character traits of good citizens skills for effective civic participation trustworthiness and honesty courtesy and respect responsibility, accountability, and self-reliance respect for the law patriotism participant in the school and local community informed voter formulate questions express position analyze information devise and implement a plan Unit 2 Constitutional Government supreme law of the land establishes the structure of the U.S. government 23 US Constitution Preamble, 7 articles, and amendments guarantees equality under law refers to the US Constitution 24 Living document flexible and adaptable amendments, elastic cause, and interpretation (courts) change in the Constitution 25 amendment currently 27 complex only 27 approved in over 200 years amending process of the U.S 26 proposed by 2/3 vote of Congress or state conventions Constitution ratified by ¾ vote of the states 27 due process of law 28 expressed powers constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws the government must follow certain steps if someone is accused of a crime powers of the federal government specifically mentioned in the US Constitution also known as delegated or enumerated powers powers not listed but exercised to carry out the powers of government 29 implied powers to carry out the necessary and proper clause 30 reserved powers powers kept by the states (10 th Amendment) 31 concurrent powers powers shared between the federal and state government division of power between the states and national government 32 federalism national government is supreme 33 state government s primary 34 promotes public health, safety, and welfare responsibilities 35 Preamble introduction to the US Constitution that expresses the reasons the Constitution was written form a more perfect union establish justice 36 promote the general welfare secure the blessings of liberty 37 Bill of Rights first 10 Amendments to Constitution, protects citizens rights by limiting what gov. can do national government s primary purposes of government in the conducts foreign policy ensure domestic tranquility responsibilities preamble regulates commerce provide for the common defense 38 1 st Amendment guarantees freedom of speech, press, assembly, religion and petition 39 5 th Amendment guarantees citizens the right of due process of law protects against double jeopardy, eminent domain, and self-incrimination defines citizenship 40 anyone born in the US is a citizen of the US and the state they live in 14 th Amendment guarantees rights to all citizens (preventing states from denying former slaves rights) extends due process protection to actions of the states 41 checks and balances gives each of branch of government a way to limit the powers of the other branches 42 separation of powers defines and divides the powers of the three branches of government Article I legislative, Article II executive, Article III - judicial 43 supremacy clause identifies the US Constitution as the authority over the states

3 Unit 3 Legislative Branch of Government part of government that is responsible for writing the laws 44 Legislative branch Congress (House of Representatives & Senate) Expressed: Specifically listed in the Constitution of the United States 45 Legislative Powers Implied: Not written, but used to carry out expressed powers Makes the laws of the nation Declares war expressed or enumerated Approves the annual budget Regulates interstate and foreign trade 46 powers of federal legislative Confirms presidential appointments branch Raises revenue through taxes and other levies 47 bicameral legislature consisting of two houses upper house 48 US Senate 2 members from each state (100 Senators) President Pro Tempore (when vice president is not present) is presiding officer lower house 49 US House of Representatives # determined by state s population (435 Representatives) Speaker of the House is presiding officer Elected officials write laws and take action in response to problems or issues. Introducing a bill by a Senator or Representative Work in committees 50 lawmaking process Debating the bill on the floor of each house Vote by both houses Signed into law by President approves federal judges 51 legislative checks judicial impeaches federal judges overrides vetoes impeaches president 52 legislative checks executive approves budget approves appointments (Senate) approves treaties (Senate) Unit 4 Executive Branch of Government part of government that is responsible for enforcing or carrying out the laws 53 executive branch President executes law of the land prepares annual budget for congressional action (this is the most recent) 54 enforce federal regulations Presidential power has grown in the years since the Constitution was ratified. 55 state of the union address annual presidential speech to Congress powers of federal executive appoints cabinet officers, ambassadors, and federal judges (its in constitution) branch administers federal bureaucracy 56 Cabinet President s official group of advisors, includes the heads of major departments. 57 Veto Ways the executive branch influences policymaking The President exercises power as 60 executive checks judicial 61 executive checks legislative president rejects a bill passed by Congress so it doesn t become law can be overturned by 2/3 vote by Congress Proposing legislation in an annual speech to Congress (State of the Union Address) Appealing directly to the people Approving or vetoing legislation Appointing officials who carry out the laws Cabinet departments, agencies, and regulatory groups interpret and execute the laws. Chief of State: Ceremonial head of the government Chief Executive: Head of the executive branch of government Chief Legislator: Proposer of the legislative agenda Commander-in-Chief: Head of the nation s armed forces (it s in the constitution) Chief Diplomat: Architect of American foreign policy Chief of Party: Leader of the political party that controls the executive branch Chief Citizen: Representative of all of the people appoints judges grants amnesty, pardon, reprieve approves or vetoes acts of Congress (bills) calls Congress into special session

4 Unit 5 Judicial Branch of Government part of government that is responsible for interpreting laws 62 judicial branch courts 63 original jurisdiction authority to hear a case for the first time 64 appellate jurisdiction authority to review cases from lower district courts or from regulatory agencies 65 arraignment hearing in which a suspect is charged and enters a plea (guilty or not guilty) 66 civil case 67 procedure for civil cases 68 criminal law 69 procedure in criminal cases involves a disagreement between two parties person wants compensation from someone who he feels has wronged him plaintiff files a complaint to recover damages or receive compensation case can be decided by judge or jury verdict can be appealed deals with misdemeanors and felonies someone is accused of breaking a law arrest assuming probable cause preliminary hearing: jailed or released on bail indictment: formally charged with a crime arraignment: case is reviewed, the defendant may be appointed an attorney, and plea is entered trial verdict may appeal 70 subpoena a court order to appear in court 71 Appeal request to a higher court to rehear a case if the losing side feels injustice 8 associate justices & 1 chief justice no jury U. S. Supreme Court 72 hears cases dealing with constitutional issues typically hears cases on appeal, but has also has limited original jurisdiction The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land justices, no jury 73 U. S. Court of Appeals appellate jurisdiction can uphold, overturn, or remand a verdict from a lower court judge and jury 74 U. S. District Court original jurisdiction determines guilt or innocence, trial court 75 Due process of law constitutional protection against unfair governmental actions and laws 5 th Amendment Prohibits the national government from acting in an unfair manner 76 Due process protections 14th Amendment Prohibits state and local governments from acting in an unfair manner The Supreme Court has extended the due process clauses to protect the guarantees of the Bill of Rights. Chief Justice Marshall found that the Judiciary Act conflicted with the Constitution; the 77 Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court therefore overruled the act of Congress since the Constitution is always supreme established the principle of Judicial Review 78 judicial review Supreme Court determines laws/actions of the executive/legislative are constitutional 79 judicial checks executive declares executive acts unconstitutional 80 judicial checks legislative declares laws unconstitutional Unit 6 People and Politics 81 conservative people who prefer the way things are, usually want to limit the role of government 82 moderate people who avoid the extremes of either the liberal or conservative philosophy major parties attempt to appeal to the center 83 liberal people who want peaceful reform, usually want expanded role of government 84 evaluating campaign information separating fact from opinion detecting bias evaluating sources identifying propaganda

5 85 15th Amendment extended suffrage to African Americans 86 19th Amendment extended suffrage to women 87 24th Amendment outlawed poll taxes 88 26th Amendment extended suffrage to 18 year olds recruiting and nominating candidates educating the electorate about campaign issues 89 functions of political parties helping candidates win elections monitoring actions of officeholders (watchdog) 90 platform statement of a political party positions on issues (planks) 91 third parties 92 how interest groups affect public policy introduce new ideas or support for a particular issue often revolve around a political personality may act as spoiler identifying issues making political contributions lobbying government officials 93 ways individuals affect public policy participating in politics (voting, campaigning) expressing opinions (lobbying, demonstrating, writing letters) joining interest groups 94 roles of mass media identifying candidates emphasizing selected issues writing editorials, creating political cartoons, publishing op-ed pieces broadcasting different points of view holding officials accountable 95 campaign active effort to get support for a particular candidate to be elected to office 96 rising campaign costs requirements for voting in Virginia factors in predicting likely voters 99 why citizens fail to vote 100 presidential nomination 101 electoral college requires candidates to conduct extensive fund-raising activities encourages the development of political action committees (PACs) gives issue-oriented special interest groups increased influence leads to campaign finance reform (limits the amount individuals may contribute to political candidates and campaigns) give an advantage to wealthy individuals who run for office limit opportunities to run for public office citizen of the United States resident of Virginia and precinct 18 years of age by day of general election Register 30 days prior to election age income education lack of interest (apathy) failure to register past experiences level of government primary elections caucuses conventions group of people that directly elect the president and vice-president number of state electors is equal to a state s representation in Congress 102 electoral college process popular vote determines which electors represent each state electors meet to vote for President and Vice President winner-take-all system leads to targeting of populous states for campaigning

6 Unit 7 Economics 103 scarcity inability to satisfy all wants at the same time, all resources are limited 104 What will be produced and how many? The three basic questions Who will produce it? of economics: For whom will it be produced? 105 natural resources factors of production that are used in producing goods and services such as land, minerals, water, etc. 106 human resources factors of production that are used in producing goods and services such as labor, skills, training, etc. 107 capital resources Money, machines and tools used to produce things 108 entrepreneur Person who takes a risk to produce goods and services in search of profit 109 choice selecting an item or action from a set of possible alternatives what is given up when a choice is made to use scarce resources for one purpose 110 opportunity cost instead of another, the highest valued alternative that is forgone 111 incentive something that motivates someone to act, used to change economic behavior amount of money exchanged for a good or service 112 price determined by the interaction of supply and demand influences who acquires goods and services 113 supply Amount of a good or service that producers are willing and able to sell at a certain price 114 demand Amount of a good or service that consumers are willing and able to buy at a certain price 115 consumption Using goods or services Combining of human, natural, capital and entrepreneurship resources to make goods or 116 production provide services. Entrepreneurship Human resources 117 Factors of Production Natural resources Capital resources Economic decisions are based on custom and historical precedent 118 Traditional Economy People often perform the same type of work as their parents and grandparents, regardless of ability or potential government ownership of property & resources centrally-planned economy 119 Command Economy Government controls what is produced lack of consumer choice private ownership of property & resources profit is goal competition 120 Free Market Economy consumer sovereignty individual choice supply & demand determine market price 121 Mixed Economy government and the market forces share in the making of economic decisions more government role for public sector and individuals and businesses for private sector consumer sovereignty competition People determine what goods and services will be produced through what they are willing to purchase Rivalry between producers/sellers of goods or services results in better quality goods and services at a lower price 124 profit Earnings after all expenses have been paid individuals and businesses have the right to own land, machinery, buildings and the 125 private property means of producing goods goods and services may be produced and sold for personal profit 126 Sole Proprietorship Form of business with one owner who takes all the risks and gains all the profits 127 Partnership Form of a business with two or more owners who share the risks and profits form of business organization authorized by law to act as a legal person 128 Corporation many owners have shares of the business and share in profits owners liability is limited to their investment so there is less risk

7 129 Circular/Economic Flow 130 Public Goods & Services 131 Private Financial Institutions 132 Interest Fee paid for the use of money 133 Federal Reserve System Continuous movement between resources, goods and services, and money among households, businesses and markets individual and business saving and investment provide financial capital capital is borrowed for business expansion individuals (households) own the resources, sell the resources, and use the income to purchase products. businesses (producers) buy resources; make products that are sold to individuals, and use the profits to buy more resources good or service maintained by government & paid for by taxes provide benefits to many simultaneously would not be available if individuals had to provide them themselves roads, postal service, schools, parks, fire & police, defense banks, savings and loans, credit unions, and securities brokerages receive deposits and make loans encourage saving and investing by paying interest on deposits central bank of the United States ( fed ) issues currency regulates the amount of money in circulation controls interest rates goal is to maintain a stable economy 134 Fiscal Policy to Slow the Economy Goal is to lessen excess funds available for private and business spending Decrease government spending Tax increase Government borrows more by selling more bonds 135 Fiscal Policy to Stimulate the Economy Goal is to increase funds for private and business spending Decrease government borrowing (sell less bonds) Increase government spending May create more demand and production May increase employment 136 Tax 137 Government Revenue 138 Deficit Government Agencies that Regulate Business Reasons for Trade and Global Economy Ways Government Promotes Competition Money the government collects from citizens and businesses to provide public services Sources of government funds including Taxes Borrowing funds through selling bonds Licenses, fines and intergovernmental for state and local Excess of government expenses over revenues FCC (Federal Communications Commission)- radio, television, newspapers EPA (Environmental Protection Agency)- pollution, natural lands FTC (Federal Trade Commission)-advertising, packaging, buying & selling obtain goods and services they cannot produce or produce efficiently themselves buy goods and services at a lower cost or lower opportunity cost sell goods and services to other countries often greater employment, though may shift location of workforce enforcing antitrust legislation to discourage monopolies engaging in global trade supporting business start-ups th Amendment Gives Congress the power to collect income taxes from individuals & businesses

8 Units 8 and 9 State and Local Government reserved powers (10the Amendment) responsibilities of state includes education, elections, public health, safety, and welfare 143 governments authorize local government some powers are denied to the states by the Constitution executes laws of Virginia prepares biennial budget for General Assembly appoints cabinet officers and boards 144 state executive branch administers state bureaucracy grants pardons & reprieves Governor, lieutenant governor, and attorney general elected makes laws for Virginia 145 state legislative branch approves biennial (two-year) budget exercises power under the 10th Amendment Virginia legislature 146 General Assembly consists of a state senate and house of delegates hears cases under the authority provided by state legislation 147 state judicial branch district courts, circuit courts, appeals courts, VA Supreme Court determines constitutionality of laws/acts of the executive/legislative branches Virginia 7 justices/no jury 148 Virginia Supreme Court appellate jurisdiction court of final appeal in the state limited original jurisdiction magistrate judge who issues search warrants, subpoenas, arrest warrants, and sets bail 153 judges have greater latitude in handling juvenile cases 154 record may be sealed town, city, county provide basic services 155 local government implement state laws pass ordinances powers delegated by the state legislative body in a city 156 city council elected by citizens mayor is presiding officer 157 council-manager system type of local government with an elected city council and mayor and appointed city manager 158 (Virginia Beach) city charter permission from the state to form a local government 159 plan of government for a city in Virginia can t be changed without state approval Court of Appeals of Virginia Circuit Court General District Court Juvenile and Domestic procedure for cases involving city manager appellate jurisdiction over circuit courts original jurisdiction for felony criminal cases original jurisdiction for misdemeanors hears cases dealing with minors (under 18) & family matters juveniles who commit serious crimes can be tried as adults administrator hired by city council to manage the city Relations Court juveniles judges/no jury civil cases over $1000 civil cases involving less than $1000 judge (no jury) bench trial directs the work of all city employees

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