WSU ESSAY #7. The idea of separate but a sharing of powers should be discussed.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "WSU ESSAY #7. The idea of separate but a sharing of powers should be discussed."

Transcription

1 Chapter 11 CONGRESS

2 WSU ESSAY #7 Congress Q: Identify the powers that Congress is granted to specifically check the executive branch from becoming too powerful. OR Explain the separation of three branches of government and how each can check the powers of the other branch with specific examples. The idea of separate but a sharing of powers should be discussed. Many presidential appointments require Senate approval; Senate can disapprove an appointment; examples, Cabinet and Federal Court appointments Constitution gives the Senate the power to advise and consent in regard to treaties made by the president. This can be withheld and a treaty will not be ratified Congress has the ability to conduct oversight of the bureaucracy and administrative agencies; this means it can conduct investigations to see how the executive is implementing what Congress has decided The House of Representatives has the power to impeach a president, and the Senate has the power to try the president on impeachment charges brought by the House The United States House of Representatives has the power of the purse. A president s request for an appropriation to support a particular program can be rejected and modified by Congress A veto can be overridden by both Houses of Congress, but it seldom occurs A power exercised by the president can be overturned by the Supreme Court: For example, President Harry Truman seized the steel mills to prevent a strike during the Korean War, and the Supreme Court struck down his decision. Congress has the power to declare war Exceeds expectations Student addresses 6-8 of these points Meet expectations student addresses 4-5 of these points Does NOT meet expectation student addresses fewer than 4 of these points 2

3 3

4 Chapter 11 Scenario 1 Page 351 What things did Congress do that made it difficult for President Obama to close Guantanamo Bay? Why did the Democratcontrolled Congress make it so difficult for him to deliver on his campaign promise of closing Gitmo? You should answer in 1-2 paragraphs. 4

5 The Origin and Powers of Congress The Great Compromise created two separate, powerful legislative chambers (bicameral) Equal representation in Senate Representation by population in House; House must initiate revenue-related legislation Identical bills must be passed by both chambers to become law 5

6 House of Representatives Senate 6

7 100 total 2 per state Term: 6 years Senators Pat Roberts Jerry Moran Continuous body: 1/3 are elected every two years Initially Senators selected by state legislatures 17 th Amendment (1913) changed that process to direct elections 7

8 House of Representatives 435 total Based on population of state Directly elected by people Term: 2 years; all seats up for election Census every 10 years leads to reapportionment and subsequent redistricting 1 Rep = about 700,000 people Mike Pompeo District 4 8

9 Duties of the House and Senate Many shared powers Declare war Raise army/navy Borrow money Coin money Regulate interstate trade Create federal courts See Article I, Section 8, Clause 1-17 (Page A-6) Establish rules for naturalization of immigrants Make all laws necessary and proper for carrying out foregoing powers. (See Article I, Section 8, Clause 18) 9

10 Duties of the House and Senate House alone responsible for revenue bills and impeachment charges Senate alone responsible for approving treaties, presidential appointments, and trials on the articles of impeachment passed by the House Only 2 Presidents have been impeached, A. Johnson (1868) and B. Clinton (1998). Nixon resigned before the full House could vote on his impeachment. 10

11 Electing Congress Congressional elections give voters a chance to show approval or disapproval of Congress s performance Incumbents usually re-elected despite the fact polls show public dissatisfaction with Congress s actions Some think it s overly influenced by interest groups 11

12 Incumbent Reelection Stats In majority of elections since 1950: More than 90% incumbents won 2010 elections unusual 54 House incumbents defeated First time since 1974 reelection of House incumbents fell below 90% 85% House, 84% Senate 2012 elections 91% reelection rate 12

13 Figure 11.1 Pg. 354 Incumbents: Life is Good Despite public s dissatisfaction with Congress, incumbents win reelection at an exceptional rate. House fares better than Senate. Voters believe their own representatives and senators aren t to blame. 13

14 Figure 11.2 Pg. 355 We Love Our Incumbents, But Congress Itself Stinks Public approval of Congress. Approval has decreased even more in recent years. As of 1/11/13: 14% approve of Congress; 81% disapprove. 14

15 Redistricting After each census, states must re-draw House districts Changing district lines for partisan advantage is gerrymandering Computer programs make gerrymandering easy to do Some argue that gerrymandering increases partisan polarization 15

16 History of the term Gerrymander Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts drew districts in favor of Democratic-Republicans Painter Gilbert Stuart added head, wings, claws That will do for a salamander Better say Gerrymander, growled editor 16

17 Gerrymandering Activity Scenario A sample population distribution with each symbol representing a voting group (political party stronghold) in a generic state. Your job is to draw district lines of equal proportions (on the 3 samples above) in three different ways: 1. A fair/equitable distribution 2. Majority gerrymandering to ensure complete electoral dominance 3. Gerrymandering designed to ensure over-representation for the smaller party Work with partner 17

18 Gerrymandering designed to ensure over-representation for the smaller party. Sample population distribution. Each symbol represents a voter in a generic state A fair distribution Majority gerrymandering to ensure complete electoral dominance. Gerrymandering Examples

19 Kansas Redistricting 2000 &

20 Kansas Redistricting 2012 Proposals From 2000 census 20

21 Reapportionment 21

22 Name Recognition Incumbency has advantages Name recognition - press coverage of activities & speeches Franking privileges send mail free Twitter accounts about 1/3 of Reps have it Casework helping constituents (tracking down S.S. check, helping someone find appropriate federal agency, etc.) - grateful Campaign contributions (see next slide) 22

23 Campaign Financing Challengers must spend large sums of money to run campaigns Difficult to raise money Higher-quality challengers more likely to win, especially against vulnerable incumbents In 2008, incumbents raised 61 percent of all contributions to House and Senate Races Challengers received only 23 percent PACs prefer incumbents risky to give $ to long-shot challenger and offend incumbent 23

24 How much do you think the richest lawmaker in Congress made in 2011? 24

25 Whom Do We Elect? Those elected not a cross-section of American society Most are upper-class professionals Lawyers/business Around 44 percent are millionaires (about 1% of Americans are) Women & minorities underrepresented Only 8 blacks in history of Senate 20 women currently serve in Senate (only 39 in the history of Senate). 13 appointed, 7 followed dead husband Darrell Issa (R-CA) 2 nd richest lawmaker in 2011 worth approx $480 million? rets.org/pfds/overvi ew.php

26 Compared with What? Women in Legislatures pg. 359 European countries have a higher percentage of women in the lower house of legislature than countries from the Americas. 26

27 Descriptive Representation Read page 358 Some believe descriptive representation is lacking Voting Rights Act amendments in 1982 designed to encourage the drawing of minority districts Supreme Court ruling in Thornburg v. Gingles (1986) also pushed states to concentrate minorities in House districts to ensure better representation Ch. 11 Scenario 3 pg. 358: Do you think only members of someone s group can truly represent the interests of that population? Explain in a paragraph. 27

28 Figure 11.3 pg. 360 Minorities in Congress African Americans make up less than 10% of total membership of the House/Senate. Hispanics make up about 5%. Representation of both groups is well below their proportions in the population at large (Hispanics 14% and African Americans 13% of total population) 28

29 Minorities in Congress Efforts to draw districts favorable to minorities being elected benefited African Americans, but not Hispanics Don t tend to live in concentrated areas 37% adult Hispanics can t vote; not citizens Supreme Court s ruling in Shaw v. Reno (1993) indicated racial gerrymandering might violate rights of whites Later rulings said race must not be dominant and controlling factor in drawing district boundaries 29

30 Ch. 11 Scenario 4 Write down 3 issues in the past year that Congress has tried put on their agenda to fix. This could be problems that are constant 30

31 How Issues Get on the Congressional Agenda Formal legislative process starts with introducing a bill in the House or Senate Problem or issue must be identified first Many major issues constant (S.S., debt, etc.); others appear suddenly (cyberbullying) Technology changes and/or highly visible events (9/11 airports, Newtown - guns) focus national attention on an issue Presidential or congressional support moves issues and related bills more rapidly Enhances image to sponsor a bill 31

32 The Dance of Legislation: An Overview Process of bill-writing and passage follows specific steps (see Figure 11.4 on next slide) Process in House and Senate similar, but House requires bills to go to Rules Committee before going to the floor Complexity comes with the many ways a bill can be treated at each step 32

33 Figure 11.4 Pg. 363 The Legislative Process The process by which a bill becomes a law is subject to much variation. This diagram depicts the typical process a bill might follow. A bill can fail at any stage because of lack of support. 33

34 Options When a bill sent to President, 4 options: 1. Sign 2. Veto Day Rule (automatically becomes law) 4. Pocket Veto (last 10 days) 34

35 Bill Process is Slow Bills amended again and again Often fruitless Pluralist 35

36 com/watch?v=tyej5 5o3El0 I m Just a Bill 36

37 Congress at Work President Woodrow Wilson once observed that Congress in session is Congress on public exhibition, whilst Congress in its committee rooms is Congress at work. A speech on the Senate floor may influence average citizens, but less likely to influence other Senators. 37

38 Committees: The Workhorses of Congress Real work of Congressional policymaking happens in committees, which address specific policy areas Standing committees and their related subcommittees permanent, specializes Sen, 42 House. Majority party controls committees Joint committees both House & Senate. Weaker fact finding dia.org/wiki/un ited_states_co ngressional_co mmittee Select committees temporary, special issues Conference committees temporary, work out differences on legislation 38

39 Congressional Expertise and Scrutiny Influence in Congress increases with expertise and seniority Senior member of majority party usually committee chair Republican leadership policy limits committee and subcommittee chairs to six-year terms Democrats largely use seniority system Dave Camp (R MI) Chairman House Committee on Ways and Means (taxes, S.S., Medicare) 39

40 Committee Action First step in drafting legislation is information gathering Research by committee staff Public hearings by committees or subcommittees Actual debate and amendments on bills in committee happens during markup sessions Committee chairs need to build coalitions 40

41 Oversight: Following Through on Legislation Once a bill becomes law, it is administered by a federal agency Congress has power of oversight to ensure bills enacted as intended However, magnitude of executive branch makes oversight difficult 41

42 Types of oversight: Hearings Oversight Ex: why govt failed after Hurricane Katrina Reports Ex: treatment of terror suspects Informal Contact between committee leaders and agency administrators Most oversight wants to improve, not discredit 42

43 Majoritarian and Pluralist Views of Committees Government by committee vests great power in committees, subcommittees, and their leaders In some ways, this enhances pluralism, since these people are elected Majoritarian aspect of committees comes through debates and compromises on bills necessary to get a bill passed 43

44 Leaders and Followers in Congress Party leaders in each house work to maximize influence of their party and ensure smooth and efficient functions Operation of each chamber based on rules and norms developed over the years 44

45 The Leadership Task in the House Majority party leadership : Speaker of the House chairs sessions Majority leader helps Speaker guide party through legislative process Majority whip tracks vote count; rallies support for legislation ( whip up votes) Minority party leadership: Minority leader Minority whip Both parties have committees for fundraising, strategy development, and logistics assistance 45

46 The Leadership Task in the Senate Vice President President of Senate (Constitutionally) President Pro Tempore usually serves Honorary most senior member majority party Majority Leader Has real power in the Senate Both majority & minority leader play critical role in getting bills through congress through bargaining and negotiations 46

47 Party leaders can be aggressive about enforcing party discipline Health care reform 2009 Max Baucus 47

48 The Johnson Treatment Pg. 371 When Lyndon B. Johnson was Senate Majority leader in the 1950s, he was well known for his style of interaction with other members. In this set of photos, he applies the Johnson Treatment to Senator Thodore Green (D-RI). The following is a description: Its tone could be supplication, accusation, exuberance, threat. It was all of these together it was breathtaking Interjections from the target were rare from his pockets poured clippings, memos, statistics. Mimicry, humor, and the genius of analogy made The Treatment an almost hypnotic experience and 48 rendered the target stunned and helpless.

49 Rules of Procedure Rules not always the same in House and Senate Bill consideration in Senate requires 60 senators to vote for unanimous consent agreement One Senate rule allows filibusters, which can be limited by a vote for cloture (3/5 60 votes) Threatening a filibuster common House amendments must be germane/relevant; Senate s do not House bills must go to House Rules Committee before floor debate 49

50 Filibuster Facts/Records 1947 Glen Taylor (D-ID) 8.5 hours on fishing, baptism, Wall Street, and children 1957 Strom Thurmond (R-SC) 24 hours, 18 minutes against Civil Rights Act of

51 Norms of Behavior Some norms are set rules; others are unwritten Two most important norms: Show respect to colleagues, even bitter opponents ( my good friend, my distinguished colleague, senior senator ) Be willing to bargain with one another 51

52 The Legislative Environment Decisions about Congress votes affected by: political parties president constituents interest groups Political parties and the president majoritarian influences on policymaking Constituents and interest groups are pluralist influences on policymaking 52

53 Political Parties Parties strong force in legislative process by controlling: Committee appointments (Tim Huelskamp) Consideration of a legislator s bills or amendments Appointments to leadership positions Parties also showcase differences in ideologies 53

54 The President Presidents tend to act as though they are speaking for the majority Public expectations for the presidency grew in the 20 th century White House openly involved in crafting legislation However, Congress still in charge of legislation 54

55 Constituents The people in a legislator s district or state crucial to decision-making process Legislators must consider what voters want Constituent influence contributes to pluralism because of the geographic basis of representation 55

56 Interest groups prime Interest Groups example of pluralist politics Legislators pay attention to interest groups because they represent voters Lobbyists also provide key information and contributions Access is the first step towards influence 56

57 The Dilemma of Representation What a legislator s constituents want not always what majority in nation want After working in Washington all week, legislators fly home to meet with constituents Average of 35 trips back to district Average of 138 days back in district 57

58 Constituents Strike Back During summer 2009 recess, members of Congress (Arlen Specter D-PA pictured here) traveled home to districts to attend angry constituents at town hall meetings about health-care reform plans. The intensity proved influential as Senator Chuck Grassley (R-Iowa) said the meetings caused him to temper support for the reforms. I ve got to listen to my people, he said. 58

59 Trustees or Delegates? Must members of Congress vote the way their district prefers, even if it goes against their conscience or national interests? Trustees vote their conscience Delegates vote their district or state Opinions of constituents not always clear More often vote as delegate on important issues 59

60 Ch. 11 Scenario 5 Do you prefer your Congressman to vote as a trustee or delegate? Explain in a paragraph. 60

61 Constitutional Qualifications House of Representatives: 25 years old U.S. citizen for 7 years Resident of state Senate: 30 years old U.S. citizen for 9 years Resident of the state 61

62 x Pluralism, Majoritarianism, and Democracy Voting as delegates supports pluralistic policymaking Majoritarian policymaking relies on involvement of political parties Voting as a trustee not necessarily majoritarian 62

63 xparliamentary Governmentx In parliamentary system, chief executive is leader of party with a majority In Great Britain, voters only vote for their member of Parliament Voters influence policymaking by their party choice With multiple parties, sometimes must form ruling coalition 63

64 xparliamentary Governmentx In this system, government power highly concentrated in legislature No separation of governmental power Usually have only one house, or a very weak second house Usually no court that can invalidate acts of parliament A very majoritarian form of government 64

65 Politics of Global Change: Creating a Legislature New Iraqi government based on proportional representation Each province has a multimember district Government is federal and has a unicameral legislature Representatives vote for presidential council, prime minister, and cabinet Disputes mean Iraqi parliament a work in progress 65

66 Pluralism Versus Majoritarianism in Congress U.S. Congress criticized for being too pluralist Despite public concern about deficit, legislators put earmarks in appropriations bills Democrats recently reformed earmark process for greater transparency Growing partisanship means greater majoritarianism So, modern Congress characterized by both pluralism and majoritarianism 66

67 WSU ESSAY #7 Congress Q: Identify the powers that Congress is granted to specifically check the executive branch from becoming too powerful. OR Explain the separation of three branches of government and how each can check the powers of the other branch with specific examples. The idea of separate but a sharing of powers should be discussed. Many presidential appointments require Senate approval; Senate can disapprove an appointment; examples, Cabinet and Federal Court appointments Constitution gives the Senate the power to advise and consent in regard to treaties made by the president. This can be withheld and a treaty will not be ratified Congress has the ability to conduct oversight of the bureaucracy and administrative agencies; this means it can conduct investigations to see how the executive is implementing what Congress has decided The House of Representatives has the power to impeach a president, and the Senate has the power to try the president on impeachment charges brought by the House The United States House of Representatives has the power of the purse. A president s request for an appropriation to support a particular program can be rejected and modified by Congress A veto can be overridden by both Houses of Congress, but it seldom occurs A power exercised by the president can be overturned by the Supreme Court: For example, President Harry Truman seized the steel mills to prevent a strike during the Korean War, and the Supreme Court struck down his decision. Congress has the power to declare war Exceeds expectations Student addresses 6-8 of these points Meet expectations student addresses 4-5 of these points Does NOT meet expectation student addresses fewer than 4 of these points 67

68 68

CIS Political Science Chapter 11. Legislative Branch: Congress. Mr. Makela. St. Clair High School. University of Minnesota

CIS Political Science Chapter 11. Legislative Branch: Congress. Mr. Makela. St. Clair High School. University of Minnesota CIS Political Science Chapter 11 Legislative Branch: Congress Mr. Makela St. Clair High School University of Minnesota The Origin and Powers of Congress Bicameral problems w/ Representation (Great Compromise)

More information

Congress has three major functions: lawmaking, representation, and oversight.

Congress has three major functions: lawmaking, representation, and oversight. Unit 5: Congress A legislature is the law-making body of a government. The United States Congress is a bicameral legislature that is, one consisting of two chambers: the House of Representatives and the

More information

4) Once every decade, the Constitution requires that the population be counted. This is called the 4)

4) Once every decade, the Constitution requires that the population be counted. This is called the 4) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The Founders intended that the House of Representatives be 1) A) professional. B) electorally insulated.

More information

AP U.S. Government & Politics Unit 3: Institutions of National Government: The Congress

AP U.S. Government & Politics Unit 3: Institutions of National Government: The Congress AP U.S. Government & Politics 2017-18 Unit 3: Institutions of National Government: The Congress Textbook: Chapter 11; Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests ; pp. 286-321 Web sites to use:

More information

Congressional Elections

Congressional Elections Name: Government In America, Chapter 12 Big Idea Questions Guided Notes The Representatives and Senators The Members: in total - 100 Senators and 435 members of the House Requirements to be a member of

More information

Topic 4: Congress Section 1

Topic 4: Congress Section 1 Topic 4: Congress Section 1 Introduction Why does the Constitution establish a bicameral legislature? Historically, it is modeled on the two houses of the British Parliament and colonial legislatures.

More information

Exceptions to Symmetry. Congress: The Legislative Branch. In comparative perspective, Congress is unusual.

Exceptions to Symmetry. Congress: The Legislative Branch. In comparative perspective, Congress is unusual. Congress: The Legislative Branch In comparative perspective, Congress is unusual. Most legislatures, particularly in parliamentary systems, are relatively weak. Congress exhibits symmetric bicameralism:

More information

Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests. Chapter 11

Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests. Chapter 11 Congress: Balancing National Goals and Local Interests Chapter 11 Original intent Leading branch of government Parts of executive and judicial branches cannot exist without congressional approval Branch

More information

AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPTER 11 CONGRESS: THE PEOPLE S BRANCH

AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPTER 11 CONGRESS: THE PEOPLE S BRANCH AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPTER 11 CONGRESS: THE PEOPLE S BRANCH The US Congress is one of the world s most representative and democratic institutions, admired for its openness and deliberateness. On the other

More information

Unit: The Legislative Branch

Unit: The Legislative Branch - two houses. Name: Date: Period: Unit: The Legislative Branch Part One: How Congress is Organized Gerrymandering- to a state into an odd-shaped district for reasons. - people in a representative s district.

More information

Unit 4 Test Bank Congress

Unit 4 Test Bank Congress Unit 4 Test Bank Congress 2) Which of the following did the framers of the Constitution conceive of as the center of policymaking in America? A) the President B) the people C) Congress D) the courts E)

More information

1. States must meet certain requirements in drawing district boundaries. Identify one of these requirements.

1. States must meet certain requirements in drawing district boundaries. Identify one of these requirements. Multiple Choice 1. States must meet certain requirements in drawing district boundaries. Identify one of these requirements. a. A person's vote in the largest district of a state must have only half the

More information

The Legislative Branch. Article I Congress

The Legislative Branch. Article I Congress The Legislative Branch Article I Congress Terms and Sessions of Congress A term is the length of time between elections in Congress (two years). Each Congressional term consists of two sessions, one during

More information

LEARNING OBJECTIVES After studying Chapter 12, you should be able to: 1. Describe the characteristics of our senators and representatives, and the nature of their jobs. 2. Explain what factors have the

More information

Two separate chambers in Congress (BICAMERAL)

Two separate chambers in Congress (BICAMERAL) CONGRESS Origins of Congress Great Compromise Two separate chambers in Congress (BICAMERAL) Senate Each state receives two senators; 6 year terms Originally selected by state legislatures, but 17th amendment

More information

Chapter 10: Congress

Chapter 10: Congress Chapter 10: Congress 1. Which of the following is not one of the reasons why a number of congressional members have stepped down from office? (A) constant fundraising (B) to take more prestigious positions

More information

The Legislative Branch How Congress is Organized

The Legislative Branch How Congress is Organized The Legislative Branch How Congress is Organized The First Branch of this Government The U.S. Congress The Legislative Branch of the U.S. Government Consists of 535 members in a two house ( bicameral )

More information

CHAPTER 5: CONGRESS: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

CHAPTER 5: CONGRESS: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH CHAPTER 5: CONGRESS: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 1 Section 1: Congress Section 2: The Powers of Congress Section 3: The House of Representative Section 4: The Senate Section 5: Congress At Work SECTION 1: CONGRESS

More information

The Legislative Branch C H A P T E R S 2 A N D 7 E S S E N T I A L S O F A M E R I C A N G O V E R N M E N T R O O T S A N D R E F O R M

The Legislative Branch C H A P T E R S 2 A N D 7 E S S E N T I A L S O F A M E R I C A N G O V E R N M E N T R O O T S A N D R E F O R M The Legislative Branch C H A P T E R S 2 A N D 7 E S S E N T I A L S O F A M E R I C A N G O V E R N M E N T R O O T S A N D R E F O R M M S. CAMPBELL A P GOVERNMENT EDGREN HIGH SCHOOL Imagine for a moment

More information

Chapter 5 - The Organization of Congress

Chapter 5 - The Organization of Congress Congressional Membership - Section 1 Chapter 5 - The Organization of Congress Introduction The Founders did not intend to make Congress a privileged group. They did intend to make the legislative branch

More information

The Congress 113th Congress (ISTOCKPHOTO)

The Congress 113th Congress (ISTOCKPHOTO) The Congress 113th Congress (ISTOCKPHOTO) Get it right!! Congress = House + Senate House Senate Total Number 435 100 representatives A. Congress by the numbers! Pop-based! Equal - 2 per state Elected Period

More information

Rabalais AP Government Review Vocabulary List

Rabalais AP Government Review Vocabulary List Rabalais AP Government Review Vocabulary List Chapter 2 The Constitution Democracy Government by the people, both directly or indirectly, with free and frequent elections. Direct democracy Government in

More information

Chapter 5 The Organization of Congress. Section 1 Congressional Membership

Chapter 5 The Organization of Congress. Section 1 Congressional Membership Chapter 5 The Organization of Congress Section 1 Congressional Membership Congressional Sessions Each term of Congress has two sessions. Each session lasts until Congress votes to adjourn. Membership of

More information

A) A Congressman wants to be reelected, so he will vote in a way that will garner his constituents' support. E) I, II, and III B) pork barreling

A) A Congressman wants to be reelected, so he will vote in a way that will garner his constituents' support. E) I, II, and III B) pork barreling 1. In the original Constitution, the House of Representatives was considered more responsive than the Senate to public opinion for which of the following reasons? I. Each representative served fewer constituents

More information

Social Studies Curriculum High School

Social Studies Curriculum High School Mission Statement: American Government The Social Studies Department of Alton High School is committed to the following; assisting students in mastering and appreciating the principles of government, preparing

More information

Organization. -Great Compromise of branches of government Bicameral legislature. -House. -Senate Upper house

Organization. -Great Compromise of branches of government Bicameral legislature. -House. -Senate Upper house Organization -Great Compromise of 1787 3 branches of government Bicameral legislature -House Lower house -Senate Upper house The House of Representatives is based on population The Senate is based on equal

More information

Unit IV- Institutions of National Government (Congress, Presidency, and Bureaucracy)

Unit IV- Institutions of National Government (Congress, Presidency, and Bureaucracy) Unit IV- Institutions of National Government (Congress, Presidency, and Bureaucracy) Congress (435 representatives and 100 senators).house v. Senate (study chart on page 375 Key Differences ) A) Party

More information

3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT

3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT 3 BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVE BRANCH President, Vice President, Cabinet QUALIFICATIONS Written Qualifications 35 years old Lived in country for 14 years Natural-born citizen Unwritten Qualifications

More information

SAMPLE EXAMINATION ONE

SAMPLE EXAMINATION ONE SAMPLE EXAMINATION ONE SECTION I Time 45 minutes 60 Multiple-Choice Questions Directions: Each of the questions or incomplete statements below is followed by either four suggested answers or completions.

More information

Gerrymandering: t he serpentine art VCW State & Local

Gerrymandering: t he serpentine art VCW State & Local Gerrymandering: the serpentine art VCW State & Local What is gerrymandering? Each state elects a certain number of congressional Reps. Process is controlled by the party in power in the state legislature

More information

Organization of Congress

Organization of Congress Organization of Congress The framers of the Constitution wanted Congress to be the central fulcrum of the Federal government. U.S. Congress is a bicameral legislature. 1. Senate 2. House of Representatives

More information

Terms of Congress is 2 years 1 st term March 1789, ended 1791

Terms of Congress is 2 years 1 st term March 1789, ended 1791 Chapter 10 Congress Section 1: National Legislature Bicameral congress 1. Historical Great Britain had one, most colonies as well 2. Practical compromise between big state and small state issue 3. Theoretical

More information

US Government Module 3 Study Guide

US Government Module 3 Study Guide US Government Module 3 Study Guide There are 3 branches of government. Module 3 will cover the legislative and execute and module 4 will cover the judicial. 3.01 The Legislative Branch aka Congress Established

More information

Exception to incumbency advantage: scandal or unpopular president

Exception to incumbency advantage: scandal or unpopular president The Incumbency Advantage Incumbency tradition is high in both Senate (generally above 50%) and House (generally above 80%, incumbent rate more stable than Senate) Media coverage is higher for incumbents

More information

CHAPTER 6: The legislative branch NAME

CHAPTER 6: The legislative branch NAME CHAPTER 6: The legislative branch NAME VOCAB 1. CONSTITUENT : voters represented by someone in a political office 2. CENSUS : government count of the population every 10 years 3. GERRYMANDER : drawing

More information

The Legislative Branch. Makin Law Since 1789

The Legislative Branch. Makin Law Since 1789 The Legislative Branch Makin Law Since 1789 A Bicameral Congress Three Reasons 1. Historical the British Parliament had 2 houses since the 1300 s 2. Practical compromise between the Virginia Plan and the

More information

Watch the video and take the pre-test for Be sure you are working on getting your collaboration and service learning project completed.

Watch the video and take the pre-test for Be sure you are working on getting your collaboration and service learning project completed. Module 3 Note Taking Guide Module 3 Policy and Elections Module 3 Lessons 3.00 Introduction Watch the video and take the pre-test for 3.00. Be sure you are working on getting your collaboration and service

More information

Magruder s American Government

Magruder s American Government Presentation Pro Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 10 Congress 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. C H A P T E R 10 Congress SECTION 1 The National Legislature SECTION 2 The House of Representatives

More information

Functions of Congress

Functions of Congress Functions of Congress Make laws Represent people Perform oversight Help constituents Educate the public Powers of Congress 1 Congressional Powers Legislative Powers Power to Tax Power to Borrow Regulate

More information

We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States

We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States We the People: The Role of the Citizen in the United States In the United States, the government gets its power to govern from the people. We have a government of the people, by the people, and for the

More information

The Legislative Branch (Makes Laws) 114th Congress 131st Ohio General Assembly Portage County Commissioners City Council Kent, Ohio

The Legislative Branch (Makes Laws) 114th Congress 131st Ohio General Assembly Portage County Commissioners City Council Kent, Ohio The Legislative Branch (Makes Laws) 114th Congress 131st Ohio General Assembly Portage County Commissioners City Council Kent, Ohio 1 U.S. Congress Washington, D.C. 2 3 U.S. Capitol Building Holds the

More information

Voting. Name. Lesson 8

Voting. Name. Lesson 8 Name Voting Lesson 8 ACROSS CLUES: 1. The people vote for the candidates in this type of election. 3. a special election in which voters approve or reject a law 5. This type of government allows its people

More information

UNIT 3: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

UNIT 3: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH UNIT 3: THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH POWERS OF THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH E X P R E S S E D OR IMPLIED EXPRESSED POWERS Powers that are specifically listed in the Constitution (Article 1 Section 8) Coin money Impeach

More information

9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to

9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to 9.1 Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to convince their states to approve the document that they

More information

Magruder s American Government

Magruder s American Government Presentation Pro Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 12 Congress in Action 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. C H A P T E R 12 The Federal Court System SECTION 1 Congress Organizes SECTION 2 Committees

More information

Chapter Summary The Presidents 22nd Amendment, impeachment, Watergate 25th Amendment Presidential Powers

Chapter Summary The Presidents 22nd Amendment, impeachment, Watergate 25th Amendment Presidential Powers Chapter Summary This chapter examines how presidents exercise leadership and looks at limitations on executive authority. Americans expect a lot from presidents (perhaps too much). The myth of the president

More information

American Government and Economics Curriculum Maps

American Government and Economics Curriculum Maps American Government and Economics Curriculum Maps Curriculum Map Study of Government and Constitution (25 Days) Civil Liberties and Rights (15 Days) Political and Electoral Process (20 Days) The Legislative

More information

Accountability, Divided Government and Presidential Coattails.

Accountability, Divided Government and Presidential Coattails. Presidential VS Parliamentary Elections Accountability, Divided Government and Presidential Coattails. Accountability Presidential Coattails The coattail effect is the tendency for a popular political

More information

Partisan Advantage and Competitiveness in Illinois Redistricting

Partisan Advantage and Competitiveness in Illinois Redistricting Partisan Advantage and Competitiveness in Illinois Redistricting An Updated and Expanded Look By: Cynthia Canary & Kent Redfield June 2015 Using data from the 2014 legislative elections and digging deeper

More information

Government Semester Exam Review Sheet

Government Semester Exam Review Sheet Your Final Exam will come from these questions, with the addition of 6 from the Chapter 18 and 20 quizzes that you have yet to take. The answers are supplied on the last few pages. The exam will consist

More information

RUBRICS FOR FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS

RUBRICS FOR FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS RUBRICS FOR FREE-RESPONSE QUESTIONS 1. Using the chart above answer the following: a) Describe an electoral swing state and explain one reason why the U. S. electoral system magnifies the importance of

More information

American Government Unit 3 Rules were made to be broken or at least interpreted

American Government Unit 3 Rules were made to be broken or at least interpreted The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary for the American Government course. American Government

More information

Federal Constitution Study Guide

Federal Constitution Study Guide Name ID Card# Unit Federal Constitution Study Guide Article I Legislative Branch 1. The job of the legislative branch is to 2. The legislative branch is divided into two parts or two houses which are and

More information

Chapter 6 Democratic Regimes. Copyright 2015 W.W. Norton, Inc.

Chapter 6 Democratic Regimes. Copyright 2015 W.W. Norton, Inc. Chapter 6 Democratic Regimes 1. Democracy Clicker question: A state with should be defined as a nondemocracy. A.a hereditary monarch B.an official, state-sanctioned religion C.a legislative body that is

More information

CHAPTER 2: MAJORITARIAN OR PLURALIST DEMOCRACY

CHAPTER 2: MAJORITARIAN OR PLURALIST DEMOCRACY CHAPTER 2: MAJORITARIAN OR PLURALIST DEMOCRACY SHORT ANSWER Please define the following term. 1. autocracy PTS: 1 REF: 34 2. oligarchy PTS: 1 REF: 34 3. democracy PTS: 1 REF: 34 4. procedural democratic

More information

The President, Congress and Deficit Battles April 15-20, 2011

The President, Congress and Deficit Battles April 15-20, 2011 CBS NEWS/NEW YORK TIMES POLL For release: Thursday, April 21, 2011 6:30pm (EDT) The President, Congress and Deficit Battles April 15-20, 2011 With the possibility of more spending showdowns between President

More information

Being President. Formal Requirements. Informal Requirements. The Presidency. Secession and Impeachment. NOTES The Presidency

Being President. Formal Requirements. Informal Requirements. The Presidency. Secession and Impeachment. NOTES The Presidency The Presidency Being President normal road to the White House is to be elected serves 1 or 2 terms of 4 years 22 nd Amendment limited Presidents to 2 terms most presidents have been elected to office Formal

More information

Quiz # 5 Chapter 14 The Executive Branch (President)

Quiz # 5 Chapter 14 The Executive Branch (President) Quiz # 5 Chapter 14 The Executive Branch (President) 1. In a parliamentary system, the voters cannot choose a. their members of parliament. b. their prime minister. c. between two or more parties. d. whether

More information

READ Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political party strength.

READ Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political party strength. READ 193 202 NAME PERIOD 1. Define political party. What three functions do parties perform? 2. Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political

More information

Congress A. Carafiello

Congress A. Carafiello Congress A. Carafiello Essential Questions Why does the Constitution divide power between the two houses of Congress? What is a term of Congress? What are Congressional sessions? What benefits to members

More information

Congress, Lobbyist, and the Legislative. Ch. 6 &7 SSCG 10 &11

Congress, Lobbyist, and the Legislative. Ch. 6 &7 SSCG 10 &11 Congress, Lobbyist, and the Legislative process Ch. 6 &7 SSCG 10 &11 Constitutional Powers Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution spells out the powers of Congress. Congress has expressed powers, or

More information

How a bill becomes law

How a bill becomes law How a bill becomes law By House.gov on 01.03.17 Word Count 841 President Barack Obama speaks to Congress regarding health care reform on September 9, 2009. Photo: Photo: Whitehouse.gov Creating laws is

More information

An in-depth examination of North Carolina voter attitudes in important current issues. Registered Voters in North Carolina

An in-depth examination of North Carolina voter attitudes in important current issues. Registered Voters in North Carolina An in-depth examination of North Carolina voter attitudes in important current issues Registered Voters in North Carolina January 21-25, 2018 Table of Contents Key Survey Insights... 3 Satisfaction with

More information

Government Study Guide Chapter 13

Government Study Guide Chapter 13 Government Study Guide Chapter 13 The Presidents Great Expectations Americans want a president who is powerful and who can do good, like Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Roosevelt, Kennedy Yet Americans

More information

Legislative Branch. Part 3

Legislative Branch. Part 3 Legislative Branch Part 3 Legislative Branch Each state has at least one representative Largest has 50 members Illinois has 18 members 2010, Illinois lost one representative due to results of the census

More information

2015 ICCB and CAIT i-pathways.org 1 The GED Mark is a registered trademark of the American Council on Education.

2015 ICCB and CAIT i-pathways.org 1 The GED Mark is a registered trademark of the American Council on Education. LESSON 1: MODERN AND HISTORICAL GOVERNMENTS This lesson covers the following information: The different government systems in the world Political ideologies Highlights include the following: Every nation

More information

Essential Questions - The Legislative Branch -What is the role of the Legislative Branch? -How doe Gerrymandering affect election outcomes?

Essential Questions - The Legislative Branch -What is the role of the Legislative Branch? -How doe Gerrymandering affect election outcomes? Essential Questions - The Legislative Branch -What is the role of the Legislative Branch? -How doe Gerrymandering affect election outcomes? -What are the powers of the legislative branch? -What influences

More information

FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018

FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018 FOR RELEASE APRIL 26, 2018 FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Carroll Doherty, Director of Political Research Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research Bridget Johnson, Communications Associate 202.419.4372

More information

The First Attempt at Healthcare Reform

The First Attempt at Healthcare Reform The First Attempt at Healthcare Reform 1912-1917 1912: President Theodore Roosevelt campaigned as a Progressive Party candidate promoting the idea of National Health Care Insurance Although President Theodore

More information

4.3: ORGANIZATION & MEMBERSHIP OF CONGRESS. AP U. S. Government

4.3: ORGANIZATION & MEMBERSHIP OF CONGRESS. AP U. S. Government 4.3: ORGANIZATION & MEMBERSHIP OF CONGRESS AP U. S. Government DEMOGRAPHICS OF THOSE IN 113 TH CONGRESS DEMOGRAPHICS Mostly male Well educated Middle and upper incomes Law is most common occupation Recently,

More information

Introduction to American Government

Introduction to American Government Introduction to American Government Congress Tony Madonna The University of Georgia Associate Professor ajmadonn@uga.edu Congress An Unpopular Institution August 5, 2014 (Rasmussen Reports) 6% of likely

More information

AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPER 7: POLITICAL PARTIES: ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY

AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPER 7: POLITICAL PARTIES: ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY AP US GOVERNMENT: CHAPER 7: POLITICAL PARTIES: ESSENTIAL TO DEMOCRACY Before political parties, candidates were listed alphabetically, and those whose names began with the letters A to F did better than

More information

AP AMERICAN GOVERNMENT UNIT 5: GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FRQ s

AP AMERICAN GOVERNMENT UNIT 5: GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FRQ s AP AMERICAN GOVERNMENT UNIT 5: GOVERNMENT INSTITUTIONS FRQ s CONGRESS 1. Article I of the Constitution discusses the powers of Congress. a. Define the EACH of the following powers: Expressed Implied Non-legislative

More information

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH

THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH 2004 By Default! THE LEGISLATIVE BRANCH Mr. P s Class Yellow on the left, RED on the right Slide 1 2004 By Default! KEY QUESTION You have a great idea for a new bill. Describe the process, in detail, of

More information

Geer/Schiller/Segal/Herrera, Gateways to Democracy, 3 rd Edition ISBN w/ MindTap PAC: ISBN text alone: ACGM

Geer/Schiller/Segal/Herrera, Gateways to Democracy, 3 rd Edition ISBN w/ MindTap PAC: ISBN text alone: ACGM ACGM Geer/Schiller/Segal/Herrera, Gateways to Democracy, 3 rd Edition ISBN w/ MindTap PAC: 9781285852904 ISBN text alone: 9781285858548 GOVT 2305 Federal Government LEARNING OUTCOMES Upon successful completion

More information

23. Functions of Congress C ONGRESS performs several broad functions. Presumably the legislative, or law-making, is the most important. However, partl

23. Functions of Congress C ONGRESS performs several broad functions. Presumably the legislative, or law-making, is the most important. However, partl PART VI Congress 23. Functions of Congress C ONGRESS performs several broad functions. Presumably the legislative, or law-making, is the most important. However, partly because of the principle of checks

More information

1 The Troubled Congress

1 The Troubled Congress 1 The Troubled Congress President Barack Obama delivers his State of the Union address in the House chamber in the U.S. Capitol on Tuesday, January 20, 2015. For most Americans today, Congress is our most

More information

Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union

Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union Chapter 9 - The Constitution: A More Perfect Union 9.1 - Introduction When the delegates left Independence Hall in September 1787, they each carried a copy of the Constitution. Their task now was to convince

More information

The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process

The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process The Congressional Research Service and the American Legislative Process Ida A. Brudnick Analyst on the Congress April 12, 2011 Congressional Research Service CRS Report for Congress Prepared for Members

More information

Chapter 3. The Legislative Branch: The People s Branch that the People Hate Last Updated: Copyright

Chapter 3. The Legislative Branch: The People s Branch that the People Hate Last Updated: Copyright Chapter 3. The Legislative Branch: The People s Branch that the People Hate Last Updated: 8-24-2015 Copyright 2008-15 OUTLINE I. What You Know and Like About Congress Not Much II. The Legislative Branch

More information

PBC Legislative Update

PBC Legislative Update PBC Legislative Update OCTOBER 9, 2015 VOLUME 8 NUMBER13 IN THIS ISSUE: LEGISLATIVE UPDATE STATE ISSUES 1. Dangerous Dogs 2. Developments of Regional Impact 3. Florida Retirement System 4. Open Carry Gun

More information

Topic 4 Structure and Functions of the Federal Government

Topic 4 Structure and Functions of the Federal Government Congress Topic 4 Structure and Functions of the Federal Government Objectives 1. Explain why the Constitution provides for a bicameral Congress 2. Explain the differences between a term and a session of

More information

CONTENTS Page 1 Federal Unit New Jersey Unit

CONTENTS Page 1 Federal Unit New Jersey Unit CONTENTS Page 1 Federal Unit Unit 1 The American Revolution... 3 Unit 2 The Declaration of Independence... 4 Unit 3 Articles of Confederation.... 5 Unit 4 Constitutional Convention... 6 Unit 5 The Bill

More information

THE NEW JERSEY STATE LEGISLATURE

THE NEW JERSEY STATE LEGISLATURE THE NEW JERSEY STATE LEGISLATURE THE BRANCHES OF GOVERNMENT The government of the State of New Jersey, like that of the United States, is divided into three coequal branches: the legislative, the executive,

More information

Wilson - Ch. 5 - Federalism

Wilson - Ch. 5 - Federalism Wilson - Ch. 5 - Federalism Question 1) Which of the following statements, A through D, is false? A) "Devolution" is the process of transferring responsibility for policymaking from the national to subnational

More information

Idea developed Bill drafted

Idea developed Bill drafted Idea developed A legislator decides to sponsor a bill, sometimes at the suggestion of a constituent, interest group, public official or the Governor. The legislator may ask other legislators in either

More information

READ Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political party strength.

READ Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political party strength. READ 193-202 NAME PERIOD 1. Define political party. What three functions do parties perform? 2. Explain how political system organization (federal or unitary presidential or parliamentary) impacts political

More information

Magruder s American Government

Magruder s American Government Presentation Pro Magruder s American Government C H A P T E R 12 Congress in Action 2001 by Prentice Hall, Inc. C H A P T E R 12 Congress In Action SECTION 1 Congress Organizes SECTION 2 Committees in

More information

REFLECTIONS OF A PARTICIPANT ON AMERICAN DEMOCRACY AND THE CONSTITUTION

REFLECTIONS OF A PARTICIPANT ON AMERICAN DEMOCRACY AND THE CONSTITUTION VILSACK 6.0 REFLECTIONS OF A PARTICIPANT ON AMERICAN DEMOCRACY AND THE CONSTITUTION Former Governor Thomas J. Vilsack* Good morning to everyone. I want to thank Drake University and the Belin Law Firm

More information

Political Attitudes &Participation: Campaigns & Elections. State & Local Government POS 2112 Ch 5

Political Attitudes &Participation: Campaigns & Elections. State & Local Government POS 2112 Ch 5 Political Attitudes &Participation: Campaigns & Elections State & Local Government POS 2112 Ch 5 Votes for Women, inspired by Katja Von Garner. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lvqnjwkw7ga We will examine:

More information

American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration

American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration American Government: Teacher s Introduction and Guide for Classroom Integration Contents of this Guide This guide contains much of the same information that can be found online in the Course Introduction

More information

Chapter 10: Congress Section 2

Chapter 10: Congress Section 2 Chapter 10: Congress Section 2 Objectives 1. Explain how House seats are distributed and describe the length of a term in the House. 2. Explain how House seats reapportioned among the States after each

More information

Chapter 10: Congress Section 3

Chapter 10: Congress Section 3 Chapter 10: Congress Section 3 Objectives 1. Compare the size of the Senate to the size of the House of Representatives. 2. Describe how senators are elected. 3. Explain how and why a senator s term differs

More information

Government Final Review

Government Final Review Government Final Review 1)The U. S. Constitution sets up a system of checks and balances to keep one branch of government from gaining too much power. One example is that the President appoints, but the

More information

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, July, 2016, 2016 Campaign: Strong Interest, Widespread Dissatisfaction

RECOMMENDED CITATION: Pew Research Center, July, 2016, 2016 Campaign: Strong Interest, Widespread Dissatisfaction NUMBERS, FACTS AND TRENDS SHAPING THE WORLD FOR RELEASE JULY 07, 2016 FOR MEDIA OR OTHER INQUIRIES: Carroll Doherty, Director of Political Research Jocelyn Kiley, Associate Director, Research Bridget Johnson,

More information

Chapter 6. APUSH Mr. Muller

Chapter 6. APUSH Mr. Muller Chapter 6 APUSH Mr. Muller Aim: How is the New Republic tested? Do Now: Thus I consent, sir, to this Constitution, because I expect no better, and because I am not sure that it is not the best. The opinions

More information

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION TO THE CONSTITUTION

ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION TO THE CONSTITUTION ARTICLES OF CONFEDERATION TO THE CONSTITUTION Articles of Confederation The representatives of the thirteen states agree to create a confederacy called the United States of America, in which each state

More information

Health Care for Everyone

Health Care for Everyone Objectives Health Care for Everyone Obstacles Old and New Prevent Significant change from taking shape Participants will be able to: Identify and discuss components of the U.S. Healthcare System. Describe

More information

Constitutional Underpinnings of the U.S. Government

Constitutional Underpinnings of the U.S. Government U.S. Government What is the constitutional basis of separation of powers? It can be found in several principles, such as the separation of government into three branches, the conception that each branch

More information

A STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND CONGRESSIONAL REDISTRICTING IN CALIFORNIA:

A STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND CONGRESSIONAL REDISTRICTING IN CALIFORNIA: A STATISTICAL EVALUATION AND ANALYSIS OF LEGISLATIVE AND CONGRESSIONAL REDISTRICTING IN CALIFORNIA: 1974 2004 1 Paul Del Piero ( 07) Politics Department Pomona College Claremont, CA Paul.DelPiero@Pomona.edu

More information