Division of Labor: giving each worker one or two simple jobs.

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1 Chapter 12 The Nation Grows ( ) Section 1 Industries take Root Industrial Revolution: the growth of industry eventually produced changes so great that this time in history is called the Industrial Revolution. The Industrial Revolution in Britain affected the textile or cloth industry first. They used our cotton. Factory System: using machinery and workers to produce large quantities of goods. The British carefully safeguarded their secrets of manufacturing. The British Parliament passed laws making it illegal for any machines, plans for machines or skilled workers to leave Britain. Disobeying these laws brought severe punishment. Revolutionary Inventions: Englishman James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny (1769) Englishman Richard Arkwright invented the water frame, a waterpowered device that held many more spindles. In 1793 an American inventor, Eli Whitney invented the cotton gin, a machine that removed the seeds form the cotton. Sharing the secrets: Samuel Slater worked at Arkwright s textile mill in England, memorized the design of the machinery, he disguised himself. Within a year Slater re-created from memory Arkwright s cotton mill. He built it at Pawtucket. It was the first factory in the U.S. Francis Cabot Howell: took industrialization one step further. Now, for the first time the entire process of converting cotton into cloth took place in one building. Division of Labor: giving each worker one or two simple jobs. Mass production: this meant that goods could be made in large quantities, in a short period of time, for less cost. Industrial Working: women and children made up a large percentage of workers in factories because they could pay them less than a man. Factory workers put in long hours hours a day 6 days a week often in unsafe

2 and unhealthy working conditions. Cities offered more job opportunities and better chance for education. Mother Elizabeth Seton- founder of the Catholic school system. Section 2 Moving West American pioneers moved westward because they had worn out the soil on their land. Farmers knew little about the soil. Pathways to the West: Daniel Boone led a group of 30 people through Powell River Valley and across the Cumberland Gap- a natural pass through the Appalachian Mountains. Boone s party cleared a trail to central Kentucky. It became the main road west- Wilderness Road. Transportation Systems: the rise of industry and an increase in agriculture production also encouraged improvement in transportation. Turnpikes: private roads- with the approval of state government. Toll: charge for using roads the toll money paid for building the roads. Turnpikes connected a number of cities in the East and led to major rivers of the West. National Road: (7years) the road with a crushed stone surface and large stone bridges connected Cumberland, Maryland with Wheeling, Virginia. Steam replaces Sail: Robert Fulton detailed a steamboat, the Clermont. The Clermont became an immediate success. Before long steamboats carried people and goods along the Mississippi River and the Great Lakes. Canal: is a channel dug out and filled with water to allow boats to cross a stretch of land. Erie Canal: connected the Great Lakes with the Mohawk and Hudson Rivers and finally New York City. (363) started in 1817 completed in Section 3 Nationalism and Sectionalism The War of 1812 stirred strong feelings of nationalism- or feelings of pride and devotion to the nation.

3 Election of 1816: Monroe won by a narrow vote. The new President spoke of national unity. Era of good feelings: Nationalism and unity seemed stronger than sectional feelings or party ties. The American System: Henry Clay proposed a plan for help the nation called American System, aimed to help the economy of each section of the country and increase the power of the federal government. This plan was to help solve the growing sectionalism that he saw in the country. Another National Bank: Madison created the second National Bank many officials of state banks acted unwisely. They made to many loans and allowed too much money in circulation. The result inflation- rapid rises in the prices of goods. Prices rose faster than incomes. The Second Bank of the U.S. restored order to the money supply. Trade Protection: British factories often more advanced turned out goods of higher quality and at a cheaper cost than goods made in America. American manufacturers called for high tariffs to protect their growing industries. Protective Tariff: tax placed on imports- thus raising the prices of imported goods encouraged people to buy cheaper American made goods. A Split into Sections: in the early 1800 s three distinct sections of the country existed, North, South, and the West. Sectionalism: rivalry based on special interest in your own section of the country. Clay, Calhoun and Webster: these three men played very powerful roles in national politics in the first half of the 1800s. Henry Clay: represented the West John Calhoun: represented the South Daniel Webster: represented the North High Tariffs: offended the Southern states. Southerners were angry, thinking that the tariff protected Northern manufacturers at their expense.

4 Statehood for Missouri: slavery was not the only sectional issue raised by Missouri s statehood. Southerners also feared they would lose power in Congress. At this time before the issue of Missouri- representation was even in the Senate 11 slave states and 11 Free states. The Missouri Compromise: Henry Clay proposed that Maine enter the Union as a free state. Missouri could then enter as a slave state. The Missouri Compromise also said, slavery would be prohibited north of the parallel 36 degrees a line running west from the Southern boundary of Missouri. Election of 1824: Andrew Jackson, John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay and William Crawford. Jackson had won both the most popular votes and most electoral votes. But not by majority, the choice would be Adams or Jackson. Henry Clay was speaker of the House of Representative where the vote took place. Clay threw his support and influence in the house, for his good friend John Quincy Adams. Adams won the election. Shortly after the election Adams named Henry Clay, Secretary of State Andrew Jackson claimed it was a Corrupt Bargain. New Party Policies Democratic Republicans- became Democrats National Republicans Section 4 Monroe and Foreign Affairs Problems in Florida: East Florida continued to be a runway slaves hid. Seminoles who lived in Florida often raided nearby American settlements. ( ) President Monroe issued Spain a ultimatum-a demand with serious consequences. Adams demanded that Spain either govern Florida properly or sell it to the U.S. In 1819 Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. in the Adams-Onis Treaty, for $5 million dollars. Independence in Latin America: over the next two decades many Latin American colonies revolted against Spain and declared their independence. Mexico finally won its freedom from Spain in 1821.

5 The Monroe Doctrine: said the U.S. would not interfere in the internal affairs of European nations. He also declared that the American continents are hence forth not to be considered as subject for future colonization by any European powers. Any such attempts would be seen as a unfriendly act towards U.S. - this would be dangerous to our peace and safety. Great Britain gave U.S. its full backing of this statement.

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