27. Patrick Henry A Virginia Patriot and an important person in the American Revolution who said, Give me liberty or give me death. 28.

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1 History Facts The year Jamestown was founded as the first permanent English settlement in the Americas The Mayflower Compact helps establish the idea of self-government and majority rule in the Americas Bacon s Rebellion is the earliest rebellion of colonists against English colonial control The year the Declaration of Independence was created and signed The time period when the constitution was written and ratified The Whiskey Rebellion takes place and allows the National government to prove that it has the power to enforce the law The year when the United States obtains the Louisiana Purchase from France and doubles the size of the country The year the Missouri Compromise was passed which preserved the balance between free and slave states The year that the Monroe Doctrine was written to establish that Europe should stay out of the Americas The time period of the Civil War 11. Magna Carta signed in 1215 by King John I of England and was the first document that limited power of the ruler--gave the power of Trial by Jury 12. English Bill of Rights 1689, English agreement that guaranteed certain rights to all Englishmen...influenced the American Bill of Rights 13. Limited Government A system in which everyone, even elected officials, must obey the laws 14. Republicanism The idea that government should be based on the consent of the governed 15. Mercantilism An economic system in which England controlled the trade of the colonies 16. Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Puritan plan of government in Connecticut adopted in 1639 as the first written constitution in North America 17. Anne Hutchinson Banished from the Massachusetts colony she became the first Puritan woman minister and co-founder of Rhode Island 18. William Penn Quaker leader and founder of Pennsylvania 19. Great Awakening A series of religious revivals in the early 1700 s in America. 20. King George III British king during the American Revolution 21. Sam Adams Colonial leader who was successful in getting others to oppose the British during the American Revolution, organizer of the Committees of Correspondence 22. Thomas Jefferson author of the Declaration of Independence and 3 rd President of the United States 23. Declaration of Independence Announced the separation of the colonies from England 24. Benjamin Franklin Author, publisher, inventor, and diplomat 25. Alexander Hamilton Secretary of the Treasury who supported the National Bank System 26. John Paul Jones Father of the American Navy who said, I have not yet begun to fight.

2 27. Patrick Henry A Virginia Patriot and an important person in the American Revolution who said, Give me liberty or give me death. 28. Marquis de Lafayette French hero of the American Revolution and trusted advisor to George Washington. 29. Battle of Saratoga 1777, turning point of the American Revolution when France joined the side of the colonists. 30. Battle of Yorktown 1781, last major battle of the American Revolution 31. Articles of Confederation First U.S. government; it was eventually a failure because it created a weak national government 32. Northwest Ordinance 1787, established a government for the Northwest Territory and described rules that a territory would follow in order to become a state 33. Federalist Papers Series of essays about the nature of government by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay 34. Federalism A system of sharing power between the states and the national government 35. Anti-Federalists People who opposed ratification of the Constitution 36. Federalists People who supported the ratification of the Constitution 37. Henry Clay Politician known as The Great Compromiser 38. Great Compromise Agreement reached during the constitutional convention that created the American system of government (a 2 house congress with the lower house based on population and the upper house with equal representation) 39. Three-Fifths Compromise Agreement at the constitutional convention that allowed slaved to count as 3/5 th of a white person 40. Executive Branch The branch of government that enforces the laws made by congress and is led by the President of the United States 41. Legislative Branch The branch of government responsible for making laws and is comprised of the Senate and the House of Representatives 42. Judicial Branch The branch of government that is responsible for interpreting the law for its constitutionality and is comprised of the Supreme Court and lesser courts 43. Checks and Balances Each of the three branches of government limits the power of the others 44. Separation of Powers The division of authority among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of the U.S. Government 45. Electoral College A group of voters chosen by each state to elect the President and Vice-President 46. James Madison Father of the American Constitution 47. George Mason Insisted on the protection of individual rights in the Constitution leading to the creation of the Bill of Rights 48. Individual Rights Those rights given to all under the Bill of Rights that cannot be taken away 49. George Washington s Farewell Address Given at his retirement from public life; he urged America to always remain neutral to other countries 50. Alien and Sedition Acts 1798, placed restrictions of immigrants in the country and restricted freedom of speech and the press

3 51. Edgar Allen Poe A famous writer of short stories and poems the father of the American detective novel 52. States rights The idea that the power of the states should not be trampled on by the national government 53. John C. Calhoun Vice President of the United States, creator of the Doctrine of Nullification, strong supporter of states rights 54. South Carolina Exposition Written by John C. Calhoun, outlined the Doctrine of Nullification 55. Doctrine of Nullification The idea that states had the right to reject any law passed by Congress 56. Eli Whitney Inventor of the cotton gin which made the production of cotton cheaper and created a larger demand for slaves introduced interchangeable parts as well 57. John Marshall Chief Justice of the United States Supreme Court who handed down the decision in the case of Marbury vs. Madison 58. Marbury vs. Madison 1803, Supreme Court case that established the idea of Judicial Review 59. Judicial Review The power of the Supreme Court to review laws and determine if they are constitutional or unconstitutional 60. Robert Fulton 1807, Launched the Clermont, the first commercial steamboat 61. James Monroe 5 th President of the United States and author of the Monroe Doctrine 62. Daniel Webster Massachusetts senator who favored a strong national government and opposed the idea of states rights 63. Andrew Jackson 7 th President of the United States who opposed a system of National Banks proposed by Alexander Hamilton 64. Jacksonian Democracy The idea that as many people as possible should be able to vote (not limiting suffrage to only the wealthy or well educated) 65. American System 1815 plan to make the U.S. economically self-sufficient 66. Adams-Onis Treaty 1819, Spain gave Florida to the U.S. for $5 million 67. McCulloch vs. Maryland 1819, Supreme Court case that said a state could not tax a national bank thus increasing the power of the national government 68. Gibbons vs. Ogden 1824, Supreme Court case that said the federal government, not the states, had the power to regulate trade between the states 69. Indian Removal Act 1830, Indians east of the Mississippi River were to be moved to new lands in the West 70. Trail of Tears Forced journey of the Cherokee Indians in from their lands in the east to the west 71. Henry David Thoreau Author of the book Walden, who believed in transcendentalism and civil rights 72. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow Most popular American poet of the 19 th century with works like Song of Hiawatha and Paul Revere s Ride 73. Elizabeth Cady Stanton leader of movement to give women the right to vote 74. Seneca Falls Convention 1848, women s right meeting which proclaimed all men and women are created equal 75. Popular Sovereignty Government in which the people have the power 76. Abraham Lincoln 16 th President of the United States (during the Civil War)

4 77. Frederick Douglass Former slave and important abolitionist, also printed The North Star, a newspaper 78. Sojourner Truth Former slave, abolitionist, first black woman to speak out for women s rights 79. Manifest Destiny Idea that America had a right to all of the land between the east and west coasts 80. Treaty of Guadalupe Hildago Ended the war with Mexico and the U.S. acquired the Mexican Cession 81. Gadsen Purchase 1853, gave the U.S. more land that had been northern Mexico and completed the acquisition of land that makes up the present-day borders of the continental U.S. 82. Dred Scott Decision 1857, said that African Americans were not citizens of the U.S. and said that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional 83. Jefferson Davis The President of the Confederate States of America during the Civil War 84. Emancipation Proclamation Executive order given by Abraham Lincoln that freed the slaves in the Confederacy 85. Firing on Fort Sumter The event that began the Civil War 86. Ulysses S. Grant Final commander of the Union Army, 18 th President of the United States 87. Robert E. Lee The commander of the Northern Army of Virginia, an part of the Confederate Army 88. Battle of Vicksburg 1863, a battle in which the south lost control of the Mississippi river 89. Battle of Gettysburg 1863, a battle which proved to be the turning point of the Civil War in the North s favor 90. Appomattox Court House 1865, town where Lee surrendered to Grant ending the Civil War 91. Assassination of Lincoln The first President to be assassinated; leading to years of reconstruction in the South after the Civil War. 92. Civil Rights Act 1866, Said that everyone born in the United States was citizen and entitled to equal rights regardless of race 93. Reconstruction Acts Imposed military control over the southern states and said that they had to ratify the 14 th Amendment and allow all former slaves to vote th Amendment The Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that abolished slavery th Amendment The Amendment to the U.S. Constitution that established civil rights for all th Amendment The amendment to the U.S. Constitution that gave black Americans the right to vote 97. Plessy vs Ferguson 1896, said that the idea of separate but equal was allowed by the Constitution allowing segregation to spread in the South. 98. Brown vs Board of Education 1954, said that the idea of separate but equal was unconstitutional and made segregation in schools illegal 99. Primary sources Letters, diaries, journals, speeches, government documents, business records, and autobiographies that give a first hand account of historical evidence

5 100. Secondary Sources The retelling of an event by someone who was not present at the time the event took place 101. Wentworth Cheswell- He fought at the Battle of Saratoga; became the first elected African American in New Hampshire 102. Mercy Otis Warren- Stirred colonists against British policies with her writings; she is considered the First Lady of the American Revolution James Armstead-An African American who became the first double spy in the American Revolution 104. Bernardo de Galvez-Led Spanish armies against the British from taking the Mississippi River Crispus Attucks-African American who was the first person killed at the Boston Massacre 106. Haym Salomon-Jewish financier who gave money to support the Continental Army during the American Revolution 107. Valley Forge-The place where General Washington spent the winter (1776) 108. William Carney- Took part in attack on Fort Wagner. First African American to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor Philip Bazaar- Hispanic seaman who aided in Union victories, was a recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor 110. Hiram Rhodes Revels- Was first African American to be elected to Congress 111. Homestead Act-Made cheap land available to settlers 112. Dawes Act-Removed Indians from their lands to gov t reservation 113. Morrill Act-Set up agricultural and mining colleges to help settle the west 114. Harriet Tubman--an escaped slave who became a Conductor on the Underground Railroad and helped over 300 slaves escape to freedom in the North 115. John James Audubon-Artist known for drawing birds, plants, and animals as well as other subjects from nature Constitutional Republic- Current form of government in United States, elected officials exercise power limited by constitution John Quincy Adams- Was the son of John Adams (2 nd President of US), elected as 6 th President, but his presidency is considered a failure because of his inability to understand the needs of the common man Abigail Adams--wife of John Adams (2nd President) and mother of JQ Adams (6th President); women s rights advocate-- Remember the Ladies letter to her husband John 119. Thomas Paine--wrote Common Sense and The Crisis to encourage American independence 120. House of Burgesses--first representative assembly in the colonies (Virginia) 121. Transcendentalism- Belief that people are born with an inner sense that enables them to recognize moral truths Bessemer Process--an easier process for making steel developed by Henry Bessimer 123. Temperance Movement--a campaign against the sale or drinking of alcohol 124. Sectionalism--a strong sense of loyalty to a state or section instead of to the whole country 125. Civil Disobedience--the refusal to obey a government law or laws as a means of passive resistance because of one s moral conviction or belief 126. Tariff--tax on imported goods (goods brought into the country) 127. Protective Tariff--tax placed on goods from another country to protect American manufacturers 128. Free Enterprise--the freedom of private businesses to operate competitively for profit with minimal government regulation

6 129. Unalienable rights--rights that cannot be given up, taken away, or transferred...life, liberty and the Pursuit of Happiness are some of those rights 130. tyranny--a cruel and unjust government 131. Democracy--a form of government that is run for and by the people, giving people the supreme power 132. Amend--to change 133. Ratify--to pass 134. Bill of Rights--the first ten amendments to the Constitution and detail the protection of individual liberties 135. Spoils system--the practice of giving government jobs to political supporters 136. Monroe Doctrine--Monroe s warning to European countries to stay out of the Americas 137. Lowell System--placed all stages of manufacturing under one roof 138. Double jeopardy--being tried twice for the same crime (the fifth Amendment prevents this) 139. eminent domain--the power of the government to take personal property but they must give reasonable compensation 140. indictment--a formal accusation by a court before a person is arrested (when the grand jury determines that there is enough evidence to have a trial) st Amendment Freedom of Speech, Religion, Press, Right to Assemble Peacefully, and the Right to Petition nd Amendment Right to Bear Arms rd Amendment No Quartering of Soldiers in Private Homes during times of Peace th Amendment No Unlawful Search or Seizure th Amendment Right to Remain Silent/Rights of the Accused th Amendment Right to a Free and Speedy Trial by Jury th Amendment Jury Trial in Civil Court th Amendment No Cruel or Unusual Punishment/Bail and Punishment th Amendment Powers Reserved for the People th Amendment Powers Reserved for the States

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